GLABRIO, gld‑bri'S, MANIUS ACILIUS: Roman consul in the year 91, afterward banished and put to death by Domitian 95 A.D. He belonged to a family distinguished in Roman history from 200 s.C. till the end of the empire, especially in the second century, and has interest for church history because of certain fragments of epitaphs discovered by De Rossi in 1888 in an aisle of the catacombs of St. Priscilla on the Via Salaria near Rome. Because of the honorary epithets employed, the epitaphs can hardly refer to freedmen of the gens Acilia, but must mark the resting‑places of actual members of the family (cf. Prosographia imperii Romani saeculorum 1. 111., ed. E. Klebs, pp. 7,8, nos. 54‑59, Berlin, 1897), who were evidently, from the wording of the inscriptions, Christians or at least friends of Christians. Evidence thus appears to be offered that even before the time of Commodus (cf. Eusebius, Hist. eccl., v. 21) some of the prominent circles of the Roman nobility were favorably disposed toward Christianity, and perhaps actual conversions occurred. It is possible that Glabrio was put to death as a Christian (see DOAfITIAN).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. de Rosci, in Bullettino di archeolopia. criatiana, pp. 15 sqq.,103 sqq., table v.,1888‑89; W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and & .,nan Biography, ii. 272, London, 1890 (gives early sources for a life).
GLADDEN, WASHINGTON:Congregationalist; b. at Pottsgrove, Pa., Feb. 11, 1836. He was graduated at Williams College in 1859, and held pastorates at Brooklyn, N. Y. (1860‑G1), Morrisania, N. Y. (1861‑66), and North Adams, Mass. (18GG1871). He was then a member of the editorial staff of the New York Independent 1871‑75 and pastor of the Congregational Church at Springfield. 11lass., 1875‑82, also editing the Sunday Afternoon (Spring;
493 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA C+irald de Barri
field) 1878‑81?. Since 1882 he has been pastor of the First Congregational Church, Columbus, O. He has written Plain Thoughts on the Art of Living (Boston, 1868); From the Hub to the Hudson (1869); Workingmen and their Employers (1876); Being a Christian (1876); The Christian Way (New York, 1877); The Lord's Prayer (Boston, 1880); The Christian League of Connecticut (New York, 1883); Things New and Old (Columbus, O., 1884); The Young Men and the Churches (Boston, 1885); Applied Christianity (1887); Parish Problems (New York, 1888); Burning Questions (1889); Santa Claus on a Lark (1890); Who Wrote the Bible f (Boston, 1891); Tools and the Man (1893); The Cosmopolis City Club (New York, 1893); The Church and the Kingdom (Chicago, 1894); Seven Puzzling Bible Books (Boston, 1897); Social Facts and Forces (New York, 1897); Art and Morality (1897); The Christian Pastor (New York, 1898); How Much is left of the old Doctrines p (Boston, 1899); Straight Shots at Young Men (New York, 1900); Social Salvation (Boston, 1901); The Practise of Immortality (1901); Where does the Sky begin t (1904); Christianity and Socialism (New York, 1905); New Idolatry and Other Discussions (1905); and The Church and Modern Life (1908).
GLANVILL, JOSEPH: English clergyman, connected with the school known as the " Cambridge Platonists " (q.v.); b. at Plymouth 1636; d. at Bath Nov. 4, 1680. He was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, but had a close mental affinity with the Cambridge school, especially with More. He took orders, conformed .at the Restoration, and held several church preferments, the last being the incumbency of the Abbey Church at Bath (1676) and a prebend at Worcester (1678). Among his numerous works, none equals for brilliancy his early essay on The Vanity of Dogmatizing (London, 1661), from a passage in which Matthew Arnold received the suggestion for his famous poem " The Scholar Gipsy." Lux Orientalis (1662) is a reproduction and defense of More's doctrine of the preexistence of souls. The attempt to find an empirical basis for supernaturalism led Glanvill, like More, to combine a singular measure of credulity with his philosophy in the work which in its final form (1682) bears the title of Sadducismus Triumphatus. It is nothing but a collection of ghoststories to support an ingenious argument on the possibility of spiritual existences under the form of witches and apparitions, with some chapters on the notion of spirit translated from More's Manual of Metaphysics. Besides the controversy to which this gave rise, Glanvill took a vigorous part in another on behlf of the new Royal Society and the right of free scientific inquiry. He comes into contact with the Cambridge School again in an essay on Anti‑Fanatical Religion and Free Philosophy which appeared with several others in 1676. In its fictitious narrative, a sort of continuation of Bacon's New Atlantis, he describes a visit to the happy imaginary country of Bensalem, depicts the character and teaching of the Cambridge divines under a thin disguise, and Offers what is really the most effective of the several contemporary vindications of the school.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:Besides the literature under CAMBRIDGR PLAxoxisTe, consult: The account of Glanvill's life and writings, by H. More, prefixed to Sadducismua triumphatua, London, 1726; A. h Wood, Atheno Oxonienses, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 1244, 4 vols., London, 1813‑20; DNB, xxi. 408‑409.
