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ever, was the theory and history of music, and he enriched this field of literature with many valuable works: De canto et muaica sacra (2 vole., St. Blasien, 1774); Monuments veteris liturgice A'Iemannicee (2 vole., 1777‑79); and Scriptures eccleaiaatici de muaica sacra (3 vole., 1784). He wrote also several theological and ascetical treatises, one of which was directed against Jansenism.

(K. KL$PFELt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Bader, Fitrsfaht Martin Gerbert van St. Biaeien, Freiburg, 1875; RL, v. 363‑3b8; ADB, viii. 725.

GERDES, gRr'dea, DANIEL: Professor of dog­

matics and church history at the University of

Groningen; b. at Bremen Apr. 16, 1698; d. at

Groningen Feb. 11, 1765. He was the son of a

respected merchant, studied theology in his native

city and then in Utrecht under F. A. Lamps. In

1724 he became preacher at Wageningen in Hol­

land, in 1726 professor of theology in Duisburg.

From 1736 until his death he was professor at

Groningen. His extensive scholarship and, his

piety made him the mgt distinguished personal­

ity of the university. In his Doctr<:na gratice live

compendium theologize dogmaticir (Duisburg, 1734;

Groningen, 1744) he shows himself a very moderate

disciple of Cocceius. His real importance lay in

the sphere of church history. He presented the

growth of the Evangelical faith, especially of the

Reformed faith, in his Introductio in historiam

Evcangelii seculo X V I. passim per Europam renovati

doctrinaque reformatte (4 vole., Groningen, 1744­

1752) and Scrinium antiquarium live miscellanea

Groningana nova ad historiam re(ormationis ecclesi­

asticam prmcipue spedantia. (8 vole., Groningen and

Bremen, 1761‑85), and wrote also about the Refor­

mation in Italy, in the diocese of Salzburg, and in

Bremen. Many important documents are given in

these works. (E. F. KARL M~VVLLER.)

BISLIOnaAraY: A abort autobiography e:tists in his Mie­ultanea Duiaberpaneia, i. 128 eqq., 1732 eqq. E. Holle­beek treated of his life in the Preface to Gerdes, Specimen Italia reformatos, Leyden, 1765; A. J. Van der As, Bio­praphisch Woordenboek roan der Nederlanden, vii. 123 eqq.; ADB, viii. 730‑731.

GERHARD, g8r'htlrt, JOHAIf1Y: Lutheran dog­

matician; b. at Quedlinburg (34 m. n.w. of Magde­

burg), of distinguished family, Oct. 17, 1582; d. at

Jena Aug. 17, 163?. At the age of fifteen he was

afflicted with a serious illness and vowed to devote

his life to the ministry if be should recover. Johann

Arndt (q.v.), who preached at this time in Quedlin­

burg, took kindly to him and assisted

Life. him with his counsel. In 1599 he went

to the University of Wittenberg and

devoted himself to the study of philosophy and

theology. Complying with the wish of a relative

and contrary to his vow, he took up the study of

medicine, but after the death of the relative re­

sumed theology. He removed to Jena, but prof­

ited less from the lectures of the professors there

than from private study of the Bible and the Church

Fathers. In 1803 he became master of arts. At this

time the fame of the theological faculty at Marburg



attracted him thither, and Winckelmann and Ment­

zer especially influenced him. When Hesse‑Cassel,

under Landgrave Maurice, accepted the Reformed

doctrine he left Marburg and went back to Jena

hoping to become professor. But Duke Casimir

of Coburg, to whom he was highly recommended,

entrusted him with the superintendency at Held­

burg and made him doctor of theology. He was

only twenty‑four years old at this time. In 1615

the duke made him general superintendent at

Coburg, and in this position he was commissioned

to draw up a church order. His nature and talents,

however, made him long for a professor's chair, and

he received calls from different universities, but

Duke Casimir considered a theologian of Gerhard's

importance indispensable for tis realm. At last,

however, the opposition of the duke was overcome,

and in 1616 Gerhard became professor at Jena.

