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reformation. and Minden, the possibility of a consoli­

dated Roman Catholic Northwestern

Germany appeared to be once again in the course of

realization. However, the Protestant congrega­

tions everywhere struggled obstinately for their

existence; in spite of all repression, they continu­

ally increased in Cologne toward the close of the

sixteenth century; while the greatest obstacles to a

complete reaction in the electorate at large inhered

in the elector's personality. His worldly inclina­

tions were so little amenable to the desires of the

curia that even by 1588 the papal nuncio agitated

the plan of a coadjutorship. When the adminis­

tration and the finances fell into worse and worse

decline, and the elector by his ardor for the chase

and his worldly dress, his evasion of the command­

ments of the Church, and his frivolous life caused

sharper and sharper vexation, the installation of a

coadjutor was prosecuted with earnestness. In

Apr., 1595, with the elector's consent, his nephew

Duke Ferdinand of Bavaria was elected to that

office. The liquidation of accumulated debts was

now undertaken, and a visitation, with ecclesias­

tical reforms, of the entire archdiocese was ac­


But even though the electorate of Cologne and the neighboring episcopal provinces were securely annexed once more to the Roman Church, the at­tempt again to subject to the Roman Church the

entire Northwest of Germany did not succeed; for not only did the Netherland provinces, vic­torious in their battle with Spain, form a strong Protestant counterpoise, but also in the Juliers­Cleves districts, the Protestant congregations main­tained themselves notwithstanding limitations; indeed, they continually increased, insomuch that in Cleves and in the Mark they actually held the preponderance, and in 1609, when Brandenburg and Pfalz‑Neuburg assumed possession of the territories of the house of Juliers, the time of com­plete liberty was at hand for them.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. Ennen, Gesehichte der Stadt Koiln, vol. v., Cologne, 1880; M. Loosen, Der koolnische Krieg. Gotha. 1882; M. Philippson, La Contre‑R.4uolution relipieuse au zvi. si&le, Brussels, 1884; L. Keller, Die Gepenrdorma­tion in Westfalen, vol. ii., Leipsic, 1887; Unkel, in His­torischee Jahrbuch, vole. viii., x., Munich, 1887, 1889; J. Hanson, NuntiadwbericAts sue Deutschland, vol. iii., parts 1‑2, Gotha, 1892‑94; idem, Rheinische Akten our Ge­achichte des Jesuitenordena, 16.4.8‑88, ib. 1896; G. Wolf, Aus Kurk6ln in 16. Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1905.

GEBHARDT, OSKAR LEOPOLD VON : Ger­man Lutheran; b. at Wesenberg (150 m. s.e. of St. Petersburg) June 22, 1844; d. at Leipsic May 10, 1906. He studied at Dorpat, Tiibingen, Giitt­ingen, and Leipsic and was assistant in the library of Leipsic University 1875‑76, custodian and sublibrarian of the University of Halle 1876‑80, librarian of the University of G6ttingen 1880‑84. librarian of the Royal Library, Berlin, 1884‑91, and divisional director of the same institution 1891‑93. From 1893 until his death he was director of the library of the University of Leipsic. He wrote or edited Gra;cus Venetua (Leipsic, 1875); Patrum Apmtolicorum opera (3 vols., 1875‑77, in collab­oration with A. Harnack and T. Zahn; editio minor, 1877); Evangeliorum codex Grcecus pur­pureus Roasanensis (1880; in collaboration with A. Harnaek); Das New Testament griechisch each Tischendorfs letzer Recension and deutsch nach dem revidierten Luthertext (1881); Novum Testamen­tum Grace, recensionis Tischerulorfiance ultimm textus cum Tregellesiano et We8eottiano‑Hortiano coliatus (1881); The Miniatures of the Ashburnam Pentateuch (London, 1883); and Acta martyrum selects (Berlin, 1902). He was likewise the editor of the eleventh to the sixteenth edition of W. Theile's Novum Testamentum Grtece (Leipsie, 1875­1900), while with A. Harnack he established and edited the valuable Texte and Untersuahungen zur GeschicW der adtchristlichen Literatur (1882 sqq.), to which he himself contributed a number of monographs.

