261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

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GIBSON, MARGARET DUNLOP: English Ori­entalist; b. at Irvine (22 m. s.w. of Glasgow), Ayr‑

shire, Scotland. She was the daughter of John Smith, solicitor, Irvine, Ayrshire, was educated at private schools and by university tutors, and in 1883 married Rev. James Young Gibson, who died three years later. She has visited Sinai five times, and in company with her sister, Mrs. Agnes Smith Lewis, has made important discoveries of Arabic and Syriac manuscripts of the Bible, among them the justly celebrated and important Sinaitic Syriac codex of the Gospels, upon which both have done excellent work. A rigid Presbyterian and very decidedly Protestant, she and her sister gave the site for Westminster Theological College, Cam­bridge, and laid its corner‑stone in 1897. She has edited An Arabic Version of St. Paul's Epistles to the Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, and Ephesians (London, 1894); Apocrypha Sinaitica (1896); An Arabic Version of the Acts of the Apostles and the Seven Catholic Epistles (1899); The Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (in collaboration with Mrs. Lewis, 1899); Apocrypha Arabica (1901); and The Didascalia Apostolorum (Syriac text and translation; 2 vols., 1903); and has written, in addition to a number of tracts, Catalogue of the Arabic Manuscripts in the ~Conmnt of St. Catharine on Mount Sinai (London, 1894).
GIBSON, ROBERT ATKINSON: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Virginia; b. at Petersburg, Va., July 9, 1846. After serving as a private in the First Virginia Artillery of the Confederate Army 1864‑65, he was graduated at Hampden‑Sidney College in 1867; and at the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1870. He became a missionary in southern Virginia, 1870, assistant of St. James' and curate of Moore Memorial Chapel, Richmond, Va., 1872; rector of Trinity Church, Parkersburg, W. Va., 1878, of Christ Church, Cincinnati, O., 1887. He was consecrated sixth bishop of Vir­ginia, 1897.

GICHTEL, gl'H'tel, JOHANN GEORG: German ascetic and mystic; b. at Regensburg‑May 14, 1638; d. at Amsterdam Jan. 21, 1710. He was a descendant of a Protestant family, and the religious impulse was awakened in him at an early age. He studied theology and history at Strasburg' but after the death of his father he took up the study of law and settled in Regensburg as a lawyer, but his religious life received a new impulse through his association with Justinian Ernst von Weltz (q.v.), a Hungarian baron who was endeavoring to propa­gate his ideas concerning a reformation of the Church, a reconciliation between the Lutherans and Reformed, and a revival of missionary activity. They aroused the suspicion of the orthodox clergy, however, and were denounced as fanatics. Weltz now resolved upon a missionary tour to South America and was accompanied by Gichtel as far as Holland. There mysticism, the natural trend of his religious development and disposition, claimed him for his own, and Friedrich Breckling, a mystic preacher in Zwo11e, exerted a decisive influence upon him.

The external church service now seemed to Gichtel an obstacle to inner communion with God, and he felt himself called to take up, the battle



against false church service, especially in Luther­

anism. After his return to Germany he addressed

to his native city a letter filled with violent accu­

sations against the clergy, whereupon he was im­

prisoned, deprived of all civic rights, and exiled.

In 1665 he began his wanderings, and after a short

stay at the residence of Pistorius, a Pietistic preacher

of Gersbach in Baden, he went to Vienna to settle

some business affairs of Weltz. In 1667 he re­

turned to Zwolle, where Breckling employed him as

chaplain, leader of the choir, and porter, but he

became involved in Breckling's dissensions with

his congregation and the consistory, and was exiled

from Zwolle and the whole province of Upper

Yesel. He spent the remainder of his life quietly

in Amsterdam, winning many converts to his views.

At first he earned his living by translating and

proof‑reading, but renounced even this work as in­

compatible with the trust which leaves all care to


Gichtel was opposed to sects of his time such as

Quakers, Mennonites, and Labadists, nor was it his

desire to found a sect. Violent dissensions arose

among his followers, and at last only two of his

friends remained‑Isaak Passavant and Johann

Wilhehn Ueberfeld. After Gichtel's death, Ueber­

feld became the leader of his Dutch adherents,

while his followers in Hamburg and Altona were

headed by Johann Otto Gliising. Gichtel's wri­

tings were regarded by them as equal to the Bible,

and he himself was considered an elect instrument

of God. Traces of the sect were also found in Ber­

lin, Magdeburg, and Nordhausen.