All the different phases of the academic teacher

seemed to find their full development in Gerhard,

and his lectures attracted crowds of students. He

loved his students, in case of sickness

His Char‑ went to their residence, and assisted

acter and them in all their troubles. His con­

Activities. temporaries considered him the great­

est theologian of his time. He re­

ceived no less than twenty‑four calls from different

universities while at Jena, but he had no reason to

leave. Although his salary was not large, he

amassed a not inconsiderable fortune from emolu­

ments accruing from his connection with princes and

noblemen, and moreover, he lived in peace with

all his colleagues. His usefulness showed itself

also in the domain of practical church work and

even of politics. The theologians of Saxony had

brought about conventions from which they hoped

to develop gradually a supreme tribunal of the

Lutheran Church at the birthplace of the Refor­

mation. Important conventions were held in 1621,

1624, 1628, and 1630, and in all of them Gerhard

held a leading position. To many princes he was

an oracle in questions of all kinds, such as the

recommendations of church or school officers,

princely match‑makings or sponsorships, arbitra­

tion in disputes, and mediation in pecuniary affairs.

Indeed, he himself sometimes gave financial aid

to princes. His health was rather delicate and

considerably affected by his numerous journeys on


In the sphere of dogmatics two works especially

made Gerhard's name famous. One of them was

the Confessio catholica, in qua doctrana catholica et

evangelica, quam ecclesiT Augustanee con(essioni

addictw prof lerttur, ex Romano‑catholicorum scrip­

torum sufragiis conftrmatur (4 parts, Frankfort

and Leipsic, 1634‑37), based upon the Catalogue

testium mritatis of Flacius. It is more compre­

hensive than its title denotes, being at the same time

an extensive apology and polemic of the Evan­

gelical creed. The first part is general

Writings. and treats the prineipia et media nos­

trtE et pontifeciw religionis. The other

three volumes treat the disputed articles of faith

in the order of Bellarmine, the controversialist par

excellence. But the chief work which established

Gerhard's theological reputation is his Loci theo‑

logici; he began this at the age of twenty‑seven and wrote the last and ninth volume in 1622. In 1657 his son, Johann Ernst, prepared a new edition, and another (22 vols.) was issued by J. F. Cotta, pro­fessor of dogmatics in Tiibingen in 1762‑89 (later eds. by E. Preuss, 33 vols., Berlin, 1863‑75; 9 vols., Leipsic, 1885), Gerhard's work is distin­guished from that of his predecessors like Chemnitz and Hutten by a certain progress in method. He made a more logical arrangement of the loci and distinguished different groups. He puts the doc­trine concerning Scripture before his system proper, because the dogma of the canon is not really an article of faith, but the basis of the articles of faith. Over against the infallibility of the pope he sets the infallibility of Scripture. But here it becomes evident that the strongest side of the orthodox faith is also its weakest side, for in order to save the authority of Scripture Gerhard had to maintain a theory of inspiration that included even the He­brew vowel points. This weak point was cleverly detected by the Jesuits. Nevertheless the work may be justly characterized as the consummation of Lutheran dogmatic theology as initiated by Melanchthon. Besides these two principal works may be mentioned an exegetical writing entitled Harnwnia cvangelistarum Chemnitio‑Lyseriana a Jo. Gerhardo continuata et iusto commer"rio allua­trata (3 parts, Jena, 1626‑27). Another produc­tion contributing to his fame was the Meditationes sacra,, which he wrote as a student in 1606. It consists of fifty‑one devotional meditations, has passed through innumerable editions, and even re­cently several translations have appeared (Fourteen Meditations, London, 1846). A work of a similar nature and similar success was his Exercitium pietatis quotidianum quadripartitum (Coburg, 1612‑15). His Schola pietatis (1622‑23) was less successful. His Enchfridion conaolatorium was translated into Ger­man and edited in 1877 by C. J. B6ttcher (Leipsic, 1877). There appeared recently (Leipsic, 1898) D. Joannis Gerhardihomilite XXXj'1, seu meditationes breves diebus dominicis atque festis accommodates e manuscriptis Gerhardinis ab illustrfssima InViotheea Gothana asservatis; primum edidit Dr. G. Berbig. In his Methodus 8tudii theologici (1620) he touched the sphere of isagogics, and emphasized especially the study of Holy Scripture.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A highly satisfactory biography of Gerhard, based upon sources, some of which are no longer acces­sible, was prepared by E. R. Fischer, Leipsic,1723, 1727. Consult: W. Gass, Geschichte der protestantischen Dopmatik, i. 246 sqq., Berlin, 1854; G. Frank, Geschichte der protes­tanti8chen Throlopie i 371 sqq. Leipsic,1862; E. Troaltsch, Yernunft and Otjenbarunp bei J. Gerhard and Mslanrhthon, G&ttingen, 1891.
GERHARDT, g&r'hdrt, PAULUS: The foremost of German hymn‑writers; b. at Grafenhainichen (10 m. s. w.of Wittenberg), Electoral Saxony, Mar. 12, 1607; d. at Liibben (40 m. s.w. of Frank­fort‑on‑the‑Oder) June 7, 1676. He studied at Wittenberg from 1628, but, probably owing to the disorders of war, it was not until 1651 that he