BxBLroaRAPHT: A memorial sketch is found in the ZeatraE­bla# fttr Bibliothekewasen, June, 1908.

GEDALIAH, ged"a‑lai'8: Son of Ahikam and grandson of Shaphan, and protector of Jeremiah from the people who sought to kill him because of his predictions against Jerusalem (Jer. xi. 5‑8, xliii. 6). He was appointed by Nebuchadrezzar governor of Judea after the fall of Jerusalem, in accordance with the custom of Eastern monarchs to leave the government of subjected lands in charge of dis­tinguished individuals of the conquered races. The selection of Gedaliah for this position may have


been determined by his attitude toward the rebel­

lion, which made him appear trustworthy to the

Babylonian overlord. It may have been through

Gedaliah that Nebuchadrezzar gave directions for

the protection of the prophet (Jer. xxxix. 11 sqq. ),

and that he was released from bonds and given his

full liberty by Nebuzaradan, the Babylonian gen­

eral (Jer. xl. 1‑6). Gedaliah fixed his residence at

hfizpah, whither Jeremiah came, and also the

representatives of the Jewish insurgents in order to

get advice of Gedaliah. His counsel was to live

quietly, since then they would be unmolested by

the Babylonians. The result was that the Jews

who had been fugitives among the neighboring

peoples returned and placed themselves under

Gedaliah's protection, and the nucleus of a new

Jewish nation was gathered. But there was an

element in the population which regarded sub­

jection and even a peaceful life under the Chaldeans

as disgraceful, and these were led by Ishmael, one of

the princes royal. He was prompted by Baalis,

king of Ammon, to kill Gedaliah. The governor

was warned of the plot by a certain Johanan, who

offered to forestall its execution by the assassina­

tion of Ishmael. Gedaliah regarded the informa­

tion as a slander and rejected the offer. Three

months after the fall of the city, Ishmael with ten

companions visited Gedaliah, was entertained by

him, and then slew him and the Jews and Chaldeans

who were of his company (Jer. x1i. 1‑3). Ishmael

slew also on the second day after a number of men

from Shechem, Shiloh, and Samaria who were

bringing gifts for the Temple, carried off as prisoners

the residents of Mizpah, and started on his journey

to Ammon. He was confronted on the way by

Johanan with a strong force, and was compelled

to abandon his prisoners and escape with a small

band to the Ammonites. (W. LOTZ.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works on the history of the period mentioned under AHAB; and ISRAEL, HISTORY OP, espe­cially Stade, f. 696‑700, Kittel, p. 33, and Kent, The Divi­ded Kingdom.
GEDDES, ged'ez, ALEXANDER: Scottish Ro­man Catholic; b. near Rathven (50 m. n.w. of Aberdeen), Banffshire, Sept. 14, 1737; d. in Lon­don Feb. 26, 1802. He studied at the Roman Catholic seminary at Scalan (1751‑58) and at the Scotch College in Paris (1758‑64). On his re­turn to Scotland he officiated as priest in the region of Angus. In 1765 he became chaplain to the earl of Traquair, and in 1769 pastor of the Roman Catholic congregation at Auchinhalrig, but was deprived of his charge in 1779 for attending a Presbyterian service. In 1780 he settled in London, where he devoted himself almost entirely to author­ship, preaching only occasionally. He published several volumes of verse, including a translation of the first book of Homer's Iliad (London, 1792), but his chief works are his translation of the Old Testament (2 vols., London, 1792‑97), complete through Chronicles; and his Critical Remarks on ;he Hebrew Scriptures (1800). He adopted the German method of rationalizing the Biblical narra­tive, thereby incurring the displeasure of both Protestants and Roman Catholics. In 1800 he was suspended from all ecclesiastical functions, and

