A a an interjection of casual response

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JAFUKŪNGGA economical, thrifty

JAFUNAMBI to become like felt, to form felt

JAFUNUBUMBI caus. of jafunumbi

JAFUNUMBI to grasp one another, to wrestle

JAFUTA see jafata

JAGURI TUNGKEN a foot-long drum used by the imperial escort

JAHA a dugout with a sharp front end and straight stern

JAHALA a horse with red or brown stripes around the neck

JAHALTU SIRGA a horse with silver stripes on its neck

JAHARA 1. see jahari 2. multicolored

JAHARI pebbles and stones found along a river bed

JAHARI DALANGGA a dam of pebbles and river stones

JAHARI WEHE pebble, rock

JAHŪDAI boat, ship

JAHŪDAI FEKUMBI to jump aboard a boat

JAHŪDAI GIYALAN cabin on a boat

JAHŪDAI I FALGARI DA chief of the river constabulary

JAI 1. next, following, second 2. still, again, more 3. later 4. and

JAI INENGGI the following day

JAI JALAN I OMOLO great-grandchild

JAI JERGI second class

JAI JERGI DOSIKASI second-class metropolitan graduate

JAI JIDERE ANIYA year after next

JAICI second

JAIDA kitchen knife, cleaver

JAIDAKŪ 1. small knife 2. bronze cymbals

JAIDALAMBI to cut with a cleaver

JAIDAMBI to exorcise, to drive out (demons)

JAIDARI a type of small cymbal

JAIDE in the second place

JAIFAN confluence of the sources (small streams) of a river

JAILABUMBI 1. caus. of jailambi 2. to move aside, to ward off, to parry

JAILABUME BALHAMBI to try to get rid of smallpox by offering a pig and cakes

JAILAMBI to avoid, to get out of the way of, to shun, to hide

JAILANAMBI to go to hide

JAILANDUMBI/JAILANUMBI to hide together, to avoid together

JAILATAMBI to shun continually

JAIRA female black bear (Euarctos thibetanus)

JAJABUMBI caus. of jajambi

JAJAMBI to carry on the back

JAJANAMBI 1. to go carrying on the back 2. to swarm, to be in great numbers

JAJI an interjection of praise used toward small children

JAJIGI turbot

JAJIHI see jajigi

JAJILABUMBI caus. of jajilambi

JAJILAMBI to stack sorghum stalks, grass, or wood into a large pile

JAJIMBI see jajilambi

JAJIN a big pile or heap of stalks, grass, or wood

JAJIN YALI meat from the face of a pig

JAJURI thicket, dense grove

JAJURINAMBI to form a thicket

JAK JIK (onom.) the sound of birds screaming in flight

JAK MOO Haloxylon ammodendron--a low bush that can be used as fuel even when it's green

JAKA 1. thing, object 2. material, stuff 3. side, edge, border 4. crack, fissure 5. interval, fault 6. particle used after the imperfect converb: just, as soon as, about to

JAKA BAIMBI to look for faults

JAKA ŠOLO free time, free interval

JAKADE see separate entry below

JAKACI from oneself

JAKADE 1. (after the imperfect participle) because of, when 2. (post-position) to the presence of, up to, by, in front of

JAKALABUMBI to make a space between two things

JAKAMBI to fit joints together in the framework of a house

JAKAN 1. just, just now, not long (in duration), recently 2. see jaka

JAKANABUMBI caus. of jakanambi

JAKANAMBI to crack, to split, to form a fissure, to divide (v.1.)

JAKANJAMBI to investigate carefully, to study assiduously, to research

JAKANJAME FONJIMBI to interrogate, to question carefully

JAKARABUMBI caus. of jakarambi

JAKARAKŪ the crack between the high end wall of a house and the roof

JAKARAMBI 1. to crack, to form a fissure 2. to break up with (friends or relatives) 3. to get a little better (of an illness)

JAKARAME (postposition) along, along the side of



JAKDU one one-hundred billionth

JAKJAHŪN crack, fissure, break, hole

JAKJARAMBI (-ka) to form a crack

JAKSAMBI (-ka, -pi) to turn bright red

JAKSAN colored clouds (at dawn or dusk)

