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revelation already mentioned are two other move­ments‑Evangelicalism and Wesleyism. The former as represented by Henry Venn and William Ro‑

me (qq.v.), the latter by the Wesleys and White­field (qq.v.), are not a scholastic but a religious phenomenon, depending upon belief in the inspira­tion, inerrancy, and literal interpretation of the Scriptures, the fall and total corruption of man in sin, and the immediate consciousness of a renewed life originated by the Spirit of God.

In America during this period the chief advocate of supernaturalism as against rationalism was Jonathan Edwards (q.v.). His essay on The Free­dom of the Will and his dissertation on Original Sin were a reply to treatises on original sin by John Taylor and by D. Whitby (qq.v.) written from the Arminian point of view, in which, by a use of the Scriptures which prevailed among opponents of rar tionalism in Great Britain, God is proved to be the efficient cause of all human action.

The course of rationalism for the next fifty years or until about 1830 shows less reliance upon indi­vidual names than upon a general movement regis­tered in several directions. Authority 4. Entrance whether ecclesiastical or civil in respect of Scientific of religious beliefs was fast losing its

Method. hold, so that everywhere freedom of

inquiry became less subject to restraint.

The right of the individual consciousness was grad­

ually gaining recognition. The age of experience,

of observation, and verification had arrived wherein

the slow method of induction was substituted for

the " high priori road." In particular, attention

is directed to two features affecting positions sup­

posed to rest, one on the Scriptures, the other on

philosophy. The beginnings of Hebrew history

were subjected to the same criteria as Wolff and

Niebuhr had applied to Greek and Roman history.

The chief representatives here are Bishop Thirl­

wall, Thomas Arnold, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and

Dean Milman (qq.v.). The points on which inter­

est centered were the story of creation, the fall and

original sin, miraculous accounts as the burning

bush and the sun and moon standing still, the di­

vine authority of the judges, the integrity and au­

thenticity of the Synoptic Gospels, in a word, many

of the questions which have since become common­

places in literary and historical criticism. The im­

petus to these inquiries was quickened by German

scholars like Eichhorn, Michaelis, and SchIeier­

macher (qq.v.). In philosophical directions the

tendencies were either atheistic or social as repre­

sented by Bentham, pantheistic or spiritual as rep­

resented by Coleridge, agnostic or ethical as repre­

sented by James Mill. The empiricism of Locke and

Hume, the idealism of Kant, and the individualistic

and socialistic teachings of the French Encyclo­

pedists together with the matter‑of‑fact temper of

the English mind were the main forces at work.

The Evangelical movement had grown to large pro­

portions; at the close of the eighteenth century it

included about five hundred clergy, its chief repre­

sentative being William Wilberforce (q.v.; Practical

View, London, 1797).

In the following period of about thirty years, or until about 1860, appeared a remarkable group of IX.‑26

writers, partly theological, partly scientific and literary, by whom the rational temper of English thought was still further refined. 5. Develop‑ Among those of theological significance meats were John Frederick Denison Maurice,

:83o‑6o. Charles Kingsley, Frederick William

Robertson of Brighton, and Benjamin

Jowett (qq.v.). Positions already assumed are ad­

vanced to yet farther stages. Questions were raised

all along the line: Old‑ and New‑Testament criti­

cism, miracles, natural religion, sin, the nature, and

character of Jesus, atonement, eternal life and eter­

nal death. Other contemporary writings were symp­

toms of the new spirit, as, e.g., Robert Chambers,

Vestiges of the Creation; F. W. Newman, Phases of

Faith; R. W. Gregg, The Creed of Christendom;

Harriet Martineau, Eastern Life; also Essays and

Reviews (q.v.) by several writers. The significance

of this movement is understood only when set on

the background of religious thought to which it

was a protest. The Evangelical party continued

the traditions of piety and reliance upon the super­

natural which had marked their predecessors. On

the inspiration and integrity of the Scriptures, the

fall of man and original sin, regeneration, expiation

for sin through the death of Christ, miracles both

as prophecy and as works of power, and eternal

punishment, they were generally agreed, and were

vigorous advocates of the same against all rational­

istic tenets. In common with the Tractarian party,

until the withdrawal of John Henry Newman (q.v.)

to the Roman Catholic Church in 1845, they de­

fended the authority of the ancient symbols and

church authority in general, and they subordinated

reason to faith. Among the representatives of the

Evangelicals were Henry Rogers and Isaac Taylor

(qq.v.). The Tractarian movement went still far­

ther in its antagonism to rationalism, defending

baptismal regeneration, the real presence, exclusive

prerogatives of the priesthood derived from the

apostles, and authority centering in the Scriptures

communicated to the Church. The chief advocates

of these positions were Cardinal Newman, Richard

Hurrell Froude, Edward Bouverie Pusey, and John

Keble (qq.v.). In America the revolt of reason

against traditional, authoritative supernaturalism

found in Theodore Parker (q.v.) its most learned

and outspoken advocate, and in the Unitarian

churches its freest opportunity (am UmTArorexs).