his translation of the Bible was prohibited to the faithful. His unfinished translation of the Psalms was edited by John Disney and Charles Butler and completed from Geddes' corrections in Bishop Wilson's Bible (London, 1807). When Geddes died, mass was prohibited over his remains. It was his misfortune to be in advance of his time, and he lacked tact in presenting his views; in some points he anticipated modern scholarship, and many of his critical remarks are excellent.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Good. Memoirs of his Life and Wri­tings, London, 1803; T. K. Cheyne, Founders of Old Tes­tament Criticism, pp. 4‑11, New York, 1893; C. A. Briggs. Study of Holy Scripture, p. 282, New York, 1899, DNB, xxi. 98‑101 (where scattered notices are indicated).
GEDDES, JENNY: According to the popular story, a Scottish " herb‑woman " who instigated a riot in St. Giles's Church, Edinburgh, on Sunday, July 23, 1637. Archbishop Laud was trying to introduce the English liturgy into Scotland, and the attempt raised a storm of indignation. The dean of Edinburgh, however, made the experiment in the Cathedral Church of St. Giles, on the Sunday named, in the presence of the privy council and the city magistrates. According to the usual story, Jenny Geddes, hearing the archbishop direct the dean in finding the collect for the day, exclaimed in indignation, " Villain, dost thou say mass at my lug? " (ear), and hurled the stool upon which she had been sitting at the dean's head. This was the signal for a riot in and about the cathedral. The people shouted through the streets, " A pope, a popel Antichristl the sword of the Lord and of Gideonl " and the ultimate result was the with­drawal of the liturgy, since the outburst of popular feeling was by no means confined to Edinburgh. According to other accounts it was a woman named either Mein or Hamilton who threw the stool. The maiden name of Mrs. Mein or Mrs. Ham­ilton may have been Geddes, although the popular account represents Jenny Geddes as an old woman. Both Mrs. Mein and Mrs. Hamilton, moreover, are described as women of a social status far above that of Jenny Geddes. A herb‑woman of the same name is said to have given her stall to be burned in a bonfire at the rejoicings in honor of the corona­tion of Charles II. Other accounts of the riot of 1637 state that the name of the woman who threw the stool was not known. A folding stool, the very one used by Jenny Geddes, it is said, is ex­hibited in the National Museum of Antiquities in Edinburgh.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Burton, Hist. of Scotland, vi. 150‑152, 8 vols., London, 1873; Schaff, Creeds, i. 88; DNB, xxi. 102.

GEHENNA (" Valley of Hinnom "): Originally the name of the deep valley south of Jerusalem, later a name given to the place of torment. The full form of the name (" valley of the son of Hin­nom ") appears in II Kings xxiii. 10. Hinnom is otherwise unknown. From Old Testament ref­erences and from the accurate description of its position in Enoch xxvi. 1‑5, it is identified with the present Wadi al‑Rababah. At the end of the pre­exilic period Moloch‑worship was carried on there, and Josiah desecrated the place (II Kings xxiii. 10)



but without permanent effect (Jer. vii. 31‑32,

xix. 2‑6, xxxil. 35). Jeremiah announced that

this valley was in future to be called " valley of

slaughter," because the enemies were to kill there

the fleeing inhabitants of Jerusalem and leave

their bodies unburied (Jer. vii. 32,

In the Old xix. 6). Isa. Ixvi. 24 states that the

Testament carcasses of the men that transgressed

and shall in future be before the gates of Je­

Apocrypha. rusalem for an amazement to every one

because " their worm shall not die,

neither shall their fire be quenched." Dan. xii.

2 even goes beyond Isa. lxvi. 24, and is illustra­

ted by the contemporaneous description in Enoch

xc. 26‑27, according to which after Israel's redemp­

tion an abyss filled with fire is to be opened

south of Jerusalem, into which ungodly Israelites

are to be thrown after submitting to judgment.

According to Enoch xxvi. 1‑xxvll. 3, this very

valley of Ben‑hinnom was conceived as the place

of future judgment and punishment of impious

Israelites. Thus it became customary to call the

place of punishment of the Jewish wicked " valley

of Hinnom." The name was retained after the idea

of the place of punishment in the last day had

severed itself from thatlocalityand its connotation.

expanded to mean a place of punishment for all

men. There is no trace that the name of the Ben­

hinnom valley was transferred to the place of

punishment after death, for according to Enoch xc.