JAKSANGGA dusk-colored

JAKSANGGA GURUNG the name of a constellation

JAKSANGGA ILHA crape-myrtle

JAKSANGGA TEN the name of a constellation, also called dergi bikita

JAKSARI MOO a tree with red branches and purple blossoms that reportedly grows in the South Šea islands

JAKSUN fir, momi fir (Abies firma)

JAKTAHAN ILHA an exotic purple cupshaped flower

JAKŪCI eighth

JAKŪN eight

JAKŪN BIYA the eighth month

JAKŪN EDUNGGE KIRU the eight-wind banners

JAKŪN FAFUN the eight proscriptions

JAKŪN FAIDAN eight rows (of dancers)

JAKŪN GŪSA the eight banners of the Manchus

JAKŪN GŪSAI KUNGGERI office in charge of the eight banners' affairs in the Board of Civil Appointments in Mukden

JAKŪN GŪSAI NE BEIDERE BAITA ICIHIYARA BA summary court for banner affairs

JAKŪN GŪSAI TURUN the great standard of the eight banners--a banner in the colors of the eight banners

JAKŪN GŪSAI UHERI EJETUN BITHEI KUREN office in charge of compiling the jakūn gūsai uheri ejetun bithe (called the Pa-ch'i t'ung-chih in Chinese)

JAKŪN KULUK the eight valiant steeds

JAKŪN MUDAN the tones of the eight materialsš-metal, stone, silk, bamboo, gourd, earth, rawhide, and wool

JAKŪN NIYALMA TUKIYERE HAKSAN BOCOI KIYOO a golden sedan chair carried by eight porters and used by imperial concubines

JAKŪN UBU DE DOSIKA GUNG a duke who possessed the eight privileges

JAKŪN UBU DE DOSIMBUHAKŪ GURUN BE DALIRE GUNG Prince of the Blood of the seventh degree, BH 22

JAKŪN UBU DE DOSIMBUHAKŪ GURUN DE AISILARA GUNG Prince of the Blood of the eighth degree, BH 23


JAKŪNGGERI eight times

JAKŪNJU eighty

JAKŪNJUCI eightieth

JAKŪNJUTE eighty each

JAKŪRI SUJE silk woven from eight different types of thread

JAKŪRU a measure equaling eight Chinese feet

JAKŪTA eight each

JALA 1. a marriage go-between, matchmaker 2. measure word for fences or walls

JALA NIYALMA matchmaker

JALA YABUMBI to act as a go-between

JALAFUN long life

JALAFUN HERGENGGE ŠUN DALIKŪ a parasol of the escort with the word jalafun written upon it

JALAFUNGGA possessing long life, long-lived

JALAFUNGGA ILHA the flower Tupistra chinensis

JALAFUNGGA KILTAN a pennant of the imperial escort bearing the word jalafungga

JALAFURI ILHA an exotic white flower from an evergreen plant

JALAHI cousin or nephew of the same surname

JALAHI AHŪN DEO male cousins on the

paternal side

JALAHI JUI nephew (son of one's brother)

JALAHI SARGAN JUI niece (daughter of one's brother)

JALAHI URUN the wife of a nephew

JALAKTALAMBI to leave a space, to make a pause (in music)

JALAKTAN pause, space

JALAKŪ a bird lure

JALAMBI (-ka, -ra/ndara, -pi) to let up (of an illness), to pause, to desist

JALANDARAKŪ without pause, uninterrupted

JALAPI after a pause, after a while

JALARAKŪ the same as jalandarakū

JALAN 1. a section (of bamboo, grass, etc.), a joint 2. generation, age 3. world 4. subdivision of a banner, ranks 5. measure word for walls and fences

JALAN BAITA affairs of the world

JALAN GURUN the world

JALAN HALAME generation after generation

JALAN HALAME BOŠORO NIRU hereditary banner chief

JALAN I JANGGIN Colonel, BH 658, 659

JALAN JALAN I in turn, in succession, section by section, generation after generation

JALAN JECEN the world

JALAN SI a jalan, subdivision of a banner, ranks

JALAN SIRAMBI to continue for generations, to be hereditary,

JALAN SIRARA HAFAN hereditary official

JALANGGA 1. measured, temperate, economical 2. chaste 3. pertaining to a generation

