9/21, 2nd: 9/22 Preface



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AP European History Period 1 Review Sheet

Period 1: c. 1450- c. 1648 Review Sheet

Test Date: Block Day (1st: 9/21, 2nd: 9/22)

Preface

Dear AP Students,

Use the following as a guide to your study for the Period 1 Test next week. This test will be a cumulative test on all the key concepts we have covered during the year thus far. It is meant to simulate a longer, high-stakes test like the one you will experience in May. Remember: training for a marathon requires shorter races to build up to it. The test will consist of 40 multiple choice questions, 2 short answer responses, and 1 Long Essay Question (from a choice of 2).

Structure of the Test

The test will begin right at 7:25 a.m., so plan on getting to school a bit early on that day so you can walk in the door at 7:20, and get situated for your test. It will take up the entire block day, and timing will be strictly regimented (just like the actual AP test).

7:25-8:05 : Multiple choice

8:07-8:32 : Short answer responses

5 minute break

8:40-9:10 : Long Essay Question



Review Sheet Proper

I have broken up this review sheet into two sections. The first (and most important) part, the key concepts, is adapted from the AP Course Exam and Description; all the examples are from our class discussions and/or in the Kagan textbook. The second part is a list of ideas, people, events, and developments to know from this period.



Key Concept 1.1 The worldview of European intellectuals shifted from one based on ecclesiastical and classical authority to one based primarily on inquiry and observation of the natural world.

  1. A revival of classical texts led to new methods of scholarship and new values in both society and religion.



    1. Italian Renaissance humanists: promoted a revival of classical literature and created philology (study of the structure of language) for study of ancient texts. Some furthered the values of secularism and individualism.

      1. Petrarch

      2. Lorenzo Valla

      3. Pico della Mirandola (Oration on the Dignity of Man)



    1. Revival of Greek and Roman texts, spread by the printing press, challenged the institutional power of the universities and the Roman Catholic Church, shifting focus of education from theology to study of classical texts.

      1. Petrus Paulus Vergerius (The New Education)

      2. Niccolo Machiavelli (Discourses on Livy)



    1. Admiration for Greek and Roman political institutions supported revival of civic humanist culture in Italian city-states and produced secular models for individual and political behavior

      1. Niccolo Machiavelli (The Prince, Discourses on Livy)

      2. Baldassare Castiglione (The Courtier)



  1. The invention of printing promoted the dissemination of new ideas.

    1. The invention of the printing press in the 1450s aided in spreading the Renaissance beyond Italy and encouraged the growth of vernacular literature, which would eventually contribute to the development of national cultures

      1. Review for Test 1.1

    2. Protestant reformers used the press to disseminate their ideas, which spurred religious reform and helped it to become widely established



  1. The visual arts incorporated the new ideas of the Renaissance and were used to promote personal, political, and religious goals. (All examples of art can be googled for reference)



    1. Princes and popes, concerned with enhancing their prestige, commissioned paintings and architectural works based on classical styles and often employing the newly invented technique of geometric perspective.

      1. Michelangelo (David)

      2. Perugino (Christ Giving the Keys to St. Peter)

      3. Raphael (The School of Athens)

    2. A human-centered naturalism that considered individuals and everyday life appropriate objects of artistic representation was encouraged through the patronage of both princes and commercial elites

      1. Pieter Bruegel the Elder (The Fall of Icarus)

      2. Jan Van Sorel (Portrait of Cornelis Aerentsz van der Dussen)

      3. Rembrandt (Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp)



    1. Mannerist and Baroque artists employed distortion, drama, and illusion in works commissioned by monarchies, city-states, and the church for public buildings to promote their stature and power

      1. Tintoretto (The Last Supper, St. Mark’s Body brought to Venice)

      2. El Greco (The Burial of the Count of Orgaz)

      3. Bernini (Baldacchino in St. Peter’s Basilica, Portrait of Anne of Austria, Queen of France)



  1. New ideas in science based on observation, experimentation, and mathematics challenged classical views of the cosmos, nature, and the human body, though folk traditions of knowledge and the universe persisted.



    1. New ideas and methods in astronomy led individuals such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton to question the authority of the ancients and religion and to develop a heliocentric view of the cosmos.



    1. Anatomical and medical discoveries by physicians, including William Harvey, presented the body as an integrated system, challenging the traditional humoral theory of the body and of disease espoused by Galen.



    1. Francis Bacon and René Descartes defined inductive and deductive reasoning and promoted experimentation and the use of mathematics, which would ultimately shape the “scientific method.”



