1890; A. FIarnsck, in Ze%tachritt fib' Theologee and R%rche, i (1891), 82 eq4.; F. E. KBnig. Der Glaubensattt der Christen, Leipeie, 1891; P. Strutt, The Nature of Faith, London, 1891; J. KBatlin, Die Beprilndung unserer eittlichreLipi6am Ueberaeu9unp, Berlin 1893; %dem, Der Glauba and seine Bedeutunp far Erkenntnias. Len and Kirehe, ib. 1895; J. Hauseleiter, Greifawalder 9tudien, pp.. 159 eqq., Greifewald, 1895; K. Thieme, Die aitUiehe Trieblcraft des GlaTbe"s• Leipeic, 1895; G. Vorbrodt, Pattchohgie des Glaubena, GSttingen, 1895; M KBhler, Der sopenannte hiatoriache Jesus and der gesehichtliche, bablieeha Jesus, Leipaie, 1898; F. Sieffert, Die neueaten theolopiachen Forachunpen caber Busse and Gfaube. Berlin, 1898; W. James, The Will to Believe, New York. 1897; M. Reiaehle, in Zeitachritt far Theolopie and Kirchs, vi (1897), iii.: idem, Christliche Glaubenalehre, Halls, 1902; W. Bright, The Latu of Faith , London, 1899; G. A. Gordon, Ultimate Conceptions of Faith, Boston, 1903; A. C. A. Hall. Relations of Faith and Life, London, 1905; W. Schmidt, Moderns Theotopie des alten Glaubsne, GOtersloh, 1908; and the literature under DOGMA, DOGIaAT1Ca.
FAITH, RULE OF. See REGULA FIDEL
FAKIR. See HINDUIBM, I, § I.
FALASHAS. See ABYSaINIA AND THE ABY6BINIAN CHURCH, §§ 1, 7.
FALCONER, ROBERT ALEXANDER: Presbyterian; b. at.Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Feb. 10, 1867. He studied in London (B.A., 1883), Edinburgh (M.A., 1889; B.D., 1892), Berlin,. Leipaic, and Marburg, and since 1892 has been connected with the Presbyterian College, Halifax, Nova Scotia,
as lecturer in New Testament exegesis (1892‑95), professor of the same subject (1895‑1904) and principal (since 1904). He has written The Truth of the Apostolic Gospel (New York, 1904).
FALCOftIO, DIOMEDE: Roman Catholic arch‑
bishop and apostolic delegate; b. at Pesctxostanzo (73 m. n. of Naples), Italy, Sept. 20, 1842. He entered the Franciscan Order in 1880, and five years later was sent to the United States as missionary. In 1868 he was ordained priest, and was professor of philosophy and vice‑president of St. Bonaventure's College, Allegheny, Pa. (1866), professor of theology and secretary of the Franciscan Province of the Immaculate Conception (1867), and president of the College and Seminary of St. Bonaventure (1868‑71). He was secretary and administrator of the cathedral at Harbor Grace, N. F., 1871‑82, and after a year in the United States returned to Italy and was elected provincial of the Franciscans in the Abruzzi. He was later reelected, and in 1888 was commissary and visitor‑general for the province of Puglia, becoming in 1889 synodal examiner for the diocese of Aquila and commissary and visitor‑general for the
Franciscan province of Puglia. He was procurator‑general of his order and visitor‑general in various Franciscan provinces from 1889 to 1892, when he was consecrated titular bishop of Lacedonia, being elevated, three years later, to be arch‑
bishop of Acerenza and Maters in Basilicata. He was Apostolic Delegate to Canada 1899‑1902, and since 1902 has been apostolic delegate to the United States.
FALK, f81k, JOHANNES DANIEL:German philanthropist‑ b. at Danzig Oct. 28, 1768; d. at Weimar Feb. 14, 1826. He was the son of a wigmaker who belonged to the • eformed Church, and
271 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Faith
received but a limited education, until, by the intervention of friends and relatives, he was allowed to study music, and to take part in the musical entertainments in the Catholic Church. In his home he had the opportunity of learning French, which he gradually supplemented by a knowledge of English. In 1787 he was awarded a stipend which enabled him to pursue the study of theology at the University of Halle, but gradually he forsook theology for philology and literature. Filled with plans for a literary career, he settled in Weimar, and was cordially received by Wieland, Goethe, and Herder. Falk's trend was essentially satiric, and he accordingly began to criticize the weaknesses and inconsistencies manifested by the social and poetical conditions of his time. The events which were then agitating Germany finally caused Falk to become more practical in his tendencies, and in 1806 he began the publication of a periodical instead of the belletristic Taschenb4cher. The main title of this journal Elysium and Tartarus, was still reminiscent of his former tendency, but its subtitle, Zeitung fur Poesie, Kunst and Zeitgeschichte, revealed a new interest in life. On account of its freedom of expression, however, the periodical was suppressed before the battle of Jena (Oct. 14, 1806).