JALANGGA HEHE chaste woman--usually refers to a widow who remained unmarried

JALAPI after a while, after a pause; cf. jalambi

JALARI onešquintillionth (of a Chinese foot)

JALASU 1. an emblem or token carried by emissaries 2. an imperial document conferring enfeoffment

JALASU ILHA the flower Stachyuras praecox

JALBARILAMBI see jalbarimbi


JALDAMBI to deceive, to cheat

JALDAŠAMBI to deceive thoroughly

JALGAMBI to put back together (broken things), to rejoin, attach

JALGAN 1. length of life, span 2. fate, destiny, lot

JALGANGGA pertaining to long life

JALGARI MONIO see jalhari monio

JALGARI MOO 1. a bamboolike tree growing eight or nine feet tall 2. tamarisk

JALGASU MOO Cedrela chinensis

JALGIYABUMBI caus. of jalgiyambi

JALGIYAMBI 1. to fill out by taking from an abundance and adding to a scarcity, to add, to make even, to share one's abundance 2. to compromise

JALGIYANJABUMBI caus. of jalgiyanjambi

JALGIYANJAMBI 1. to make even, to balance out 2. to come to an understanding, to compromise, to break a precedent in order to accommodate

JALHAMBI the same as jalgambi

JALHARI MONIO a type of monkey that has an extremely long life span

JALI 1. a red inedible fruit resembling the hawthorn 2. wicked, traitorous 3. plot, intrigue

JALIDAMBI to plot against, to intrigue against

JALIMI see jalmin

JALIN 1. reason, motive, occasion 2. (postposition) because of, in order to, on account of: mini jalin 'on my account'

JALINDE (postposition) for the sake of

JALINGGA traitorous, wicked, crafty

JALINGGA KIYANGKIYAN wicked and violent

JALINGGA KOIMALI wicked and deceitful

JALINGGA ŠUBAN a wicked official, subordinate

JALIYUN for (his) account

JALMIN knotweed

JALU full, fullness

JALU ELDEMBURE DENGJAN a hanging lantern in which a number of candles burn

JALU GURUN the entire nation

JALUKAN somewhat full

JALUKIYABUMBI caus. of jalukiyambi

JALUKIYAMBI to fill out, to fill up, to fill a quota

JALUMBI (-ka, -ndara, -pi) 1. to be full, to be fulfilled 2. to fulfill

JALUMBUMBI caus. of jalumbi

JALUN fullness

JAMAN quarrel, row

JAMARAMBI to quarrel, to have a row

JAMARANDUMBI/JAMARANUMBI to wrangle with one another

JAMARŠAMBI to be continually quarreling

JAMBI to exorcise an illness by the burning of charms and the recitation of incantations

JAMDAN HIYAN MOO sandalwood tree

JAMPAN curtain, net (for mosquitoes)

JAMPANGGA CECE fine gauze used for curtains

JAMPIN 1. see jampan 2. see jempin

JAMU 1. pink, peach-colored 2. the name of a sweet red fruit

JAMU ILHA an exotic red rose without odor

JAMURI one hundred-quadrillionth (of a Chinese foot)

JAMURI ILHA hedgerose

JAMURI ORHO gromwell (Lithospermum officinale)

JAN a whistling arrow with a bone head with holes in it

JANAMBI to exorcise an illness by burning paper charms and by reciting incantations

JANCUHŪKAN rather sweet

JANCUHŪN sweet, pleasant, agreeable

JANCUHŪN HENGKE sweet melon (Cucumis melo)





JANCUHŪN YOO a small boil or pustule on the skin

JANCUHŪNJE sugar cane


JANG 1. ten Chinese feet; cf. jušuru 2. a pole used for beating criminals

JANG BITHE accounts books

JANG JING (onom.) the sound made by birds looking for one another

JANG LOO elder

JANG LOO HŪWAŠAN Buddhist abbot

JANGCI a felt cape worn during snow or rain

JANGCIN see jangci

JANGDZ the son of a prince of the second class

JANGGA MOO camphor tree

JANGGA NIRU a whistling arrow with a bone head

JANGGALCAMBI to amble (of horses)

JANGGALIBUMBI caus. of janggalimbi

JANGGALIMBI to be in dire straits, to be hard pressed

JANGGIN 1. secretary in various government organs 2. Adjutant (of a banner), BH 724, 874

JANGGIN DELI a large stone used to bar a gate

JANGGIN HADAHAN linchpin on a cart

JANGGIN ŠUFATU a type of turban worn by military officers in ancient times

JANGGISA plural of janggin

JANGGŪWAN pickled or preserved vegetables, melons, etc.