In Amsterdam Gichtel became acquainted with

the works of Bohme, which he declared to be on a

par with the Bible, and his ideas were molded by

his study of this mystic, especially his discourses

on the struggle between the love and the wrath of

God, on creation, on the fall of Lucifer and Adam.

Like all the radical mystics of his period, he main­

tained a polemical attitude toward the established

Church and toward the Reformation, which in his

opinion had contented itself with the destruction

of popery without putting anything better in its

place, while with B6hme he shared the combination

of Pietism and a mystical conception of nature.

From his general contempt of learned writings were

excepted only works on science " because of the

light of nature." Gichtel strove to reduce the ideas

of B6hme to practicality, and for this reason he

rejected marriage, regarding it as unchastity in the

sight of God and as a perversion of the original order

of creation, advocating the priesthood of Mel­

chisedeck, and believing that man by prayer and

absorption into the death and blood of Jesus might

offer his soul as a sacrifice for others. With others,

especially with Alhardt de Raedt, a former pro­

fessor of theology in Haderwijk, and with the finan­

cial aid of Coenraad van Beuningen, mayor of

Amsterdam, Gichtel published the first complete

edition of B6hme's works (Amsterdam, 1682). His

own writings have been collected in seven volumes

under the title of Theosophia practica (Leyden,

1722). (A. HEGLER t.) K. HOLL.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A life is contained in G. C. A. iron Harless,

Jakob Bohme and die Alchymisten, Leipsie, 1882; and the

Theoaophia practica, Leyden, 1722, contains both his works

and a sketch of his life. Consult also: Ersch and Gruber,

Eacbkloptidie, section 1, lxY. 437 eqq.; ADB, ix. 147‑150

GIDEON (Septuagint, Gedeon, also called Jerub­baal) : One of the " Judges of Israel." He was a son of Joash, and one of the great liberators of Israel. He made an end of the predatory excur­sions of the Midianites, who, like modern Arabs, regularly invaded the country before the harvest and carried away the produce. Judges vi.‑viii. gives in detail his call in his native city Ophrah (the modern Far'ata, southwest from Nablus?), his experience, his preparation for the fight, his vic­tory gained with help of a small band by surprising the enemy, his pursuit of the enemy over the Jor­dan and his second victory over the Midianite kings. On theocratic principles he refused the royal crown offered to him, a fact apparently confirmed by the ancient parable of Jotham. With the booty he made an ephod (Yahweh‑image or oracle‑dress, see Eraon), which according to the narrator caused the destruction of his house, through his son Abime­lech, who killed the seventy sons of Gideon after the father's death. The name Jerubbaal is ex­plained from a national standpoint vi. 31‑32. Robertson Smith reads the verse differently (Rel. of Sem., pp. 162‑163) as " the man who wars with Baal (provided Baal is a god) must die before (the next) morning." There are Arabic parallels for this. Originally the name may have meant: " Great or strong is the Lord (Yahweh or Baal?)." In order not to mention Baal, the name was after­ward called Jerubboaheth (II Sam. xi. 21).

In this narrative Gideon appears a hero of royal stature, devoted to his people, of bold, enduring fortitude and yet humble before God and free from vain ambition before men. Criticism has made it probable that the narrative which treats of him is a composite from different sources and contains besides the interpolations of the Deuteronomic redactor and later additions. Distinction is made between two main sources which the redactor of the book combined. To one narrative belong the history of Abimelech (chap. ix.) and viii. 4‑21 (ex­cept the numbers in v. 10); and to the other (esti­mated as somewhat later) belong vi. 2‑6a, 13‑25; viii. 1‑3, 24‑27a. The section attributed to the first can not be an older version of the events recorded vi. 2‑viii. 3. One would rather suppose that the stories of two campaigns of Gideon, a west­Jordanic and East‑Jordanic, are united in the pres­ent narrative. .Since in both narratives the house of Abiezer is especially mentioned, Studer and Well­hausen have supposed that the campaign of Gideon according to the original record was undertaken as a family blood‑feud (viii. 18‑19), whereas the rein­forcements of, the other tribes and the lessening of the force to 300 are later additions. But the char­acteristic narratives vii. 1 sqq. are certainly not by the redactor, and seem to, have good parentage. While the religious motive appears in these narra­tives, there is no reason for regarding them as much later than the time they treat. That Gideon's achievement was regarded as memorable and as one of God's greatest deeds of deliverance is' shown by Iaa. IX. 4, X. 26; Pa, 1XXXIIi. 11. C. VON ORELLI.