This conflict marked a turning‑point in Falk's career. The French commission chose him as a mediator between itself and the populace, and in this position he was enabled to prevent many an injustice and to alleviate much suffering. In recognition of his services the grand duke of Weimar created him a Legationsrat, while the people honored him with the title of " the benevolent councilor." The war claimed still other services from him. Many orphaned children sought refuge with him, and he took them into his home in the place of his own children, who had fallen victims in the struggle. Together with Horn of Weimar he founded Die Gesellschaft der Freunde in der Not (The Society of Friends in Need), and remained its moving spirit. This society assumed the task of distributing the orphaned children in the homes of citizens, although Falk made it a rule to keep some of them in his house until he could form an idea of their capabilities, while a teacher's training was given those who showed an aptitude for learning.
Falk shared with Fmncke the pedagogic tendency to make confidence in God the center and aim of all activity; not in the punctilious spirit of Pietism, but with freedom and joy. His lofty ideals savor of Pestalozzi in his insistence on the close companionship of teacher and pupil. The beautiful songs, such as 0 du frohliche and Was kann schoner sewn, which he wrote among and for the children, form a fitting close to his literary career. Although devoid of essentially religious training, and lacking denominational character, Falk's activity, a precursor of Reinthaler's Martinatift at Erfurt and Wichern's Rauhes Haus at Horn, may he said to have been a forerunner not only of educational societies, but also of home missions. This view was voiced by himself when he said, " The chief aim pursued by our society for eleven years
seems a form of missionary work, a saving of souls, a conversion of heathen; not in Asia or Africa, but in our own midst, in Saxony and in Prussia "; and he himself characterizes the great turning‑point in his life in the following words: " I was one of a thousand scamps in German literature, who thought that they served the world if they sat at their desks, yet by the grace of God I was not, like the rest, made into writing paper, but was used as lint, and placed in the open wounds of the age. So they tear me and pluck me the whole day long. for the wound is deep, and they use me to stanch it as long as a shred is left of me."
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Rosalie Falk, Erdnnerungabltitkr, Weimar, 1868; W. Heinselmann, J. Falk and die Gesellseha ft der Freunde do der Nofh, Brandenburg, 1879; Daa Leben des Johannes Falk, Hamburg, 1892; W. Baur, Geschiehtaund Lebenebilder Gus der Erneuerung des religi66aen Lebene, p. 223, ib. 1893; P. Wurster, Die Lehre von'der Inneren Mission, p. 32, Berlin, 1895; ADB, vi. 549.
FALKENBERG, JOHANNES: Dominican, professor of theology at Cracow; d. at Liegnitz (40 m. w.n.w. of Breslau), Silesia, after 1438. In the light of his writings thus far published and what has been published about him, he is noteworthy only on account of the accusation brought against him by the Polish delegation to the Council of Constance. Commissioned by the Teutonic Order, with which Poland was then waging a hot contest for its existence, he had written an impassioned tract against the Polish king, to the effect that as the king had supported infidels in warfare against believers, he was himself to be treated as an unbeliever. After Martin V. had occupied the " orphaned " see of St. Peter, . the Polish envoys succeeded by brutal proceedings, in bringing Falkenberg to trial. By the condemnation of Falkenberg, which was pronounced secretly as early as May 14, 1418, the pope secured, in Jan., 1424, the Polish support against a new council. Fadkenberg was then set free, and after still plying his envenomed pen against the Teutonic Order, which had not rewarded him to his satisfaction, he is supposed to have died on the way home.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: sources are certain of his tracts in Gersonai Opera, ad. Du Pin v. 1020‑29, Antwerp, 1706; Monuments . . ree geatas Polonix illustrantia, viii (1883), no. 581, xii (1891), 113, 170‑174. Consult B. Bees, in ZKG, xvi (1892), part 3.
FALK LAWS. See ULTRAMONTANIsM.
FALL OF MAN. See SiN.
FALLOWS, SAMUEL: Reformed Episcopal bishop; b. at Pendleton (a suburb of Manchester), Lancashire, England, Dec. 13, 1835. He emigrated to the United States at the age of thirteen and was graduated at the University of Wisconsin in 1859.