It was also fostered by Horace Bushnell (q.v.) in

the Christian nurture of children as against the pre­

vailing evangelistic methods of conversion, and in

the growing emancipation of thought in portions of

the Congregational and Presbyterian churches. No

new lines of defense of supernaturalism appeared.

Since about 1860 all the rational tendencies pre­viously active have rapidly advanced, accelerated by two new, pervasive, and radically transforming interests‑Evolution and Comparative

6. Since Religion (qq.v.), to which may be r86o. added the idealistic philosophy and the new psychology, and the vast exten­sion of the scientific spirit resulting in naturalism. Rationalism has in many instances issued in athe­ism (cf. A. W. Benn, fistory of Rationalism in, the Nineteenth Century, London, 1906), in others in


agnosticism (cf. H. Spencer, First Principles, ib. 1884; T. Huxley, Science and Culture, ib. 1881), and in yet others, where it has not relieved Chris­tianity of all its supernatural elements, thus redu­cing it to pure theism, it has set it in a wider natural order and interpreted that order no longer as simply mechanical but also as teleological. Perhaps it has influenced apologetics more profoundly than any other branch of theological inquiry, whether the point of view be conservative or liberal (see Arol, oGEnca). The traditional dualism of natural and supernatural is indeed in some quarters still main­tained; where, however, the divine immanence is seriously held, the line between the natural and the supernatural is disappearing, and the supernatural is the natural viewed from its causal ground or its teleological import. Thus the supernatural is rein­stated not as anomalous and shrouded in mystery, but as ultimate source and final end of the rational order (see PoLEMles and THEOLOGY, the end).


BiBicoanAray: J. Tulloch, Rational Theology and Chris­tian Philosophy in England in the 17th Century, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1872; L. Stephen, Hist. of Eng. Thought in the 18th Century, 2 vols., New York, 1881; K. F. Stliud­lin, Gesehichte des Rationalismus and Supranaturalismus, GUtingen, 1826; E. B. Pusey, Probable Causes of the Ra­tionalist Character lately Predominant in the Theology of Germany, London, 1828; A. Saintes, Hist. critique du rationalisme en Allemagne, Paris, 1841, Eng. tranel., Cri­tical Hist. of Rationalism in Germany, London, 1849; F. A. G. Tholuck, Vorgeschichte des Rationalismua, 4 vole., Berlin, 1853‑62; idem, Geschichte des Rationalismus, vol. i., ib. 1865; A. de Gasparin, The Schools of Doubt and the School of Faith, Edinburgh, 1854; G. Smith, Rational Religion, London, 1861; A. F. Arbousse‑Bastide, Chris­tiani8me et 1'esprit moderns, Paris, 1862; A. S. Farrar, Critical Hist. of Free Thought, London, 1862; W. Howitt, The Hilt. of the Supernatural in all Ages and Nations, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1863; K. R. Hagenbach, German Ra­tionalism in its Rise, Progress, and Decline, Edinburgh, 1865; W. E. H. Lecky, Hiet. of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, 2 vols., new ed., London, 1867; G. P. Fisher, Faith and Rationalism, New York, 1879; J. Cairns, Unbelief in the Eighteenth Century, London, 1881 • J. Cook, Scepticism and Rationalism, ib. 1881; H. Coke, Creeds of the Day, 2 vols., ib. 1883; H. Heussler, Der Rationalismus des siebzehnten Jahrhund­erta, Breslau, 1885; E. Costansi, It Razionaliemo a la Ragione storica, Rome, 1888; C. M. Mead, Supernatural Revelation, London, 1890; C. Brun, Rationalismen i dens hiatoriske Sammenhong med det attende Aarhundredes Oplysning, Christiania, 1891; O. Pfleiderer, Geschichte den protestantischen Theologie seit Kant, Berlin, 1891; F. Utopy, Le Rationalisme philosophique et religieux, Paris, 1891; F. V. A. Aulard, Cults de to raison, Paris, 1892; J. H. King, The Supernatural: its Origin, Nature, and Evolution, 2 vols., London and New York, 1892; W. H. Mallock, Studies of Contemporary Superstition, London, 1895; K. Fischer, Geschichte den neueren Philosophic, vole. iii.‑vii., 10 vols., Heidelberg, 1897‑1903; J. M. Robert­son, Studies in Religious Fallacy, London, 1900; idem, Short Hint. of Free Thought, 2d ed., 2 vols., ib. 1906; A. J. Balfour, Foundations of Belief, 8th ed., London, 1901; G. Forester, The Faith of an Agnostic; or, first Essays in Ra­tionalism, London, 1902; J. F. Hurst, Hist. of Rational­ism, revised ed., New York, 1902; C. E. Plumptre, On the Progress of Liberty of Thought during Queen Victoria's Reign, London, 1902; G. Henslow, Present Day Rational­ism, ib. 1904; C. Watts, The Meaning of Rationalism, ib. 1905; A. W. Berm, Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols., ib. 1906; J. M. Robertson, A Short History of Free Thought, Ancient and Modern, 2 vols., 2d ed., New York, 1906; F. Podmore, The Naturalisation of the Su­pernatural, London, 1908, C. F. D'Arey, Christianity and the Supernatural, ib. 1909; the works on the hist. of phi­losophy by J. E. Erdmann, New York, 1893, W. Windel­band, vol. iii., London, 1898, and F. Ueberweg, ed. Heinze,