BIBLIOGRAPHY: The sections in the accounts of the history of Israel as given under AHAB, the appropriate sections in the commentaries on Judges (see JUDGES), especially those by Bertheau, Budde and Moore, and DB, ii. 171‑172; EB, ii. 1719‑22; JE, v. 880‑662; R. Bittel, Studien sur hebrdischen Archdologie, i. 97‑104, Leipsie, 1908.
GIESEBRECHT, gi"ze‑brest, FRIEDRICH WIL­HELM KARL: German Protestant; b. at Kon­topp (50 m. s.w. of Posen) July 30, 1852. He stud­ied in Erlangen and Halle (Ph.D., 1876), and from 1876 to 1879 was in charge of the courses in Old Testament exegesis end adjunct at the royal semi­nary for canons at Berlin. In 1879 he became privat­docent at Greifswald, and was appointed associate professor of Old Testament exegesis in the same university in 1883. In 1895 he was made honorary professor there, and since 1898 has been professor of the same subject at K6nigsberg. He has written Die hebrdische Prdposition Lamed (Halls, 1876); Der Wendepunkt des Buches Hiob (Berlin, 1879); Beitrage zur Jesaia‑Kritik (GSttingen, 1890); Das Buch Jeremias iibersetzt and erkldrt (1893); Die Berufsbegabung der alttestamentlichen Propheten (1897); Die Geschichtlichkeit des Sinatbundes (Konigaberg, 1900); Die alttestamentliche Schdtz­ung des Gottesnamens (1901); Der " Knecht Jah­ves " des Deuterojesaia (1902); Friede fur Babel and Bibel (1903); Grundzuge der israelitischen Religions­geschichte (Leipsie, 1904); Die Metrik Jeremias (Got­tingen, 1905); and commentary on Jeremiah in Hand‑Kommenlar zum Allen Testament (1907).

Church historian; b. at Petershagen (on the Weser, 35 m. w. of Hanover), Prussia, Mar. 3, 1792; d. at Gottingen July 8, 1854. He attended the Latin school of the Orphans' House at Halle and the University of Halle. In 1812 he became collabora­tor in the Latin school, but the following year joined the German army at the outbreak of the war of liberation. In 1814 lie resumed his activity as teacher, in 1817 he became doctor of philosophy and conrector at the gymnasium of Minden, 1818 director of the gymnasitun at Cleves, and 1819 professor of theology at Bonn. In 1831 he went to Gottingen where he showed administrative talents besides ability as scholar and teacher. His lectures treated church history, history of dogma and dogmatics. Several times he was prorector of the university, he served on different commissions, and was member of the Gbttinger Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften; as curator of the orphans' home, he dispiayed much practical benevolence, and he was an active freemason. His principal work is his Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, one of the most remarkable productions of German learning, dis­tinguished by erudition, accuracy, and careful selec­tion of passages from the sources, given in foot­notes. The first volume appeared at Darmstadt in 1824; the fifth and last, containing his lectures, and treating the period after 1814, at Bonn, 1857. An English translation from the earlier editions by F. Cunningham, was published at Philadelphia in three volumes, in 1836; another, from the last edition by S. Davidson, in five volumes at Edin­burgh, 1848‑56 (revised and edited by H. B. Smith and Mary A. Robinson, New York, 1857‑81). The

work is characterized by the fundamental principle that every age or period can be understood only in so far as we allow it to speak for itself; the chief task of the historian is to judge objectively and from the sources. His main strength lies therefore in the careful observation of details rather than in a grasp of the unity of events. His standpoint has been characterized as that of a historico‑critical rationalism. Of his other writings may be men­tioned: Versuch fiber die Entstehung and die fruhes­ten Schicksale der achriftlichen Evangelien (Leipsie, 1818), against the hypothesis of a primal Aramaic Urevangelium; Ueber den Reichstag zu Augsburg im Jahre 1630 (Hamburg, 1821); Symbolce ad historiam monasterii Lacensis (Bonn,, 1826); an edition of the history of the Manicheans of Petrus Siculus (Got­tingen, 1846) and other works devoted to ancient or medieval church history. He treated of modern church history in Riickblick auf die theologischen Richtungen der letzten fiinfzig Jahre (Gottingen, 1837), and Ueber die Lehninsche Weissagung (1849). (N. BONwETSCH.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A sketch of Gieseler's life by E. R. Reepen­ning is in the last vol. of the Kirchengeschichte, and such a sketch is in vol. i. of the AIn. ed., New York, 1868. Consult: F. Oesterley, Geschichte der UniversitXat Gottingen, pp. 410 aqq., GAttingen, 1838; ADB, ix. 163 sqq.