24‑25 besides the fiery abyss near Jerusalem there

was a second fiery abyss, appointed for the fallen

angels and the " shepherds of the nations." In

the second prechristian century there comes into

view a different fate of the pious and impious in

the other world, which begins after death. Enoch

xxii. 10 sqq. speaks of a twofold place for the

impious in Hades. The Apocalypse of Baruch,

xxxvi. 11, distinguishes between the (lesser) torment

of the impious before the last judgment and the

greater after it. The place of the former is called

Gehenna (xlix. 10). According to IV Ezra vii.

80‑87, the ungodly dead are in a restless state of

anxious expectation of coming torment; according

to vii. 36, the iake of torment and the oven of

Gehenna become manifest only at the end. Ac­

cording to Josephus (Ant. XVIII., i. 3; War, II., viii.

14), the Pharisees made the everlasting punishment

of the ungodly begin with their death. AS to the

locality of the place of punishment, different views

prevailed. It was easiest to seek the place of the

impious in Hades under the earth. This was the

view of the Pharisees (Josephus, Ant. XVIII., i. 3)

and of Josephus (War, III., viii. 5; cf. Enoch li. 1;

Apocalypse of Baruch xxi. 24; IV Ezra vii. 32).

According to Enoch xxii. (cf. xxi. 1, 2), this place

lies outside of heaven and earth. The place of

everlasting punishment after the last judgment

was located by the Pharisees under the earth. In

this case a connection between this place and the

Ben‑hinnom valley could easily be made by seeking

in this valley one of the gates to hell. The old no­

tion of the judgment‑place in the Ben‑hinnom

valley near Jerusalem was never completely given

up only that the locality was differently fixed.

The thoughts about the final fate of the ungodly

can be understood from Israelitic assumptions, but there can be no doubt as to foreign influences, especially Greek.

In the New Testament the Grecized form of the

word is found only in the synoptic Gospels and

Jas. iii. 6. By " Gehenna of fire " (R. V., margin,

Matt. v. 22, xviii. 9: Mark ix. 477;

In the New this " valley " is more accurately

Testament. designated. The fire is called " un­

quenchable " (Matt. iii. 12; Mark

ix. 43; Luke iii. 17) and "everlasting" (Matt.

xviii. 8, xxv. 41). It is placed in opposition to the

" dominion of God " or " eternal life " and denotes

the state which falls to the final lot of the ungodly,

and this, according to Matt. x. 28, affects both soul

and body. The fire is here to be taken literally,

whereas"the outer darkness" (Matt. vi. 23, etc.) is

figurative. The devil and his angels are appointed

for the like death by fire according to Matt. xxv. 41,

the demons according to Matt. viii. 29. The same

idea of the final destiny of the ungodly is also found

in Heb. x. 27 sqq., xii. 29, in Jude 7; and in Rev.

xix. 20, xx. 10, 14; xxi. 8. Whereas it is supposed

that death is the lot of both good and bad and the

different lot of each can show itself only in events

which do not occur at death, Paul taught that

death is the wages of sin and therefore a passing

anomaly for the righteous to which he must sub­

mit as being in the flesh, but that it is the lasting

lot of the ungodly. The Gospel and Epistles of John

speak indeed of a coming day of judgment (v. 29;

I John iv. 17) for which the unrighteous "rise,"

but in xv. 6 a punishment of apostates with fire is

mentioned figuratively only, so that it can not be

stated how the literal statement would read.