    1. Alchemy and astrology continued to appeal to elites and to some natural philosophers, in part because they shared with the new science the notion of a predictable and knowable universe. In oral culture of peasants, a belief that the cosmos was governed by divine and demonic forces persisted

      1. Johannes Kepler

      2. Sir Isaac Newton

Key Concept 1.2 The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization.

  1. The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions.



    1. New monarchies laid the foundation for the centralized modern state by establishing a monopoly on tax collection, military force, and the dispensing of justice, and by gaining the right to determine the religion of their subjects.

      1. Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain consolidating control of the military

      2. Peace of Augsburg (1555)

      3. Edict of Nantes (1598)



    1. The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which marked the effective end of the medieval ideal of universal Christendom, accelerated the decline of the Holy Roman Empire by granting princes, bishops and other local leaders control over religion.



    1. Across Europe, commercial and professional groups gained in power and played a greater role in political affairs.

      1. Merchants and financiers in Renaissance Italy and northern Europe (the Fugger family)

      2. Nobles of the robe in France (commoners ennobled by holding specific offices for the crown)



    1. Secular political theories, such as those espoused in Machiavelli’s The Prince, provided a new concept of the state.



  1. The competitive state system led to new patterns of diplomacy and new forms of warfare.

    1. Following the Peace of Westphalia, religion no longer was a cause for warfare among European states; instead, the concept of the balance of power played an important role in structuring diplomatic and military objectives.

    2. Advances in military technology (i.e., the “military revolution”) led to new forms of warfare, including greater reliance on infantry, firearms, mobile cannon, and more elaborate fortifications, all financed by heavier taxation and requiring a larger bureaucracy. Technology, tactics, and strategies tipped the balance of power toward states able to marshal sufficient resources for the new military environment.

      1. Spain under the Habsburgs

      2. France

Key Concept 1.3 Religious Pluralism challenged the concept of a unified Europe

  1. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations fundamentally changed theology, religious institutions, and culture.



    1. Christian humanism, embodied in the writings of Erasmus, employed Renaissance learning in the service of religious reform.



    1. Reformers Martin Luther and John Calvin, as well as religious radicals such as the Anabaptists, criticized Catholic abuses and established new interpretations of Christian doctrine and practice.

      1. Catholic Abuses

        1. Indulgences

        2. Simony (benefice system)

        3. Pluralism and absenteeism

      2. New Interpretations

        1. Sola fide (salvation by faith alone)

        2. Sola scriptura (Scriptures as the sole spiritual authority)

        3. Reinterpretation of Sacraments

        4. Calvin on Predestination



    1. The Catholic Reformation, exemplified by the Jesuit Order and the Council of Trent, revived the church but cemented the division within Christianity

      1. Ursulines and Capuchins

      2. Index of Prohibited Books

  1. Religious reform both increased state control of religious institutions and provided justification for challenging state authority.

    1. Monarchs and princes, such as the English rulers Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, initiated religious reform from the top down (“magisterial”) in an effort to exercise greater control over religious life and morality.

      1. Spanish Inquisition

      2. Peace of Augsburg

    2. Some Protestants, including Calvin and the Anabaptists, refused to recognize the subordination of the church to the state.

      1. Theodore Beza

      2. John Knox



    1. Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs’ control of religious institutions.

      1. Huguenots

      2. Puritans



  1. Conflicts among religious groups overlapped with political and economic competition within and among states.



    1. Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French Wars of Religion.

      1. Catherine de’ Medici

      2. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

      3. Henry IV



    1. The efforts of Habsburg rulers failed to restore Catholic unity across Europe.

      1. Charles V

      2. Philip II



    1. States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.

      1. Catholic Spain and Protestant England

      2. France, Sweden, and Denmark in the Thirty Years’ War



    1. A few states, such as France with the Edict of Nantes, allowed religious pluralism in order to maintain domestic peace.

Key Concept 1.4 Europeans explored and settled overseas territories, encountering and interacting with indigenous populations.

  1. European nations were driven by commercial and religious motives to explore overseas territories and establish colonies.

    1. European states sought direct access to gold and spices and luxury goods as a means to enhance personal wealth and state power.

    2. The rise of mercantilism gave the state a new role in promoting commercial development and the acquisition of colonies overseas.

    3. Christianity served as a stimulus for exploration as governments and religious authorities sought to spread the faith and counter Islam, and as a justification for the physical and cultural subjugation of indigenous civilizations.



  1. Advances in navigation, cartography, and military technology allowed Europeans to establish overseas colonies and empires.