JANGJU chess

JANGJU CEKEMU a type of velvet produced in Changchow

JANGKIRI COKO one name for the peewit; cf. niyo coko

JANGKŪ a long-handled sword

JANGLABUMBI caus. of janglambi

JANGLAMBI to beat with a pole (as a punishment)

JANGNAMBI to take hold of

JANGTURI a village head

JANJURI strawberry

JANUMBI to be spiteful, to harbor enmity

JAR (onom.) 1. the sound made by men working hard 2. the sound made by crickets 3. the sound made by a bone-headed arrow

JAR JAR (onom.) the sound made by crickets

JAR JIR (onom.) the sound made by birds early in the morning

JARGIMA locust, grasshopper

JARGISU ginger produced in Fukien

JARGIYALAKŪ ASU a type of large fishnet

JARHŪ red wolf (Cuon alpinus)

JARHŪN same as jarhū

JARI a shaman's helper

JARIMBI to chant prayers (of a shaman)

JARIN musk

JARIN MOO musk tree--grows in the valleys in the region south of the Yangtze

JARJI CECIKE one name for the oriole; cf. gūlin cecike

JARKIN COKO one name for the peewit; cf. niyo coko

JASAK chief of a Mongol banner

JASAK I DANGSEI BOLGOBURE FIYENTEN Department of the Inner Mongols, BH 495

JASE 1. border, boundary, frontier 2. border region 3. water gate 4. palisade, barricade

JASE JAFAMBI to erect a barricade

JASE JECEN frontier, border region

JASEI AMARGI FIYELENGGU the Mongolian Tetrastes bonasia

JASEI DUKAI JANGGIN banner-chief of a frontier gate

JASEI HAFAN frontier official

JASELAMBI to establish a frontier, to secure a border

JASIBUMBI caus. of jasimbi

JASIGAN 1. letter, mail 2. things posted to a distant place

JASIHIYA one name for the eastern egret; cf. gūwasihiya

JASIMBI to post, to mail, to send (a letter

JASINDUMBI to write to one another, to


JAU the name of the quail in early autumn; cf. muša

JATA mediocre (person), untalented, good-for-nothing

JAYA a birchbark canoe (with a turned-up front)

JAYABUMBI caus. of jayambi

JAYAMBI 1. to cut the jaw off a slaughtered animal to stutter

JAYAN the termination of the dentary bone, the joint of the jaws

JAYAN I HŪSUN with clenched teeth, obstinate

JE 1. affirmative interjection--yes 2. (short) millet (Setaria italica) 3. grain in general

JE FALAN threshing floor

JE JA (onom.) the sound made by men working

JE JA SEME screaming, shouting loudly

JEBELE 1. quiver 2. right wing, right side


JEBELE DUBE the third jalan of a banner

JEBELE GALA the right wing--1.e., the Plain Blue, Plain Red, Bordered Red and Bordered Blue

JEBELE MEIREN the second jalan of a banner

JEBELETU designation of the third adjutant of a camp or battalion

JEBKELEBUMBI caus. of jebkelembi

JEBKELEMBI to be careful or cautious

JEBKEŠEMBI to be very cautious

JEBSEHE an insect that eats the joints on the stalks of grain

JEBUMBI caus. of iembi

JECEN border, frontier

JECEN AKŪ borderless, limitless

JECEN DALIN shore, shoreline

JECUHERI see jecuhuri

JECUHUNJEMBI to hesitate, to be hesitant

JECUHURI 1. hesitant, in doubt, undecided, vacillating 2. askew, crooked

JEDEBULE a meaningless word occuring at the beginning of verses of Manchu songs

JEDZ see bukdari

JEFOHON an exotic fruit resembling the pomelo

JEFU imperative of jembi

JEJA see je ja

JEJE father

JEKDE MOO a tree resembling the pear tree whose dark reddish bark is used for decorative purposes