GLAS, JOHN: Scottish sectary, founder of the sect of Glassites or Sandemanians; b. at Auchtermuchty (17 m. w.s.w. of St. Andrews), Fifeshire, Sept. 21, 1695; d. at Perth Nov. 2, 1773. He was educated at St. Leonard's College, St. Andrews (M.A., 1713) and at the University of Edinburgh, and was ordained pastor of the Presbyterian church at Tealing, Forfarshire, May 6, 1719. Here he became an independent in his views, and in The Testimony of the King of Martyrs (Edinburgh, 1727) he denied the right of the civil authorities to interfere in religious matters. For his publication he was suspended by the Synod of Angus and Mearns Apr. 18, 1728, and deposed from the ministry Oct. 13. Despite the intercession of influential friends the deposition was affirmed by the commission of the General Assembly Mar. 12, 1730. Glas then formed an independent church at Dundee. In 1733 he removed to Perth, where he built the first church of the new sect. Here he was joined by Robert Sandeman, who married his daughter and became the leader of the sect in England and America, (see SANDEMANIANS). The works of Glas, in four volumes, appeared at Edinburgh in 1761, and in a more complete edition in five volumes, Perth, 1782‑83.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Walter Wilson Hist. and Antiquities of
Dissenting Churches, iii. 261‑262, 4 vols., London, 1808
1814; William Anderson, The Scottish Nation, ii. 307, ib.
1870; E. Grub, Eccl. Hist. of Scotland, iv. 55, Edinburgh,
GLASS (Glassius), SALOMON:Lutheran theologian; b. at Sondershausen (28 m. n.n.w. of Erfurt) May 20, 1593; d. at Gotha July 27, 1656. He occupies an honorable position among the strict orthodox who in the middle of the seventeenth century were preparing the way for a transition to Spener's attitude. From 1612 to 1615 he studied philosophy at Jena, and then went to Wittenberg for a year. His health obliged him to return to Jena, where Johann Gerhard had recently begun to lecture. A scholarship enabled him to enjoy for five years the lectures and daily intercourse of this " archtheologian and model dogmatician." Glass had already begun to make a special study of Hebrew with its cognates. In 1617 he was made
master of philosophy, and in 1619 adjunct professor in the philosophical faculty. Owing to his timidity, and perhaps also to conscientious scruples, he long refused to appear in public disputations or in the pulpit; when the university offered him the degree of doctor of theology, he hesitated to accept it,
even when commanded by his princely patrons. In 1621 he was appointed to the chair of Hebrew, which was usually considered a transition rom philosophy to theology. In 1625 he was called to Sondershausen as superintendent, and in the following year he accepted the doctor's degree from
Jena. But a greater distinction awaited him. Gerhard, on his death‑bed, htid designated his beloved pupil as his successor, and after some discussion the request was complied with in 1638.
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
This position Glass occupied only two years. He was then summoned to Gotha by Duke Ernest I. as court preacher and general superintendent, and aided his sovereign in all his beneficial endeavors. Such a thorough Biblical theologian and a man of such practical piety could find no pleasure in the passionate scholastic disputes of those times, though he did enter the controversial field against the mystics who disparaged the authority of Scripture. To those who charged even such a man as Johann Arndt with heresy, he sail: "He who loves not Arndt must be afflicted with the spiritual dyspepsia." In his estimation the spread of pure doctrine availed little where it was not united with the life. Faithfully adhering in his own belief to the statements of the symbolical books, he yet maintained a conciliatory attitude in the syncretistic controversies which raged for decades with such animosity: He seems to have had no intimate relations with Calixtus, though he had with some of his friends and admirers. The duke, anxious for harmony, had asked for an opinion for his own information. Glass replied with great moderation, avoiding everything which could hurt the orthodox, but doing justice to Calixtus. Even his friend, the fanatical Michael Walther, did not dare to reject this opinion, though he soon afterward opposed it in essential points. The strict orthodox, however, disliked it so much, that, as it was published only after the author's death and without his name, doubts were raised as to its genuineness.