vols. iii. iv., Berlin, 1901‑02. Related literature will be found under AoxosTiczsM; ATemsm; Daisx; ENLIaBT­mNMENT; MATMIUALMM, etc.

RATRAMBUS, rd"trdm'nus (RATHRAMNUS): Monk of Corbie and one of the most important theo­logical authors of the ninth century; d. after 868. Of his life almost nothing is known, even his wri­tings containing no biographical material; and the date of his birth, like that of his pro­Life. fession, can not be ascertained. He was deeply versed in Biblical and par tristic learning, and theologically was a disciple of Augustine. He took part in all the theological con­troversies of his period, and his opinion was fre­quently sought by Charles the Bald, while his bishop delegates him to refute the attacks of the Patri­arch Photiua on the Roman Catholic Church. It is also evident that he was warmly admired by Gott­achalk (MPL, exxi. 367‑368).

The chief work of Ratramnus was the De corpore et sanguine Domini liber, written at the request of Charles the pB~a~ld, probably after Paschasius Rad­bertus (see RADBERTUs, PAscanarUa) had sent him his treatise on the same theme. In this

Doctrine work Ratramnus maintained that the of the eucharistic elements are not the actual

Eucharist. body and blood of the Christ of history,

but are mystic symbols of remem­

brance. He might, therefore, be regarded as a sym­

bolist, seeing in the Eucharist a sacrificial meal, the

efficacy of which depends on the intensity with

which the recipient realizes the redeeming passion

of Christ. This does not, however, completely ex­

press his position, for he maintained at the same

time that " according to the invisible substance,

i.e., the power of the divine Word, the body and

blood of Christ are truly present " (cap. xlix.).

This shows that Ratramnus was more than a sym­

bolist, and that he believed in a real presence which

was received by the faithful through the spirit of

God. His eucharistic doctrine is elucidated by his

teaching on baptism. Baptismal regeneration is

not due to the water in itself, but to the Holy Ghost

who enters it at the priestly consecration. Both in

baptism and in the Eucharist, then, a mutable and

transitory element perceptible to the senses co­

exists with an immutable and eternal element which

faith alone can grasp. This distinction between ex­

ternal and internal runs, with slight inconsistencies,

through the entire presentation of Ratramnus, the

concomitance of the two constituting the divine

mystery. The change of the bread and wine into

the body and blood of Christ for those who receive

in faith is defined by Ratramnus as due to the sanc­

tification of the Holy Ghost invisibly contained in

the sacraments, or as the spiritual power of the

Word immanent in the material substances

(" Word " here seeming to mean the words of insti­

tution as spoken by the priest at the consecration of

the elements rather than the Scriptures in general

or the Logos). It would furthermore appear that

he held that the Eucharist is the visible vehicle of

invisible grace, and that in the sacrament the power

of God, under its material veil, secretly works the

salvation to which the Eucharist testifies. The eu­

chariatic teaching of Ratramnus thus approximated


one side of the doctrine of Radbertus (q.v.), the difference being merely in their concept of " truly " in the transformation of the sacramental elements, Radbertus making this include both symbol and substance, while Ratramnus understood by the term a presence cognoscible to the senses, and so combated it. While, therefore, he taught a real change of the elements, in virtue of priestly consecration, not only in signification, but also in efficacy, this change was perceptible only to faith, not to the senses.