JEKDUN chaste, pure, chastity, purity

JEKDUN BE TUWAKIYAMBI to guard one's purity

JEKU BE KADALARA TINGGIN grain administration bureau

JEKU HARA see hara, definition (2)

JEKU I DOOLI grain intendant

JEKU I FIYENTEN office of grain matters of the Board of Revenue in Mukden

JEKU JUWERE HAFAN BE ILGARA KŪNGGERI office of grain administration in the Board of Gar

JEKU TEKSILEHE the grain has become even--i.e., is near maturity

JEKUI BAITA BE TEFI ICIHIYARA YAMUN office of the Supervisor of Government granaries in the Capital

JEKUI KUNGGERI grain section in the Board of Revenues in Shensi

JEKUJU the god of millet, the shrine to the god of millet

JEKUNEMBI to swell and form pus

JELAMBI to stop (of rain), to clear up

JELBE young of the salmon trout

JELE see jelen

JELEME CECIKE a gray sparrow with blackish spots

JELEN hesitant, in doubt, vacillating

JELGIN see jelgiyen

JELGIYEN a chin strap of a hat

JELKEN a type of weasel

JELMIN rape (a vegetable), rape-seed oil--used as a hair dressing by women

JELU salmon trout (Bucho taimen)

JEKDUN MOO Manchurian privet (Li-I quatrum lucidum)

JEKDUN SARGAN JUI a chaste maiden

JEKDUNGGE chaste, pure; cf. jekdun

JEKENEMBI to go to eat

JEKENJIMBI to come to eat

JEKSE 1. a burnt over place on the steppe 2. a place not touched by rain 3. an empty place among red clouds at sunset or at dawn

JEKSIMBI 1. to dislike 2. to be timid, to be anxious, to be frightened

JEKSITEMBI to be frightened often, to he constantly anxious

JEKŠEMBI the same as jeksimbi

JEKŠUN sharp-tongued, caustic

JEKU grain, provisions

JEKU AGA one of the twenty-four divisions of the solar year--falling on April twentieth or twenty-firs

JEKU BE BAICARA TINGGIN grain control office along the waterways used for grain transport

JEKU BE FARINGGIYAMBI to cut grain and lay it out to dry

JEMBI (1) (imperative jefu, -ke, -tere) to eat

JEKE BERI a bow on which the horn facing doesn't reach to the notches for the bowstring

JEKE YADAHA contesting the original owner's right to something

JEKE YADAHA GENEHE left without paying attention to others

JEKE YADAHA I BURULAHA fled without regard to others

JETERE FIYANCIHIYAN NIYALMA a person who eats little

JEMBI (2) (-ngke, -ndere, -mpi) to bear, to put up with, to tolerate

JEMDELEMBI to mismanage, to be corrupt, to abuse one's responsibility

JEMDEN corruption, malpractice, mismanagement

JEME wet nurse

JEMENGGE food, foodstuffs

JEMETU LORIN mule born from a jenny ass

JEMGETU sign of misfeasance, fraud, falsification

JEMIN a dose

JEMPI 1. patient, long-suffering 2. perfect converb of jembi (2)

JEMPILEMBI to fry cakes

JEMPIN fried cakes of buckwheat or wheat filled with meat or vegetables

JEMPIN INENGGI the second day of the second month when pan-fried cakes are eaten

JEN ŽIN a Taoist immortal

JENDERAKŪ cannot bear, unbearable; cf. jembi (2)

JENDERE imperfect participle of jembi (2)

JENDU secretly, softly

JENDU ALHŪDAMBI to imitate on the sly

JENDU GISUREMBI to talk softly

JENDUKEN secretly on the sly, quietly

JENDUKESAKA secretly, in secret

JENDUMBI 1. to secrete, to keep secret 2. to eat one another

JENDUN secrecy, secret

JENGDZ title of one of the heir apparent's tutors

JENGGE 1. food, provisions 2. pure, incorruptible

JENGKE perfect participle of jembi (2)

JENUMBI to eat together

JEO department (a political subdivision)