Glass's greatest scientific work is his Philologia sacra (Jena, 1623‑36), a kind of Biblicalphilological encyclopedia, which was extravagantly praised by his contemporaries as a key to all Biblical difficulties. It shows indeed, very great diligence and the necessity of following the general standards of higher instruction and scientific method. It rests on an extensive knowledge of Scripture and of Hebrew and rabbinical literature, and contains a valuable collection of illustrations and many acute linguistic observations. For the first time is found here an attempt at consistent study of the grammatical peculiarities of New Testament diction, the Hebrew coloring of which is shown. But its critical positions are taken from the narrow standpoint of the time, the grammar is not satisfactory, and its rhetoric and logic are antiquated. See ExEGEBIs OR HERMENEUTICS, III., § 7. GEORG LGEBCHE.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A full list of Glass's works is given in
Hauck‑Herzog, RE, vi. 671‑672. Consuit: the preface to
Crenius' edition of the Opuscula, 1700; J. C. Zeumer,
Vitae professorium Jenensium, p. 141, Jena, 1711; ADS, ix.
218‑219; KL, v. 612‑613.
GLOAG, PATON JAMES:Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Perth May 17, 1823; d. at Edinburgh Jan. 9, 1906. He studied at Edinburgh (1840‑43) and St. Andrews (1843‑44), and held pastorates at Dunning, Perthshire (1848‑60), Blantyre, Lanarkshire (18601870), and Galashiels, Selkirkshire (1870‑90). He was Baird lecturer in 1869 and moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1889, while after his retirement from the active ministry in 1890 he was temporary professor of Biblical criticism in the University of Aberdeen
1896‑99. He wrote The Assurance of Salvation (Edinburgh, 1853); Justification by Faith (1856); The Primeval World, or, the Relation of Geology to Revelation (1859); The Resurrection (London, 1862); Practical Christianity (Glasgow, 1866); Commentary on Acts (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1870); Introduction to the Pauline Epistles (1876); The Messianic Prophecies (Baird lectures for 1869; 1879); Life of Paul (1881); Commentary on James (1884); Exegetical Studies (1884); Introduction to the Catholic Epistles (1886); Commentary on the Epistles to the Thessalonians (London, 1887); Introduction to the Johannine Writings (1891); Subjects and Mode of Baptism (Paisley, 1891); The Life of St. John (London, 1893); Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels (Edinburgh, 1895); and Evening Thoughts (1900). He likewise translated a number of German commentaries on various books of the New Testament.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. 8. Gloag, Paton J. Gloag. A Memoir. Edin‑
GLOEL, JOHANNES:German exegete; b. at C6rbelitz (near Magdeburg) Apr. 22, 1857; d. at Erlangen June 16, 1891. He was educated at the gymnasium in Magdeburg, studied at Halle and Berlin, was for a time private tutor, then assistant preacher at the cathedral in Berlin. After acting for a short time as court preacher to the Prince of Reuss in Ernstbrunn he became inspector of the Silesian school of beneficiary students at Halle, and in 1884 undertook a journey to Holland for the purpose of study. Subsequently he became a teacher at the University of Halle and in 1888 professor at Erlangen where he taught three years. He was a man of wide education, thorough knowledge of his special branches, unwearied diligence and scientific courage. His' early death hindered the full development of his scientific labors.. He published Hollands kirehliches Leben (Wittenberg, 1885); Der Heilige Geist in der Heilsverkiindigung des Paulus (Halle, 1888); and Die jiingste Kritik des Galaterbriefes auf ihre Bereehtigung geprift (Leipsie, 1890). W. CABPARI.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The address of W. Caspari at the burial was
published, Erlangen, 1891.
GLORIA IN EXCELSIS, GLORIA PATRI.See LITURGIC, III.
GLOSSES, BIBLICAL AND ECCLESIASTICAL.
Origin and Development of the Terms (§ 1). Glosses in the Greek World (§ 2). Transference to the West (§ 3). Influence on Encyclopedic Works (§ 4). Modern Use in Biblical Criticism (§ 5).