    1. Examples of navigational technology

      1. Compass

      2. Quadrant and astrolabe

    2. Examples of military technology

      1. Horses

      2. Guns and gunpowder

  2. Europeans established overseas empires and trade networks through coercion and negotiation.

    1. The Portuguese established a commercial network along the African coast, in South and East Asia, and in South America.



    1. The Spanish established colonies across the Americas, the Caribbean, and the Pacific, which made Spain a dominant state in Europe.



    1. The Atlantic nations of France, England, and the Netherlands followed by establishing their own colonies and trading networks to compete with Portuguese and Spanish dominance



    1. The competition for trade led to conflicts and rivalries among European powers.



  1. Europe’s colonial expansion led to a global exchange of goods, flora, fauna, cultural practices, and diseases, resulting in the destruction of some indigenous civilizations, a shift toward European dominance, and the expansion of the slave trade.

    1. The exchange of goods shifted the center of economic power in Europe from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic states and brought the latter into an expanding world economy.



    1. The exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases — the Columbian Exchange — created economic opportunities for Europeans and facilitated European subjugation and destruction of indigenous peoples, particularly in the Americas

      1. From Europe to the Americas:

        1. Wheat

        2. Cattle

        3. Horses

        4. Smallpox

        5. Measles

      2. From the Americas to Europe:

        1. Tomatoes

        2. Potatoes

        3. Corn

        4. Tobacco

        5. Syphilis



    1. Europeans expanded the African slave trade in response to the establishment of a plantation economy in the Americas and demographic catastrophes among indigenous peoples.

Key Concept 1.5 European Society and the experiences of everyday life were increasingly shaped by communal and agricultural capitalism, notwithstanding the persistence of medieval social and economic structures.

  1. Economic change produced new social patterns, while traditions of hierarchy and status persisted.



    1. Innovations in banking and finance promoted the growth of urban financial centers and a money economy

      1. Double-entry bookkeeping



    1. The growth of commerce produced a new economic elite, which related to traditional elites in Europe’s various geographic regions.

      1. Gentry in England

      2. Nobles of the robe in France

      3. Town elites (bankers and merchants)



    1. Hierarchy and status continued to define social power and perceptions in rural and urban settings.



  1. Most Europeans derived their livelihood from agriculture and oriented their lives around the seasons, the village, or the manor, although economic changes began to alter rural production and power.

    1. Subsistence agriculture was the rule in most areas, with three-crop field rotation in the north and two-crop rotation in the Mediterranean; in many cases, farmers paid rent and labor services for their lands.

    2. The price revolution contributed to the accumulation of capital and the expansion of the market economy through the commercialization of agriculture, which benefited large landowners in western Europe

      1. Enclosure movement

      2. Restricted use of the village common

    3. As western Europe moved toward a free peasantry and commercial agriculture, serfdom was codified in the east, where nobles continued to dominate economic life on large estates.

    4. The attempts of landlords to increase their revenues by restricting or abolishing the traditional rights of peasants led to revolt.



  1. Population shifts and growing commerce caused the expansion of cities, which often found their traditional political and social structures stressed by the growth.



    1. Population recovered to its pre-Great Plague (Black Death) level in the 16th century, and continuing population pressures contributed to uneven price increases; agricultural commodities increased more sharply than wages, reducing living standards for some.

    2. Migrants to the cities challenged the ability of merchant elites and craft guilds to govern and strained resources.

      1. Sanitation problems caused by overpopulation

      2. Employment

      3. Poverty

      4. Crime

    3. Social dislocation, coupled with the weakening of religious institutions during the Reformation, left city governments with the task of regulating public morals

      1. Stricter codes on prostitution and begging.

      2. Abolishing or restricting Carnival

      3. Calvin’s Geneva



  1. The family remained the primary social and economic institution of early modern Europe and took several forms, including the nuclear family.

    1. Rural and urban households worked as units, with men and women engaged in separate but complementary tasks.

    2. The Renaissance and Reformation movements raised debates about female roles in the family, society, and the church.

      1. Women’s intellect and education

      2. Christine de Pisan

    3. From the late 16th century forward, Europeans responded to economic and environmental challenges, such as the “Little Ice Age,” by delaying marriage and childbearing, which restrained population growth and ultimately improved the economic condition of families.

  2. Popular culture, leisure activities, and rituals reflecting the persistence of folk ideas reinforced and sometimes challenged communal ties and norms.

    1. Leisure activities continued to be organized according to the religious calendar and the agricultural cycle and remained communal in nature.