The De corpore et sanguine Domini of Ratramnus has had a strange history. The synod of Vercelli, in 1050, condemned and burned it as a work com­posed by Johannes Scotus Erigena (see SCOTUS ERIGENA, JOHANNES) at the instance of Charles the Bald; and during the Middle Ages its very exist­ence was well‑nigh forgotten. In 1526, however, John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, appealed to it in his controversy with C;colampadius. Attention was thus again drawn to it, and in 1532 it was ed­ited at Cologne by Johannes Prael under the title of Bertrami presbyteri ad Carolum Magnum imr peratorem. It was then repeatedly edited 'and translated, especially in French and English (e.g., London, 1548, 1581, 1624, 1686, 1838, 1880). The appeals of Protestants, especially of the Reformed wing, to it rendered it an object of suspicion to the Roman Catholic Church, and as a Protestant forgery it was placed on the Index by the censors of the Council of Trent in 1559. This unfavorable view was shared by the leading Roman Catholic scholars of the period, and though others maintained its authenticity and orthodoxy, it was not removed from the Index until 1900.

The other writings of Ratramnus may be dis­missed more briefly. The earliest of his works seems to have been the De eo quod Christus ex Virgine natus est, on the contents and relation of which to Radbertus' De partu Virginis see R.wBERTus, PAs‑

caAsrus. He was active in the Gott­Other schalk controversy, was indeed a per‑

Writings. sonal friend of the monk of Fulda (see

GOTTSCHALK, 1). In 850, at the request of Charles the Bald, he wrote his two books, De prce­dedinatione Dei, in which he defended the doctrine of twofold predestination to salvation and damnation, but rejected the theory of a predestination to sin. Between 853 and 855 he wrote an apology of the Trina Deitas (now lost), assailing Hinemar's pro­posed change of te, trim Deitas unique in the hymn " Sanctorum meritis inclyta gaudia " into te, summa Deitas, his reasons being suspected Sabellianism. Ratramnus gained his chief fame by his four books Contra Gr&,corum opposita, written about 868 in reply to the attacks of Photius (q.v.) on the Filio­sue and other differences between East and West. The first book is devoted to the demonstration from the Bible of the doctrine of the double proces­sion, and the second and third to proofs from the councils and the Greek and Latin Fathers. Par­ticular interest attaches to the first chapter of the fourth book, in which Ratramnus touches upon one of the chief points of difference between the Greek and Latin Churches. The Eastern Church traces not only its dogma, but also its ecclesiastical rites and customs, back to the apostolic age, and forbids

the slightest deviation; while the Church of the West, especially after the time of Augustine, per­mits variations in forms of observance according to the necessities of place and time, though main­taining the same inflexibility of dogma as the East. The remainder of the concluding book is occupied with the justification of distinctively Roman usages, such as celibacy and the tonsure.

Ratramnus also wrote a curious Epistola de cynocephalia ad Rimbertum presbyterum, this Rim­bert probably being the biographer and successor of Ansgar (q.v.). Here Ratramnus decides that, though most theologians are inclined to consider the cynocephali as animals rather than men, the hu­man traits in their mode of life imply the possession of reason, so that there is no good reason to object to the view that they are descendants of Adam. In this same work he also denies complete author­ity to the " Book of St. Clement " (probably the " Recognitions "), on the ground that it is not in entire harmony with the doctrines of the Church. In his De anima Ratramnus polemized against the theory of a certain Maearius Scotus (who had mis­understood a passage in Augustine's De quantitate animw) that all mankind have a single soul in common. The work, which has never been edited, is described, from a manuscript apparently now lost, by Jean Mabillon (ASM, iii. 140; ASB, IV., ii. 76). In another work, likewise unedited, Ratramnus refutes the theory that the soul is circumscribed, or restricted by limits of space (cf. L. Traube, in MGH, Poet. Lat. red. avi, iii. 2 [1896], 715). All the works of Ratramnus thus far edited are collected in the reprint in MPL, cxxi. 1‑346, 1153‑56, while his letters are given in MGH, Epist., vi. 1 (1902), 149 sqq.