BIBLIOGRAPRY: The best single book covering the subject is R. H. Charles, Critical Hint. o/ Doctrine of a Future Life, London, 1899. For detailed study of the Jewish non‑canonical ideas consult the literature under PSEUD­EPIGRAPHA; A. Hilgenfeld, JudiscAe Apocalyptik, Jena, 1857; A. Wfinsehe, Die Vorstellungen vom Zuatande der Seele each dem Tode each Apokryphen, Talmud and Kir­chenvtitern, in JPT, vi (1880), 355‑383; J. Hamburger, Real‑Encyklopedie, ii. 1252‑57, Strelitz, 1883; A. Lowy, in PSBA, x (1888), 333‑342; D. Castelli, in JQR, i (1889), 314‑352; T. K. Cheyne, Origin and Religious Content of Psalter, pp 381‑452, London, 1891; F. Sehwally, Dae Leben nach deco Tode, pp. 142‑147, 174­177, Giessen, 1892; R. Kabiseh, Die Eschatologie des Paulus, GBttingen, 1893; E. Haupt, Die eachatologieden Aussagen Jeau, Berlin, 1895; F. Weber, JVdische Theolo­gie, pp. 341‑344, Leipsic, 1897; E. Stave;‑Ueber den Ein­tlum des Parsismus auf das Judenthum, Harlem, 1898; P. Carus, Hist. of the Devil, Chicago, 1900; H. Guthe, Kurzes BibelwOrterbuch, pp. 271‑274, Tubingen, 1903; DB, ii. 119‑120; JE, v. 582‑584. Ezra Abbot's Litera­ture of the Doctrine of a Future Life, originally appended to W. R. Alger's Hiat. of the Doctrine of a Future Life, but published separately, New York, 1871, is exhaustive for the earlier literature.
GEIBEL, gai'bl, JOHANN: German Reformed minister; b. at Hanau Apr. 1, 1776; d. at Lubeck July 25, 1853. He studied at Hanau and at Mar­burg and acted for some time as private tutor at Copenhagen. In 1797 he was called to Lubeck as vicar to Pastor Butendach, upon whose death, half a year later, he succeeded to the chief ministry, and served as such till 1847. As a preacher he was eloquent and convincing, and he exercised consid‑

erable influence outside the Reformed congregation.

With several prominent men of Ltibeck he founded

a Bible Society and a Missionary Association; and in

his own house he held Bible lectures and discussions.

In the interest of his congregation he published

various catechetical works, but only a few of his

sermons appeared in print. With the Hessian

philosopher Suabedissen, Geibel established a

school for his congregation which existed for six

years. He also served his community by arran­

ging (1824) the system of worship still in existence,

and by the introduction (1832) of the first satisfac­

tory hymn‑book of modern times. Of his published

works may be mentioned Prafet Alles and behaket

das Gute (Hamburg, 1818), five sermons " in behalf

of Evangelical liberty and truth"; and Wieder­

her8tellu.ng der ersten chrietlichen Gemeinde, von

Philalethes (1840).

GEIGER, gai'ger, ABRAHAM: German Jewish

scholar and theologian; b. at Frankfort May 24,

1810; d. at Berlin Oct. 23, 1874. He studied phi­

losophy and Oriental languages at Heidelberg and

Bonn and in 1832 became rabbi at Wiesbaden. In

the interest of the reform movement in Judaism

with other scholars, he established the Zedschrift

fur jiidische Th‑ologie in 1835. In 1838 he accepted

a call to Breslau as associate rabbi, though he had

to defend himself against the opposition of the

orthodox party. Here he founded in 1862 the Jii­

dische Zeitsraarift fair Wissenschaft and Leben (11

vole., Breslau, 1862‑74), which was written almost

entirely by himself. He was rabbi at Frankfort

from 1863 to 1870, when he became rabbi at Berlin

and professor in the newly established " Lehranstalt

fiir die Wissenschaft des Judentums." Geiger was

one of the pioneers of the reform of Judaism, in­

sisting upon a liberal interpretation in the construc­

tion and observance of the traditional Jewish law.