      1. Saint’s day festivities

      2. Carnival

    2. Local and church authorities continued to enforce communal norms through rituals of public humiliation.

      1. Charivari

      2. Stocks

    3. Reflecting folk ideas and social and economic upheaval, accusations of witchcraft peaked between 1580 and 1650.

Period 1 Terms (a semi-exhaustive list of events, people, ideas)

Kagan Chapters 1-2:

L. Middle Ages, Renaissance, Exploration

Black Death

Hundred Years' War (1337-1452)

Joan de Arc (1412-31)

Jan Hus (1373-1415)

Great Schism (1378-1417)

vernacular literature

Dante's Divine Comedy

Christine de Pisan (1364-1430)

Golden Bull

Michelangelo (1475-1564)

Castiglione's Book of Courtier (1528)

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

Humanism


Petrarch (1304-74)

Petrus Paulus Vergerius (1370-1444)

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-72)

perspective

civic virtue (virtu)

Niccolo Machiavelli



The Prince (1513)

Discourses on Livy (1517)

Lorenzo Valla (philology) (1405-57)

Italian city-states

Lorenzo de Medici (1449-92)

Wars of Italy (1494-1529)

sacking of Rome (1527)

Fall of Constantinople (1453)

Columbus (1451-1506)

conquistadores

Hernando Cortes (1485-1547)

Columbian Exchange

Vasco de Gama (1469-1525)

Prince Henry, Navigator(1394-1460)

Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521)

War of the Roses (1455-85)

Henry VII (1457-1509)

Louis XI "the Spider" (1461-83)

Ferdinand and Isabella

Castile and Aragon

Reconquista

Ottoman empire

Northern Renaissance vs. Italian Renaissance

Art, purposes



Chapters 3: Reformations

Johannes Gutenberg (1400-68)

Christian humanism

Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536)

Thomas a Kempis (1380-1471),

Imitation of Christ

Brethren/Sisters of Common Life

indulgences

simony, pluralism, nepotism

Pope Leo X



Sola: Scriptura, Fide, Gratia

Diet of Worms (1521)

predestination

transubstantiation

Martin Luther (1483-1546)

German Peasants Revolt

seven sacraments

Johann Tetzel (1465-1519)

Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)

Marburg Colloquy

Thomas More (1478-1535), Utopia

Henry VIII (1509-47)

Act of Supremacy (1534)

Anglican Church

John Calvin (1509-64)

Institutes of Christian Religion (1536)

Genevan Consistory

Michael Servetus

Anabaptists

Munster


Charles V (1519-56)

Francis I (1515-47)

Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66)

Habsburg-Valois Wars

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Cuius regio, eius religio.

St. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)

Teresa of Avila (1515-82)

Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

Capuchins, Ursulines

Council of Trent (1545-63)

The Index of Prohibited Books

Michel de Montaigne (1533-92)

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)

Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)



Chapter 4: Religious Wars

Huguenots

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572)

Edict of Nantes (1598)

Catherine de Medici (1560-89)

Guises


Bourbons, Henry IV (1589-1610)

Elizabeth I (1558-1603)

Mary Tudor (1553-58)

Act of Uniformity



politiques

"one king, one faith, one law"

United Provinces

Pacification of Ghent (1576)

Philip II (1555-98)

Spanish Armada

Duke of Alba (1507-82)

sea beggars

William of Orange

Thirty Years War (1618-48)

Gustavus Adolphus (1611-32)

Defenestration of Prague (1618)

Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

sack of Magdeburg (1631)

Conditions of Life for the Masses”:

Early Modern Society

Great Chain of Being

Correspondences

Rotational Order



The Return of Martin Guerre

Court case

Early modern village life/community

three-field crop rotation

Price Revolution

nobility of the robe

enclosure

witchcraft scare

subsistence agriculture

feudal dues

artisans

domestic service

demographics

noble privileges

patriarchy

carnivals/festivals



Chapter 6: The Scientific Revolution

Hermeticism

Aristotelian world view

Ptolemy


Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543),

On Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

heliocentric theory

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

empiricism

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

deductive/inductive reasoning



Discourse on Method

Galileo (1564-1642),

Dialogue on the two Chief Systems of World

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)

natural laws

Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Principia

French Academy of Sciences

Royal Society of London

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Paracelsus (1493-1521)

Andreas Vesalius (1514-64)

William Harvey (1578-1657)

Queen Christina of Switzerland (1626-89)

Margaret Cavendish (1623-73)

Maria Winkelmann (1670-1720)

Benedict Spinoza (1632-77)

Blaise Pascal (1623-62)

scientific method

witch hunts

Mannerism

Baroque

El Greco (1541-1614)



Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)

Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)



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