GIFFORD LECTURES: One of the most im­portant lectureships yet created. Its founder was Adam, Lord Gifford of Edinburgh (d. 1887), an able Scotch jurist and judge of the Court of Sessions, noted not only for his knowledge of jurisprudence, but also for his interest in literature and philosophy. By his will, recorded in the year of his death, the sum of £80,000 was bequeathed, to found a lecture­ship in Natural Theology at each of the Scotch universities, £25,000 going to Edinburgh, £20,000 each to Glasgow and Aberdeen, and £15,000 to St. Andrews. The terms of the foundation are note­worthy in that the lectures " may be of any relig­ion or way of thinking, or (as is sometimes said) they may be of no religion, or they may be so‑called skeptics or agnostics, or freethinkers." The sole qualification is ability to deal as specialists in Natural Theology in the widest sense of the term as a " strictly natural science." The freest re­search is allowed, without regard to tradition or established belief. The first lectures were delivered at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and St. Andrews in 1888, and at Aberdeen in 1889. Some of the most noted scholars of the century have taught on this foun­dation, among them John and Edward Caird and Andrew Lang of Scotland, F. Max Miiller and E. B. Tylor of England, Otto Pfleiderer of Germany, C. P. Tiele of Holland, Emile Boutroux of France, R. A. Lanciani of Italy, and Josiah Royce of the United States. A full list of the lecturers and their subjects up to 1906 is given in L. H. Jordan, Com­parative Religion, pp. 570‑571, New York, 1905.
GIFFTHEIL, gift'hail. LUDWIG FRIEDRICH: An enthusiast of the seventeenth century; d. at Amsterdam 1661. He was the son of an abbot in Wurttemberg, and became noted for his fanatical declamations against the established Church. His literary activity belongs to the period of the Thirty



Years' War. He stood in connection with Fried­

rich Breckling (q.v.) and other persons of the same

description, published letters of warning to the

rulers of Saxony and Brandenburg, Denmark and

Sweden, England and Holland, Spain and France,

and to Cromwell, whom he styled " field‑marshal

of the devil," while he called himself commander‑in

chief of the Lord Sabaoth. He published many

works in Latin, German, English, and Dutch, which,

like his actions, betray a passionate and vehement

temperament. (F. W. DIRELlus.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Arnold, Unparteiische Kirchen‑ and Ketzer‑Hiatorie, iii., chap. x.; iv., sect. iii., no. 18, 4 vols.. Frankfort, 1700‑15.


GILBERT, gil'bert, GEORGE HOLLEY: Con­gregationalist; b. at Cavendish, Vt., Nov. 4, 1854. He was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1878, Union Theological Seminary in 1883, and the Uni­versity of Leipsic (Ph.D., 1885). He was profes­sor of New Testament literature in Chicago Theo­logical Seminary 1886‑1901. He has written The Poetry of Job (Chicago, 1888); The Student's Life of Jesus (New York, 1899); The Student's Life of Paul (1899); The Revelation of Jesus (1900); The First Interpreters of Jesus (1901); A Pr~imerof the Christian Religion (1902); and A History of the Apostolic Age (Chicago, 1906).