Of his numerous writings the most important are:

Was hat Mohammed Gus de?n Judentum aufgenom­

men p (Bonn, 1833; new ed., Leipsic, 1902), a prize

essay on the Jewish sources of the Koran; Urschrift

urul Ueberaetzurgen der Bibel in ihrer Abhdngigkeit

von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (Bres­

lau, 1857); Die Sadducder and Pharisaer (1863);

and Das Judentum and seine Gesehichte (3 vole.,

1864‑71; Eng. transl., Judaism acrd its History, vol.

i., New York and London, 1866). His son Ludwig

Geiger edited his Nachgelassene Schriften (5 vols.,

Berlin, 1875‑78).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A memoir by his eon Ludwig, A. Geiger,

Leben and Briefs, is in the Naehgelassene Schriften, vol.

v., ut sup.; E. Schreiber, A. Geiger ate Refer des

Judenthums, LSbau, 1880; JE, v. 584‑587.


lic; b. at Harting, near Regensburg, May 16, 1755;

d. at Lucerne May 8; 1843. He studied under the

Jesuits in Regensburg and the Benedictines at St.

Emmeran. In 1772 he became a novice in the

Franciscan order at Lucerne. The next year

he returned to Regensburg and he studied theology

in W tlrzburg. He was successively teacher of

Hebrew in Regensburg, privat‑docent of poetry

and rhetoric in Offenburg, professor of philosophy

at Freiburg in Switzerland, and cathedral preacher



and professor of theology in the school of his order at Solothurn. In 1792 ha was appointed professor of theology at Lucerne, the seat of the papal nuncio, and the center of Roman Catholic Switzer­land. He was opposed here on account of his original method, which was not in sympathy with scholasticism, and because in the doctrine of grace he did not follow the Jesuits. He was even accused in Rome, but the papal court took care to keep so efficient a worker.

As Theologus nuntiaturce he rendered important

services to the Roman Catholic Church. He di­

rected far‑reaching ultramontanist plans and stood

in connection with the most important leaders

of the party. In his doctrines, sermons, negotia­

tions, and treatises he concentrated all his energies

to enliven the Roman consciousness, to make

Switzerland the bulwark of ultramontanism, and

to frustrate the efforts of political and religious

liberalism. " Without pope, no Church " was for

him as much an axiom as " Without revelation, no

religion." He attacked freemasonry especially, and

in 1819 his opponents succeeded in removing him

from his chair, thereby making him a martyr and in

creasing his influence. His numerous polemical trea­

tises, notwithstanding the effect they produced, have

no scholarly value. (EMIL EGLI.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The works of Geiger were collected and published by Prof. Widmer, 8 vole., Lucerne, 1824‑39. who published also Franz Geiger, . . Laute Gus seinem Leben, ib. 1843. Consult also %L, v. 186‑188.
GEIKIIE, gf"kf', JOHN CUNNINGHAM: Church of England; b. at Edinburgh Oct. 26, 1824; d. at Bournemouth (25 m. s.w. of Southampton), Hamp­shire, Apr. 1, 1906. He studied at Queen's College, Toronto, and was ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1848. He was pastor of the Argyle Street Presbyterian Church, Halifax, N. S., 1851­1854, of the Argyle Street Chapel, Sunderland, England, 1.860‑67, and of Islington Chapel, Lon­don, 1867‑73. He then entered the Church of England and was ordered deacon in 1876 and ordained priest in 1877. He was curate of St. Peter's, Dulwich, 1876‑79, rector of Christ's Church, Neuilly, Paris, 1879‑81, vicar of St. Mary's, Barnstaple, 1882‑85, and vicar of St. Martin‑at­Palace, Norwich, 1885‑90. In 1890 he retired from the active service of the Church. In theology he adhered to the Evangelical school of the Church of England, but maintained the right to full investi­gation of all religious problems. He wrote George. Stanley : or, Life in the Woods (London, 1864); Life: A Book for a Quiet Hour (1868); Light from Beyond to Cheer the Christian Pilgrim (1872); The. Life and Words of Christ (1877); Old Testament Portraits (1878); The English Reformation (1879); Entering on Life (1879); Hours with the Bible (12 vols., 1880‑1897); The Holy land anal the Bible (1887); Short Life of Christ for Old and Young (1888); Landmarks of Old Testament History (1895); and The Vicar and his Friends (1901).
GEIL, WILLIAM EDGAR: Baptist layman; b. near Doylestown, Pa., Oct. 1, 1865. He was graduated at Lafayette College in 1890 and in 1896 spent six months in an archeological tour of Asia