A gloss is a marginal note employed for explana
tion or illustration. The term is derived from the
Greek gl6ssa, " tongue, speech, dialect." The use
of marginal notes can be traced to classical times
when they were employed .to explain for Greek
students the meaning of obsolete,
I. Origin provincial or foreign words, especially
and Devel‑ such as occurred in the Homeric poems.
opment of Indexes of the glosses were made to
the Terms. gether with their equivalents in the
common speech, and thus began the
work of lexicography. (On the question whether
the New Testament phrase lalein glossais, etc.,
" to speak with tongues," has any connection
495 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ma
with this usage cf. Bleek in TSK, ii. 1. 1829; see SPEAKING wITH TONGUES.) Glossa came to mean any word not in common use at any particular time or one used in a limited sense and so requiring elucidation. A synonym, glossema, came into use later when, especially in Alexandrian times, annotation of manuscripts was required because of the spread of the Greek language. Naturally this annotation developed from mere explanation of words to discussion of grammatical forms and then of subject‑matter. The use of glosses passed to the Romans, by whom the term glossarium was coined.
The ready‑made term glossa was applied to the marginal notes found in the Biblical manuscripts, such as the kere of the Old Testament (see KERI AND KETHIBH) and the explanations of Hebrew terms used in the New Testament. The term Glossce sacrce was used of the collections of difficult
passages which occurred in the Bibles a. Glosses in in various languages with the accom‑
the Greek panying elucidations, and soon came World. to be applied to the explanations alone.
How the glosses multiplied is understood when it is remembered that the earliest Christian teaching and preaching consisted in large part of rendering the Bible into the tongues used by the hearers. Naturally the difficult passages were annotated on the margin. The scope of the annotations was gradually enlarged, and came to embody the substance of oral and then of written tradition concerning the matter treated, especially matters which concerned the rendering of Hebrew terms. Such discussion and elucidation was particularly needed in the Greek world in connection with the Septuagint, where unusual Greek constructions were employed in the attempt to reproduce the Hebrew original, and with the renderings of Symmachus and Aquila. In cases of differences of text the marginal notes came to embody the different readings or at any rate to indicate them. From such collections as these, concerned in great part with the explanation of individual words, containing mainly excerpts from the most popular commentaries, developed the so‑called Glossce sacrce, of which a good example is the lexicon of Hesychius, either in its original or developed form. Others of this kind are the Lexebn synagog of Photius, the lexicon of Suidas, the so‑called Cyril‑Glossarium, the lexicon of Zonaras, the Etymologicum magnum, and the work of the sixteenth century compiled by the Benedictine Varinus Phavorinus (on these cf. J. C. G. Ernesti, Glosscv sanctorum Hesychii, Suidce et Phavarini, Leipsic, 1785‑86; F. G. Sturz, Zonarte gloss&, ib. 1818).
An activity, the exact analogue of that just described as applied to the Greek Bible, was exerted in the West upon the Latin, in which the necessities were of the same character. . But as the marginal notes consisted not only of explanations of individual words, but of longer remarks (cf. Tertullian, Adv. Valentinum, chap. vi. ), the term glossa came to mean the " assigned meaning of the passage," as for example in the Etymologice (i. 30) of Isidore of Seville and in a passage from Alcuin (MPL, ci. 858), though this did not exclude the older meaning of an elucidation of single words. But in
the case of Latin equivalents used to explain words in the text, it often occurred that they were written between the lines. From this the cus3. Trans‑ tom developed to reserve the margin ference to for the longer annotations which grew the West. into connected comment, to which in particular the term glossa in the singular was applied. Thus the word came to be equivalent often to " commentary," though it could still be used in its original sense of " explanation of obscure words." In the Middle Ages the word received a double connotation: it meant either explanation of single words or comment upon an entire work, such as the Bible. Some authorities used the term to designate the kere of the Hebrew Bible, others included part at least of the Masoretic apparatus. Then it meant any collection of exegetical explanatory remarks, whether written between the lines or on the margin or interjected paragraphically into the text. As an example of the kind of work to which this name was applied the work of Walafrid Strabo may be mentioned, a compilation from the writings of Alcuin, Ambrose, Augustine, Bede, Cassiodorus, Chrysostom, Gregory the Great, Haimo, Hesychius, Jerome, Isidore of Seville, Origen, Rabanus, and others, which for six centuries was the vale‑mecum of exegesis (see CATENJEE, § 8). The character of this work was, however, rather theological than philological. Mention should also be made in this place of the " Interlinear Gloss " of Anselm of Laon (d. 1117). From the fourteenth century on, many manuscripts of the Vulgate were enriched by the addition of these two works or of parts of them, together with the Postillce of Nicholas of Lyra and the Additiones of Paul of Burgos, written at the bottom and even so prirted. But with these there were also interlinear glossc,s which dealt with matters philological, some of which originated in the schools of the monasteries. Of course this same kind of work was done on other books, like the writings of Homer, patristic works, canons, hymns, legends, monastic rules, and the like. And these interlinear glosses natura#y developed into interlinear versions in the various tongues of the peoples to whom Christianity was conveyed.