Gerhardt Gerlach


obtained his first charge as provost in Mittenwalde. In 1657 he was called to the church of St. Nicholas in Berlin. When the great elector of Branden­burg required that all the clergy should pledge themselves by a declaration to follow his edicts of 1662 and 1664, Gerhardt refused to sign the deo­laration (Feb., 1666) and was dismissed from his office. So far as the content of the declaration was concerned, Gerhardt could have signed it with­out hesitation. His was not a disputatious nature and he had never used contumelious expressions in his sermons, at which the declaration was specially aimed. The reason for his refusal clearly lay in the fact that he regarded the declaration as an infringe­ment upon his right to uphold his Lutheran convic­tions, his scrupulous conscience making him feel that all yielding in matters relating to the doctrines of the Reformation was wrong. For this reason he could not decide to resume his office, although his dismissal was recalled and the elector agreed that he should not sign the declaration (1667). In 1668 he was called to Lubben as archdeacon, where he spent the last seven years of a life consecrated to good works.

Gerhardt is the most gifted author of religious songs whom the German Church has ever known. In him, more than in any other, all the requisites for this style of poetry are united. He possessed a firm conviction of the objective truth of the

Christian doctrine of salvation and Gerhardt's also a genuine sentiment for all that

Hymns. is purely human; deep Christian feel‑

ing coupled with sterling good sense; and a fresh and healthy appreciation of life in nature and in mind. In addition to all this, his hymns possess a beauty of form in which the influ­ence of the progress in technique initiated by Opitz can be traced. In the history of religious poetry Gerhardt marks the beginning of a new era; with him sacred poetry assumes a strongly personal character. This was later corrupted by mystical and rationalistic tendencies, but with Gerhardt it always remained in full accord with the objective realities of religious faith. It is characteristic that out of his 120 hymns not leas than sixteen begin with " I," and of the rest more than sixty concern only his own heart and God. In the hymns of the Reformation period the Church is the exclusive subject and object of religious song and the per­sonal note is only rarely sounded. This quality of Gerhardt's hymns is, however, merely the concrete individual form in which Christian faith and Chris­tian life, a common possession of Christ's Church, find expression. As another characteristic of Ger­hardt's hymns may be noted the purely human sen­timent that animates them. He sings of summer and harvest, of travel and marriage, indeed of the whole of life in nature (cf. his hymn to summer, " Go forth, my heart, and seek for joy"). His whole view of nature, and especially of nature's accord with religious life, is absolutely unaffected and therefore harmonious. In spite of his delicacy of feeling, however, Gerhardt did not altogether escape the influence of the taste of his time; there are parts of his hymns which must to‑day be con­sidered harsh and even tasteless. Not satisfied,


however, with removing these real blemishes, the critics of a later time, in their emendations, ruth­lessly trod under foot all that was most beautiful in the garden of Gerhardt's poesy and transplanted thither their own thistles. This age has given proof of a better historical sense by turning back lovingly to the " unadulterated " Gerhardt.

Gerhardt did not himself collect or publish his hymns. Most of them appeared for the first time in Johann Criiger s Praxis pietatia melica (let and 2d eds. not known; 3d ed., Berlin, 1648). The first complete collection was the work of Johann Georg Ebeling, in ten parts, each containing twelve hymns with tunes (Frankfort‑on‑the‑Oder and Berlin, 1666 and 1667). Among later editions that of J. H. Feustking (Zerbst, 1707) deserves attention because the editor claims that he has corrected the text " according to a copy revised by the author's very hand." Of the more recent critical editions mention may be made of that by J. F. Bachmann (Berlin, 1866), and that of Karl Goedeke (Deutsche Dichter des aiebzehnlen Jahrhunderta, vol, viii., Leipsic, 1877). The best is the latest edition by August Ebeling (Hanover and Leipsic, 1898), in which for the first time the fifth edition of the Praxis pietatia melica could be used for the restoration of the text (cf. Ebeling's essay, Wo iet der Originaltext der Paul Gerhardt'achen Lieder zu findea 1 in O. Lyon's Zeib achrift /fir den deutschen Unterricht, xi., 1897, pp. 745‑783). CARL BERTHEAU.