Like Radbertus and most other theologians of

the Carolingian and succeeding centuries, Ratramnus

was a traditionalist, drawing on and systematizing

patristic literature primarily for polemic pur­

poses and for establishing his intense Augustinian­

ism. Through his controversial writings runs a noble

strain, personal attack is avoided, and demonstra­

tion of the truth is the one and only end. He is

likewise noteworthy because of the attention given

his writings in the Reformed Church and during the

period of the Enlightenment, even though he had

been unrecognized by the " Magdeburg Centuries "

and by early Lutheranism. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Naegle, Ratramnus and die heilige Euw charistie, Vienna, 1903; Hist. litwaire de la France v. 332‑351; J. Bach, Dogmengeschachte des Mittelalters, i. 193 sqq., Vienna, 1873; A. Ebert, Geschichte der Litteratur des Mittelalters, ii. 244, Leipsic, 1880; J. Schwane, Dogmen­peschichte der mittleren Zeit, pp. 631 sqq., Freiburg, 1882; J. Schweizer, Berengar von Tours, pp. 150‑174, Munich, 1890; J. Ernst, Die Lehre des . . . Pasckasius Radbertus van der Bucharistie, pp. 99 sqq., Freiburg, 1896; Harnaek, Dogma, v. 297, 302, 310, 318 sqq., vi. 47‑48; Neander, Christian Church, iii. 482, 497‑501; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 304, 532, 549 sqq., 746 sqq.; Ceillier, Auteure sacrbs, xii. 555‑568, 594; KL, x. 802‑807.

RATZ, rats, JAKOB: German Lutheran; b. at Saulheim (a village s. of Mainz) 1505; d. at Heil­bronn (26 m. n. of Stuttgart) 1565. He was edu­cated at the University of Mainz, and, though an admirer of Erasmus, seems to have entered a mon­astery. He later went to Wittenberg to hear Luther


and Melanchthon, and, after acting in an ecclesias­tical capacity in Dinkelsbahl and being deacon at Crailaheim (1534), was pastor at Neckarbischofs­heim (until 1540), Neuenstadt‑on‑the‑Linde (until 1552), Pforzheim, and probably in the Palatinate (until 1556 or 1557), resigning shortly after the acces­sion of Frederick III. In May, 1559, he was called to Heilbronn to succeed Menrad Molther (q.v‑) as pastor, a position which he retained until his death. He was able and gifted, but violent and somewhat inconsiderate. His writings treat of several interesting problems of early Protestant dogma and ethics, as when he opposed Melchior Ambach in his vindication of dancing and other amusements. Among his works mention may also be made of his disquisition on fasting (1553) and of his Von der Hellen (Nuremberg, 1545).

G. BossrxT.

BmLIOOS"BY: A sketch of the life and works of Bata by G. Bossert is in Blotter Air w*Uembergiacha KiTchenpe‑

whichte, 1893, pp. 33 sqq., 1907, pp. 1 eqq.
RATZEBERGER, rat'se.bbra‑er (RATZENBER­GER), MATTHAUS: German physician and lay theologian; b. at Wangen (5 m. e. of Stuttgart) 1501; d. at Erfurt Jan. 3, 1559. He was educated at Wittenberg, and early made the acquaintance of Luther, for whom he cherished a lifelong venera­tion. He left Wittenberg in 1525 to become city physician at Brandenburg, and there met the elec­tress, whom he is said to have induced to study the writings of Luther. When, however, she fled to Saxony, Ratzeberger's career at Brandenburg was at an end, and he then became physician to Count Albrecht of Manefeld, while in 1538 he entered the service of John Frederick, elector of Saxony, in the same capacity. He was a medical adviser of Lu­ther, with whom he was apparently connected by marriage, and after the Reformer's death was one of the guardians of his children. Such was Ratze­berger's reputation for theological learning that in 1546 Friedrich Myconius (q.v.) proposed him as one of the speakers at the Conference of Regens­burg (see REGENSBURG, CONFERENCE OF)‑ His meddlesome and officious nature [or, perhaps, his conscientious performance of duty], however, brought about his enforced retirement from attend­ance on John Frederick, whereupon he settled at Nordhausen as a practitioner. In 1550 he removed to Erfurt, where he watched with increasing dissatis­faction the growth of Philippism.

The chief literary production of Ratzeberger was his Historia Lutheri (first edited completely by C. G. Neudeeker, Die handschrifaiche Gesch%chte Ratze­berger8 fiber Luther and seine Zeit, Jena, 1850). The first part of this work contains a biography of Lu­ther, but its meager and anecdotic character is dis­appointing, considering that it was written by one who had associated so long and so closely with the Reformer. The second portion is devoted to the Schmalkald War and similar matters. The rancor displayed toward the advisers of the elector, and toward the Wittenberg theologians, especially Me­lanchthon, renders Ratzeberger's work valueless as history, although it is important for its data on the Gnesio‑Lutherans, and, despite its partizanship, for

the controversies of the Interim.(T. KOLDE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Poach, Vom christtichen Abachied . . du . . . M. Ratseberpera, Jena, 1559; G. T. Strobel, Matthdi Raaeberpers tpeacAiehte. Altdorf, 1775.

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