GILBERT, zhil"bar', DE LA PORREE, por"r"e' (Gilbertus Porretanus): Bishop of Poitiers; b. at Poitiers 1070; d. there Sept. 4, 1154. He studied in the episcopal school of Poitiers, then in Chartres un­der Bernard of Chartres, whose realistic Platonism he appropriated. In Paris he heard first William of Champesux, then his pupil and opponent Abe­lard, in Laon the famous theologians Anselm and Radulf. In knowledge he stood far above the average of the scholarship of his time. From 1125 to 1136 he was chancellor and presiding officer in the cathedral school in Chartres; in 1137 he be­came teacher of dialectics and theology in Paris; in 1141 he removed to his native city as leader of the episcopal school, and in 1142 he became also bishop. Two zealous archdeacons of his church denounced him in Rome for heresies in regard to the Trinity, and Bernard of Clairvaux became one of his chief opponents. Pope Eugenius III. post­poned the decision to a council to be held in Reims in 1148. Gilbert was asked to furnish an authentic copy of his commentary on the De trinitate of Boetius. There were extracted from it four assail­able sentences for the council at Reims, according to which he taught (1) that the divine essence was not God; (2) that the attributes of thepersons were not the persons themselves; (3) that the t.heo­logicai persons could not be predicated in any proposition (it would be wrong to say, for instance, that God is the Father); (4) that the divine nature was not incarnated. In knowledge of the Fathers and in dialectics Gilbert was far superior to his opponents, also to Bernard. The latter set up a confession of faith in opposition to Gilbert, but the cardinals .were against him. Bernard had to humble himself, although the pope approved his confession in a general way. Gilbert agreed to

purify his manuscripts from errors, and after reconciliation with his opponents returned to Poitiers where he administered his diocese until his end, much respected as a teacher; but he does not seem to have corrected his book. Gilbert's philosophy is a consistent realism, combined with the dialectic method of Aristotle. To the mystics he naturally appeared as the champion of a dan­gerous rationalism. Walter of St. Victor called him one of the "four labyrinths of France." But the earnest and solid character of the man, his devotion to the Church, and his personal piety are a guaranty that his doctrine and activity were not destructive although he asserted the right to lib­erty of scientific investigation. (R. SCHMIDt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Gilbert's Commentary on the writings of Boetius are in MPL, lxiv., his Principia and three letters are in MPL, clxxxviii. The writings of Gaufredus, secre­tary to Bernard of Clairvaux against Gilbert are in MPL, elxxxv. Consult: Otto of Freising, Gestorum Friderici I. libri, book i., chaps. 48, 50‑61, in MGH, Script., xx (1868), 338‑491; Histoire litteraire de la France, vol. xii.; Ber­thaud, Gilbert de la Porrge . . et sa philosophie, Paris, 1892; Ceillier, Auteurs eacr6a, xiv. 342 aqq., 1119‑20, x. 654‑666; KL, v. 599‑601.

GILBERT, gil'bert (GUILBERT), SAINT, OF SEMPRINGHAM: Founder of the order of Gil­bertines, or Sempringham Canons (Ordo Gilber­tinorum canonicorum, Ordo Sempwingensis); b. at Sempringham (20 m. s.s.e. of Lincoln), Lincoln­shire, England, about 1083; d. there Feb. 4, 1189. He was educated at Paris, and after being ordained to the priesthood in 1123 became parish priest at Sempringham and Tyrington. In 1135 he founded a house for seven destitute girls, who lived in strict seclusion, and after several other houses of the same type had been established, he requested Pope Fugene VII. to unite his foundations with the Cis­tercian order. The pope declined, however, and Gilbert then built houses for canons near the nun­neries, separating the two with the utmost strict­ness. The canons were placed under the rule of St. Augustine, and the nuns under that of St. Bene­dict, but while the control of the entire community was vested in the hands of the monks, the nuns were regarded as owning the property of the order. To all the houses, which soon contained 2,200 monks and several thousand nuns, were attached almshouses, hospitals, orphanages, and similar institutions. Gilbert reached the age of 106 years, and was canonized by Innocent III. in 1202. The order of Gilbertines was suppressed by Henry VIII., after it had come to number twenty‑two double convents. It never spread outside of England. In its system of double convents the order offers a partial parallel to the order of Fontevraud (q.v.), while the employment of lay brothers to attend the monks and of lay sisters to attend the nuns recalls the religio quadrata of Cluny. (O. ZOCKLERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources: The authoritative life, by a mem­ber of his order, is in W. Dugdale, Monaslicon Anglicanurn, vol. vi., pp. i.‑xcix. following p. 945 in the ed. of London, 1817; two shorter lives are in ASB, Feb., i. 567‑573; Walter Mapes, De nugis curialium distinctions#, ed. T Wright for the Camden Society, London, 1850; Ralph de Diceto, Opera historica, ed. 1V. Stubbs, no. 68 of Rolls Series, 1876; the works of St. Bernard of Clairvaux (q.v.). Consult: Helyot, Ordres monastiques, ii. 188 sqq.; A. Butler, Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, Feb. 4th; DNB, xxi.

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