JEO I BEIDESI Second Class Assistant Department Magistrate, BH 851A

JEO I DOOSEDA Superior of the Taoist Priesthood in a Department, BH 573B

JEO I ERIN SONJOSI Departmental Inspector of Petty Professions, BH 851A

JEO I HŪWAŠADA Superior of the Buddhist Priesthood in a Department, BH 573A

JEO I SARACI Department Magistrate, BH 855

JEO I TACIBUKŪ HAFAN Departmental Director of Schools, BH 851A

JEO I UHECI First Class Assistant Department Magistrate, BH 851A

JEO PAN Second Class Assistant Department Magistrate, BH 851A

JEOFI a hut with a round roof made of birchbark

JEOFINGGE BOO a hermit's hut

JERDE sorrel horse

JEREMPE see jerpe

JEREN Mongolian gazelle, zeren (Procapra gutturosa)

JERGI 1. rank, step, grade 2. order, sequence 3. layer, level 4. time 5. and so forth, et cetera

JERGI ILHI sequence, succession

JERGI TANGKAN I ALIN a small bronze monument in the courtyard before the main throne room in Peking on which the ranks of officials were inscribed

JERGICELEMBI to rank, to put in order

JERGILEBUMBI caus. of jergilembi

JERGILEMBI 1. to be in order, to be arranged according to rank 2. to be equal to

JERGILEN ranking, ordering

JERGINGGE of the same rank, of the same sort, of the same layer, consisting of layers

JERGINGGE DALANGGA a dam built in layers resembling fish scales

JERGINNGE HOSERI boxes containing food arranged layerlike on a rack

JERGIŠEMBI see jerkišembi

JERGUNA see jerguwen

JERGUWELEBUMBI caus. of jerguwelembi

JERGUWELEMBI to make a railing or fence

JERGUWEN 1. railing, fence 2. the horizontal posts of a railing 3. the horizontal stones of a stone railing 4. horizontal stones on the steps to the palace

JERGUWEN I BONGKO a railing post knob

JERGUWEN I DENGJAN red lantern hung on the post knobs of a railing at New Year's

JERIN 1. edge, border 2. anvil

JERINGGE WISE tile with decorative borders

JERKIN dazzling light

JERKIN ILHA Kousa (Cornus kousa)

JERKINGGE ILHANGGA LOHO a sword made of highly polished steel

JERKIŠEMBI to blind (of light), to dazzle, to be dazzled

JERPE a growth on the lip

JERUN a measure equaling eight Chinese feet

JESERI arrow with a bone head used for hunting birds

JETEN the name of a constellation

JETEN TOKDONGGO KIRU a banner depicting the constellation jeten

JEYEN blade, sword

JEYEN I DUBE point (of a knife's blade)

JEYENGGE having a blade, sword

JI GIDA halberd

JI ILHA safflower

JIBCA a short fur jacket or coat

JIBCALAMBI to wear a fur jacket or coat

JIBCAN see jibca

JIBCI pincushion, needlešcushion

JIBEGUN having narrow eyes

JIBEHUN 1. cover, quilt 2. same as jibe gun

JIBEREMBI (-ke) to squint the eyes, to narrow the eyes

JIBGE 1. stingy 2. slow, negligent

JIBGEHUN close, dense, impenetrable

JIBGEŠEMBI 1. to be stingy 2. to be slow, to tarry, to loiter 3. to begrudge, to keep for oneself

JIBIN fine-meshed

JIBIN ASU a fine-meshed net

JIBSIBUMBI caus. of jibsimbi

JIBSIGAN see sektefun i jibsigan

JIBSIMBI to lie in layers or folds, to pull over (clothes)

JIBSIME FUSEMBI to increase many-fold

JIBSINUMBI to be folded over one another

JIBSIRGE gold and silver filigree

JIBUMBI caus. of jimbi

JIDERE imperfect participle of jimbi: coming, future, next

JIDERE ANIYA next year, the coming year

JIDERE BIYA next month, the coming month

JIDERE OMOLO great-great-great-grandchild

JIDUJI after all, finally, in fact, really, surely

JIDUN the back side of a mountain

JIDURAMBI to be jealous

JIFEBUMBI caus. of jifembi

JIFEMBI to fill in cracks in the hull of a boat or in a tub, to calk

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