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Gnosticism Goa, Archbishopric of

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Goa, Archbishopric of



tricable tangle of the most heterogeneous tendencies and strivings, there lurked many a sublime inven­tion. The reader of the Books of Jeff, to be sure, is not prepared by their introductory strain of beauti­ful praise for the living Jesus to be plunged afterward into that ocean of barren formulas in magic, the bulk of their contents. On the other hand, the reader who lays aside the Naassenian Hymn without feeling its inward hold on him, may well begin to ask himself, does he know what religion is? Athwart the trans­parent envelop of Valentine's wonderful cosmic poem may be caught gleams of the loftiest and profound­est ideas in a very noble setting. G. KRfGER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: For the extant literature of the Gnostics consult: the edition of Ireneeus by A. Stieren, i. 901­971, Leipsic, 1853; the Piatis Sophia, ed. M. G. schwartze and J. H. Petermann, Gotha, 1851‑53 (Coptic and Latin), cf. the Fr. transl. by E. AmMineau, Paris, 1895, Eng. transl., mentioned above in § 3; Codex Brucianus, ed. C. Schmidt in TU, vii. 1‑2 (1892); idem, in SBA, 1896, pp. 839‑847; Harnaek, Geschichte, i. 143­201; idem, Zur Quellenkritik des Gnosticiamus, Leipsic, 1873, and cf.: G. Volkmar, Die Quellen der Ketzerge­schichte bis sum Niconum, Leipsic, 1855; R. A. Lipsius, Zur Quellenkritik des Epiphanios, Vienna, 1865; H. St4helin, Die gnoatiachen Quellen Hippolyts, in TU, vi. 3 (1891); J. Kunze, De hiatoria: gnoaticiami fontibus, Leipsic, 1894.

On the system in general the fullest discussion is still J. Matter, Hist. critique du gnostieiame, 3 vols., Paris, 1843‑44. Consult further: A. Neander, Genetiache Ent­wickelung der vornehmsten gnostischen Syateme, Berlin, 1818; idem, Christian Church, consult Index; E. Burton, Heresies of the Apostolic Age, Oxford, 1829; J. A. Mohler, Der Ursprung des Gnosticismua, Tubingen, 1831; F. C. Baur, Die christliche Gnosis oder die christliche Religions­philosophic, ib. 1835; R. Massuet, in Stieren's Irenaus, ut sup., ii. 54 zqq.; R. A. Lipsius, Der Gnosticismus, Leipsie, 1860; W. M6hler, Geschichte der Koemologie in der griechiscben Kirche, Halle, 1860; E. Amdlineau, Es­asi our Is gnosticism egyplien, Paris, 1866; T. Mansel, The Gnostic Heresies of the First and Second Centuries, London, 1875; J. B, Lightfoot, in his Commentary on Colossians, ib. 1879; M. Joel, Blicke in die Religionage­schichte, i. 114‑170, Breslau, 1880; G. Koffmane, Die Gnosis nach ihrer Tendenz and Organisation, ib. 1881; A. Hilgenfeld, Die Ketzergeschichte des Urchristentum, Leipsie, 1884; C. W. King, The Gnostics and their Re­mains, London, 1887; A. Dieterich, Abraxas. Studien zur Religiontgeschichte des spateren Altertums, Leipsie, 1891; G. Amich, Das antike Mystertenwesen, GSttingen, 1894; A. Harnaek, Untersuchungen iiber das gnostische Buch Piatis‑Sophia, in TU, vii. 2 (1891); idem, Dogma, passim, consult Index; H. Gunkel, Sch6pfung and Chaos, G6ttingen, 1895; G. Wobbermin, Religionsgeachichtliche Studien zur Frogs der Beeinftussung des Urchristentuma durch das antike Mysterienwesen, Berlin, 1896; W. Anz, in TU, xv. 4 (1897); M. Frledlitnder, Der vorchristliche


jadische Gnosticiamus, GSttingen, 1898; G. R. S. Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten; Sketches among the Gnostics of the frst two Centuries, London 1900; E. H. Schmitt, Die Gnosis. Grundlagen der Weltanschauung einer edleren Kultur, Leipsic, 1903; E. Preuschen, Zwei gnostische Hymnen, Giessen 1904 R. Reitzenstein, Poimandres, Leipsic, 1904; E. Bischoff, Im Reiche der Gnosis; die mystiachen Lehren des judischen und christ­lichen Gnosticismus, Mandaismus and Manichdismus and ihr babylonisch‑aserater Ursprung, ib. 1906; W. Bousaet, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, G6ttingen 1907; E. Buonniuti LoGrnosticism, Rome, 1907; DCB,ii.678‑687; KL v.765­775; the literature under the articles named in tho first paragraph of this article, the text‑books and treatises on the church history of the period, and the works on the his­tory of dogma.
GOA, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF: A metropolitan see in Portuguese India, founded in 1534 by Paul III. The first bishop was the Franciscan JoS,o Albuquerque, consecrated in 1537. After the ex­tension of Christianity by the labors of St. Francis Xavier (q.v.), who landed at Goa in 1542, Paul III. raised the see to metropolitan rank in 1557, assign­ing to it as suffragan bishoprics Cochin, Malacca, and Macao, the last‑named including the oversight of the Chinese and, from 1576, the Japanese mis­sions. About 1570, three‑fourths of the 200,000 inhabitants of the city were Christians. The in­creasing conquests of the Dutch diminished the importance of the city, and in 1753, in consequence of a plague, the residence of the Portuguese viceroy was removed to New Goa or Panjim (5 m. to the westward), which became the seat of government in 1845. The ancient city is now little but ruins, with few inhabitants; its most remarkable remain­ing monuments are the churches, of which that con­taining the body of St. Francis Xavier is a place of pilgrimage for the Roman Catholics of all India. The later history of the mission which was once so flourishing is an unhappy one. In the seventeenth century the Portuguese government, relying on the right of patronage originally conceded by the pope, made claims which could not be admitted, and on their rejection deliberately organized a schism which maintained its existence for over two hundred years, the consequences of which are not yet effaced.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. A. E. de Silva, Catholic Church in India, Bombay, 1885; C. Dellon, Hist. of the Inquisition at Goa, London, 1748; Life of Bishop Hartmann, Calcutta, 1868; J. P. Kirsch and V. Lukach, Illustrierte Geschichte der katholischen Kirche, pp. 493, 547, 577, 601, Munich, 1905; KL, v. 775‑780.

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