In another direction these glosses developed into a kind of literature which anticipated the work of encyclopedia (see ENCYCLOPEDIA, 4. InfluenceTHEOLOGICAL), of which Isidore's on Encyclo‑ Etymologiarum libri vigindi is a apeci‑
pedic men (on this literature cf. S. Berger,
Works. De glossarhs et compendiis exegeticis,
Paris, 1879, pp. 7 sqq.) and represents a large class of works. Other works of this character are the 0lossce of Solomon III., bishop of Constance (d. 919), printed 1483; the Papicr elementarium doctrince erudimentum, compiled e. 1050 and often reprinted since the fifteenth century; the Panormia of Osbern of Gloucester (c. 1150, in Mai, Classicorum auctorum . . . tomi, Rome, 1836); the Dictionarilts sive de dictionibus obscuris of John of Garlandia, often printed; the Repertomu~r'~. vocabulorum and vocabulareum biblicum of Alexander Neckam (d. 1215); and the Breviloquus vocabularius, recast and edited by Reuchlin. That bilingual glossaries should develop is a matter of course.
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
The latest use of the word applies to those insertions which, in the course of the transmission of the text, have crept into the body of a work. They arise from the inclusion by a copyist of material which he found written between the lines or on the margin. This often occurs with set
g. Modern design though without evil purpose on Use in the part of the copyist and also Biblical through his mistake. The result,
Criticism. however, often is that it is impossible
to discover whether a corruption of
the text occurs through an intended improvement
or through importation of a marginal note. Cor
rections of this sort are found in the text of the
original languages of the Bible, since the more a
book is used and copied, the more likely are such
corrections. This is the case with the Hebre•,V text.
A means of detection is often the comparison
of two or more translations (cf. Wellhausen's
edition of Bleek's Einleitung in das Alte Testament,
Berlin, 1893, § 269; F. Buhl, Kanon and Text des
Alten Testaments, Leipsie, 1891, p. 257, Eng. trans].,
London, 1892; and for the New Testament cf.
E. Reuss, Geschichte der heiligen Schriften des Neuen
Testaments, Brunswick, 1874, § 359, Eng. trans].,
2 vols., Boston, 1874). In similar fashion the old
Septuagint in spite of the criticism of such men as
Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and of the Vulgate
(cf. Z. Frankel, Vorstudien zu der Septuaginta,
Leipsie, 1841, §§ 11 sqq.; F. Kaulen, Geschichte der
Vulgates, Mainz, 1868, pp. 212 sqq., 266). For the
marginal notes and references of English Bibles,
which are of the nature of glosses, see B1BLES,
ANNOTATED, AND BIBLE SUMMARIES, II.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Fabricius‑Harles, Bibliotheca Graces, vol. vi.
passim, Hamburg, 1798; J. G. Rosenmuller, Histories interpretationia sacrorum librorum, iv. 356 sqq., Leipsie, 1795; C. G. Wilke, Hermeneutik des Neuen Testaments, ii. 192 sqq., Leipsic, 1844; K. GSdeke, Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung, i.. § 13, Dresden, 1862; J. A. U. Scheler, Lexicographie latine, Leipsic, 1867; E. Steinmeyer and E. Sievers, Altlwchdeutsche Glosssn, i.‑iv., Berlin, 1879‑98; P. Piper, Literaturpeschichle and Grammatik der Althochdeutschen, pp. 35 aqq., Paderborn, 1$80; T. Hirt, Antike Buchwesen, Berlin, 1882; H. P. Junker, Grundrim der franzosischen Litteratur, pp. 15 sqq., Munster, 1889; F. Blass, Hermeneutik and Krilik, Munich. 1892; U. Wattenbach, Schriftwesen im Miltelalter, Leipsie, 1896; Krumbaeher, Geschichte, §§ 154, 216, 232 sqq.; KL, v. 708‑716; and the works on introduction to the Old and the New Testament.