Many of Gerhardt's hymns have been incorporated in English collections of hymns or of devotional poetry, and one of them, " O sacred Head now wounded," an adaptation of a hymn attributed to Bernard of Clairvaux (q.v.), is widely known and frequently sung. Other familiar ones begin," Ohl how shall I receive thee; " " Commit thou all thy griefs," and " Give to the winds thy fears." More than thirty of his hymns are classical. His English translators include John Wesley, Miss C. Winkworth, James W. Alexander, and John Kelly, who has furnished a complete translation, Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs (London, 1867).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The editions of the poems and hymns by J. F. Bachmann, K. Goedeke, and A. Eberling contain discussions of the fife of Gerhardt. For his life consult also: E. G. Roth, Paul Gerhardt, Leipsic, 1829; F. W. Krummacher, in Piper's Evanpeliacher Kalender, pp. 204 sqq., Berlin, 1866; E. Koch, Geachichte dea Kirchenliedes, iii. 297‑327, Stuttgart, 1867; K. Goedeke, Zur Geachichta der deutachen Dichtung, iii. 182, Dresden, 1887; ADB, viii. 774‑783; E. Achelis, in the Blatter fur Hymnolo&, 1884, pp. 51 sqq., 71 sqq. More popular lives are those by C. E. Wildenhahn, Leipsic, 1845, and A. Stein, Halle, 1897. Consult also S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, pp. 21 et passim, New York, 1886; Julian, Hymnology, pp. 409‑412. The celebration in Germany in 1907 of the 300th anniversary of Gerhardt's birth educed a number of monographs of great merit, including: P. Wernle's Paulus Gerhardt, Tfibingen, 1907; G. Kawerau's address, Halle, 1907; and H. Petrieh, Paul Gerhardt, seine Liader and seine Zeit, Giiteraloh, 1907; R. Hupfeld, Die Ethik JohannGerharda. Eir
GERHART, EMANUEL VOGEL: German Re­formed; b. at Freeburg, Pa., June 13, 1817; d. at Lancaster, Pa., May 6, 1904. He was graduated from Marshall College, Mercersburg, Pa. (A.B., 1838), and Mercersburg Theological Seminary (1841). After being pastor at Gettysburg, Pa. (1843‑49), and missionary to the German immi­grants at Cincinnati, O. (1849‑51), he was professor of theology and president of Heidelberg College, Tiffin, O. (1851‑55); and president of Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. (1855‑66), but on the reconstruction of the faculty of that institution in 1866 became vice‑president and professor of moral philosophy. In 1868 he was appointed pro­fessor of systematic and practical theology in the Reformed Church Seminary at Lancaster, Pa., and



held that position until his death. He wrote Phi­losophy and Logic (Philadelphia, 1858) and Instr:­tutes of the Christian Religion (New York, 1891). He likewise edited the bfmrceraNag Review for sev­eral years, ss well as F. A. Rauch's Inner Lie of the Christian (Philadelphia, 1858).
GERHOH, gae'hb ((krohm), OF REICHERS­BERG: Writer on church discipline; b. at Pol­ling (30 m. s.w. of Munich), Bavaria, 1093; d. at Reiohersberg (on the Inn, 40 an. s.w. of Linz), Up­per Austria, June 27, 1189. He was educated in Moaeburg, Freising, and Hiklesheim and became canon and teacher at the cathedral school in Augs­burg. Offended by the neglect of church discipline and canonical rules he retired into the monastery of Raitenbuch, but was recalled to Augsburg by Bishop Hermann. Again, however, he was offended by the worldliness in the bishop's surroundings and reentered Rsitenbuch. Bishop Conrad of Salzburg commissioned him twice to go to Rome and discuss with Honorius Ii. the discipline of the clergy. In his own monastery (Raitenbuch) his discipline was opposed, and so Cuno, the new bishop of Regens­burg, called him into his district. In 1132 after Cuno's death Conrad of Salzburg appointed him prior of the monastery of Rsichersberg on the Inn, and here Gerhoh was active until the end of him life.