He was vice‑president of Galesville University, Galesville, Wis., in 1859‑61 and a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1859 to 1875. He served in the Union army during the Civil War, and was promoted colonel and brevet brigadiergeneral. After the cessation of hostilities he was pastor of a Methodist church in Milwaukee. He was a regent of the University of Wisconsin 18661874 and state superintendent of public instruction
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 272
youth to be the prophet to prepare the way for the approaching end of time. In this period he began to commit his revelations to writing, and for twenty years (1540‑ 60), Emden was the center both of his mercantile activity and his religious propaganda, while he journeyed throughout Holland and Flanders, and also visited Paris and London. To this period belong the majority of his stings, of which the most important were Den Spegel der Gherechticheit, dorch den Geist der
.,rgodeden M6nseh H. N. uth
de hemmelische Warheit betilget, and Evangelium
offte sine frqlicke Bodeschop des Rycke godes uncle
Christi (Eng. transl., An Introduction to the Under
standing o f the Glasse o f Righteousness, by C. Vittell,
1575 [?J). Most of these works were printed secretly,
but, as is now certain, partly by the press of the
sibly a strict Roman Catholic, his works being dis
seminated by his closest disciples, while he him
self established his Familia caritatis at Emden.
This was essentially a community of mystic . indifferentism, only loosely connected with historic
Christianity. While the teachings Doctrines of the Bible and the Church were of the not denied, they were practically
Familists. ignored, being regarded either as a
mere preparation for the age of love, or being reduced to allegories. The basis of the system is a mystic pantheism, which explains how Niclaes could believe that God and Christ had become incarnate in himself, although others also might thus partake of God. On the other hand, the self‑consciousness of the founder, who did not hesitate to term himself an incarnation of God or Christ, often defeated the logical consequences of pantheism; and the organization of the sect, with its twenty‑four elders, archbishops, four classes of priests, and "supreme bishop," was entirely monarchical. A centralized administration was necessitated, moreover, by the complicated system of priests professing poverty, a community giving tithes, and an involved law of inheritance. There is no reason to suppose, however, that Niclaes was a conscious hypocrite, although his mysticism of love had an antinomian tendency, and both the organization of the sect and many practises of the community were not free from peril. The propaganda of Niclass did not escape the notice of the authorities of Emden. Niclaes himself escaped in 1560, before proceedings could be taken against him, and lived the life of a refugee for several years, residing successively at Kampen, Utrecht, probably again in England, and, after 1570 in Cologne. He seems to have died in 1580, the year in which appeared his Terra Paris, Ware Getfgenisse van idt geistelick Landachop des Fredes (Eng. transl., Terra Paeia. A True Testifieation of the Spirituall Lande of Promyse, 1575 [?]). His success on the Continent had been comparatively slight. At the time of his death he had disciples in Amsterdam, Antwerp, Dort, Kampen,
for Wisconsin 1870‑74. In 1874‑75 he' was presi dent of Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Ill., but in 1875 withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church for the Reformed Episcopal denomination. Since 1875 he has been rector of St. Paul's Reformed Episcopal Church, Chicago, and has been a bishop of the Church since 1876. Iie has been elected presiding bishop seven times. In 1876 he founded the Reformed Episcopal Appeal, which he edited for four years. Among his writings mention may be made of Bright and Happy Homes (Chicago, 1877); The Home Beyond (1879); Past Noon (Cincinnati, O., 1886); The Bile Looking Glass (Naperville, Ill., 1898); Popular and Critical Biblical Dictionary (Chicago, 1901); and Christian Philosophy (1905.)
FAMU.IAR SPIRIT.See DivnJeTTON, ~ 1.
gAMILIARES; A term applied to domestic
servants or craftsmen employed in the service of a monastery, who, without being either monks or lay brothers, were considered as belonging in a sense to the order, and were thus required to join in certain religious exercises.
FAXELIARITAS (coMMENSALTTIUM):In canon law, a term describing one of the grounds on which a bishop may ordain a man who dote not strictly belong to his diocese. It is not required that the candidate shall have literally lived in the bishop's house and sat at his table, but he must have received his support from the bishop's personal funds, and have been for three years in such dose communication with the bishop that the latter shall have had full opportunity to acquaint himself with his character. A benefice must also be provided for him by the bishop within a month after his ordination.
FA>IHLI6TS (Family of Love; Huia der Liefde; Familia caritatis) : A short‑lived religious community, founded in Emden, East Friesland, about 1540 by Hendrik Niclaes, or Niclas, and exercising a certain amount of influence in the The religious confusion of the later Eng‑
Founder. fish Revolution, as well as in the Phila
delphian Society of Jane Lead (q.v.).