This activity was twofold, pertaining to both ecclesiastical polity and dogmatics. His work and attitude toward the former was conditioned by the circumstances of the time. The disputes concern­ing Investiture (q.v.) had not yet been settled; the system of Hildebrand made progress, attacking married priests and simony in every form. Pope Gregory VIL, the promoter of strict discipline, be­came Gerhoh's Weal. It was neoesaary to put an end to the abuses practised in the dispmal of church property and to form the life of the clergy according to fixed rules, and Gerboh fought with angry seal for these ideals. He initiated his warfare about 1130 with his De adifwio Doi, then followed a treatise on the difference between secular and regu­lar clergy. But his most important work is his Inbestxgatio (1182). The first book of this work is historical, then follow discussions on theology and discipline. Gerhoh cenmlres fearlessly the barter of ecclesiastical offices and the avarice of Rome, the abuse of exemptions, the self‑enrichment of nuncios and legatee and the papal schism. Against the arrogance of the popes in usurping worldly govern­ment he maintained that popedom and empire, the two great lights, the pillars of the temple, should stand side by side without any confusion of their respective powers. This position led him to the ideal demand that the Church should be satisfied with tithes and free gifts and renounce all worldly and princely power. With growing age Gerhoh's ideals were somewhat subdued. Although he stood altogether alone in his ideals at his time, they may be regarded as a significant prophecy pointing to later times in which the separation of spiritual and worldly power has become a necessity.

Gerhoh's dogmatic activity was carried on at the time of the reaction against the French dialecticians such as Roseeliin, AbeLud and Gilbert of Poitiers, IV‑30

who in Christologiml questions were not only nomi­nalists, but often almost Nestorians by separating the natures of Christ and approaching very closely adoptionism. Representatives of this view were also in Germany, among them Bishop Eberhard of Bamberg and Provost Folmar of Triefenstein. In 1158 a conference took place in Bamberg at which Gerhoh was accused of leresy. In the first chapter of his book De gloria d honors jilii dei he defends his Christologicsl position against the attacks of Fol­mar. He calls the man Jesus also the natural and only son of God since he entered the glory of the Father. In his eternal birth he has no mother, in his temporal no father. It is on account of the danger of Nestorianism that Gerhoh clings so firmly to the glorification of the human nature in Christ. Then he refutes the objections against the unity of the divine and human nature in Christ, appealing to the Fathers, especially Hilary, Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine. In his Contra duos harem he combated the view that heretical priests could successfully bring about the transformation of the body of Christ in the mass. He held' that Christ is not locally circumscribed, that he is everywhere. The body of Christ has grown in such a way that it fills the whole universe. The bishop of Bamberg accused Gerhoh of heresy because he taught that in the Eucharist the divinity is at the same time the whole humanity. The bishop held that Christ after ascension is still a creature as man, and his reproach of Gerhoh was not without justice.

Gerhoh's path of life was troubled. At synods

and diets he was an authority on ecclesiastical law

and polity and well known at the courts of popes

and emperors; but as a dogmatician he clung so

tenaciously to his position that his opponents,

Abelard, Gilbert of Poitiers, and Peter Lombard,

had to quit the field. In later years he had to en­

counter another storm. When the emperor tried

to put an end to the schism by enforcing the se.

knowladgment of Alexander's opponent as pope,

Archbishop Conrad did not yield and war broke out

at Salzburg. Gerhoh's monastery was burned and

pillaged. (B. R,ocsofl.t.)

BIHLIO(ntAliT: His works sae in ArPL, Casiii.‑=d1r.; 8d" bibdti, ed. E. 8seknr, an in HGH, Lib. de Use, ii (1897). 131‑,625. For his life oonmle H. F. A. Nobbe, Gerhoh son ReWwrebov, fedpeie, 1881; W. Ribbedc, in PorerAunpsn sw dmfeden Gaediods, iii (1888), 3 sqq., uv (1885). 668 eqq.; HL, v. 378‑M1; Nesnder, Chris. flan CAurdr, Vol. iv passim (uses mach of fierhoh's m.R‑i.t); Moe11er, Chri.oim. Church, pp. 265, 307, 318­319, 379.

GERIZ13L See PAL88'TuJE; f3AmsarrAxs.

GERLACH, gkr'laN, OTTO YON: German tbeo­logian; b. in Berlin Apr. 12, 1801; d. there Oct. 24, 1849. Coming from a noble and influential family, he was at first intended for a political career, and took up the study of jurisprudence at Heidelberg and Gottingen. In 1820 he returned to Berlin, where he devoted himself to theology, and he studied also at the Seminary at Wittenberg, 1825‑28. in 1834 he was appointed pastor of the church of Bt. Elizabeth, near Berlin, and in 1847, court preacher. Before his appointment to a pastorate, he bad been active fn foreign missionary work, . having estab­lished (1824) the Bwrl%eer Gsadlsehaft zur Ven‑

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