Horn of Roman Catholic parentage on Jan. 9 or 10,
1502 or 1501,, possibly at Munster, Niclaes spent
the first twenty‑nine years of his life in his native
Niclaes' faithless disciple Hendrik Jansen of Barreveldt, writing under the pseudonym of Hiel, long survived his teacher. Of his The life little is known, although in his
Successor later years he himself says that he
of Niclaes. led the life of a wanderer. He was
closely associated with Plantin and
his family, who printed the greater part of his
writings, his chief work being Het Boeck tier Ghs
tuygenissen van den verborgen Ackersehat, published
by Plantin at Antwerp in Flemish and French about
1580. Hiel discarded the hierarchic and ceremonial
traditions of his master, and declared all external
worship a matter of indifference, thus rendering it
possible for the famous Antwerp printer to remain
formally in the Roman Catholic Church, and to
belong to the Spanish Catholic party despite his
sympathy with the Familists. (F. Loose.)
Btataomsrax: The fundamental work for a study of Nielsee and his sect is F. Nippold, HeinrisA Niches and
das Haus tier Liebe, in ZHT, xxxii (1862), 323102, 473IV.‑18
b83, which uses original and newly discovered sources, all of which and others are noted by J. H. Hemels, Notes and Quoin, OcL‑Nov., 1869. The article in DNB, xl 427‑431 is exceedingly valuable. Consult further: O. Arnold, Kircken‑ snl %treNHistorie, ii. 123 sqq 4 vole., Frankfort, 1700‑15; C. A.,Tiele, Chrietophs Piantin et le aedaire mystique Henrik Niches, in Le Bibliophile Beige, iii (1868), 121‑138 (noes original sources partly the same as. Nippold's, ut sup.); M. Rooms, Ckrietophe Planks, pp. 441 ,sqq.. Antwerp, 1882 (seta forth Plantin'e relation to Niches and the sect); A. J. van tier As, Biopraphisrh Woordenboek tier Nederlanden, xiii. 177‑185, Haarlem, 1868; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Bade, Heresies, . .. , pp. 158‑160, Philadelphia, 1874 (useful for referenoee to books treating of the sect in England).
FAMILY AND MARRIAGE RELkTION3,
Patriarohsl.Conetitution of the Family (1 1). Marriage Effected by Purchase (1 2)•
The Wife's Property Rights (1 3).
Polygamy the Rule (1 4).
Tendency toward Monogamy (1 5).
Ethical and Social Limitations and Preferences (16). Divorce (§ 7).
Legal Status of Woman (1 8).
Social Position of Woman (¢ 9). Wedding Customs (1 10).
Legal Position of the Widow (¢ 11). The'Levirate (1 12).
Desire for Children (1 13). Customs at Birth (1 14).
Legal Statue and Training of Children (1 15). Position of the First‑born (1 16).
In historical times the Israelite family was patriarchal, i.e., kinship, tribal affinity, and inheritance were determined by descent from the father; though there was a time when matriarchy existed among the Semites, these relations then being determined by the mother. And it must be admitted :. Patri‑ that among the Hebrews traces are archal Con‑ found of former matriarchal constitution of ditions, e.g., the position occupied by the Family. such women as Leah, Rachel, Bilhah, Zilpah, Keturah, and Hagar. Expressions found in Gen. x1ii. 38, xliii. 29, xliv. 20 (of. Judges ix. 2) show how long the feeling persisted that relationship was determined by the mother. Descent from the same mother but not from the father formed a barrier to marriage. This is shown by marriage with half‑sister, stepmother, and daughter‑in‑law, a practise which continued till the exile (Ezek. xxii. 10‑11). Characteristics of the matriarchy were: derivation of name from the mother (Gen. xxx. 3), inheritance through her (Gen. xxi. 10), marriage of the girl through the brother's'initiative (not the father's; Gen. xxiv.; only in verse 50 is Bethuel's name added), and marriage of the man into the family of the wife (Gen. xxiv. 5; Judges xiv., xv. 2).
Marriage was effected by purchase. The legal relation was founded upon an engagement acxomplished by the payment of purchase‑money. The engaged girl became the property of the man, and in case of rape or infidelity was treated as a married woman. Written marriage‑contracts, 2. Marriage which were customary among the anEffected by cient Babylonians (Code o/ HamrmtPurchase. rabi, § 128), are not mentioned until a late period (Tobit vii. 14). The father received the purchase‑money; but in course of time this custom changed and a part of the