Minor. Between 1901 and 1905 be traveled ex­tensively for a comparative ethnographical and missionary study of native races, and penetrated deeply into China and Africa. He has lectured in many lands on religious, historical, and scientific topics. He has written Pocket Sword (London, 1895); Laodicea (1898); The Isle That Is Called Patmos (Philadelphia, 1898); Ocean and Isle (Mel­bourne, 1902); A Yankee on the Yangtze (New York, 1904); The Man of Galilee (London, 1904); A Yankee in Pigmyland (New York, 1905); The Men on the Mount (London, 1905); and The Autornatie Calf (1905).
GEMER, gai'ler, JOHANII, OF KAISERSBERG: Roman Catholic preacher; b. at Schaffhausen Mar. 16, 1445; d. at Strasburg Mar. 10, 1510. He was educated in the elementary branches at Ammeraweier, a small town in the neighborhood of Kaisersberg in Upper Alsace, where his father was town secretary. At the age of fifteen he entered the University of Freiburg. In 1462 he was made bachelor and two years

His Life. later master of arts. As such he

lectured on Aristotle and Latin gram­

mar, and for a short time was dean of the philosoph­

ical faculty. In 1471 he went to Basel to. study

theology. After promotion he lectured on exegesis

and Peter Lombard and, in 1475, was made doc­

tor of theology. At the request of students the

town council of Freiburg induced him to return to

the university there, and according to custom he

became first rector of the university for the win­

ter term of 1476‑77. But his talents inclined him

toward the office of preacher, and Peter Schott,

Ammeister of Strasburg, prevailed upon him to

settle there, where there was a lack of good preach­

ers. With the firm determination to reform the

depraved morals of the city, he entered upon his

calling (1478) and remained at Strasburg, until

the end of his life.

He preached fearlessly and without regard of persons. At the opening of a synod convoked by Bishop Albert he censured the assembled officers for their selfishness and worldliness and demanded a reform of morals among the clergy. In the in­terest of the Church he fell into several disputes with the magistrates on account of

His Preach‑ their refusal to grant the Holy Com­ing and minion and a Christian funeral to

Reforma‑ persons condemned to death; he also

tory Efforts. made war against the tendency of civil legislators to encroach upon the liberty of citizens who intended to bequeath their property to the Church. His vehement attacks were, however, often powerless and without effect. In the same way he denounced the abuses of church life, as, for instance, the carousals and debauches at church festivals, the masquerades at the begin­ning of Lent, the pursuit of worldly business during church hours, and the sales in the vestibules of the churches. In these battles he found an almost insuperable obstacle in the tenacity with which the people held to tradition and the lenient ways followed hitherto by the clergy. Sometimes his invectives against the city council in the pulpit were so vio‑

lent that he was called to account; as an answer he published twenty‑one articles which contained his demands of reform. With the same relentless vigor he reproved abuses among the ecclesiastical classes. Many, he knew, chose the clerical pro­fession only because of their laziness. He deplored the accumulation of benefices and the preference given to noblemen irrespective of their merits. Not less fiercely he attacked the abuses in monas­teries; the sins of the rich, the degeneration in army circles, luxury in dress, fads, and immorality. It is a mistake, however, to look upon Geiler as a precursor of the .Reformation. His view of life centered in Catholicism and medievalism. In spite of his high esteem for the Bible he considered its explanation subject to the consensus of the theologians. Over against the awakening of human­ism he remained a scholastic of the old school. He commended indulgences and good works for the achievement of salvation and regarded the saints as intercessors before God.

When Count Frederick of Zollern, a devoted pupil and friend of Geiler, was chosen bishop of Augsburg, he invited his Strasburg friends, among them Geiler, to prepare him for his office. The eminent preacher accepted and preached in Augs­burg several months until he was called back by his anxious congregation. Now he devoted himself entirely to the affairs of his own town. Together with his friend Jacob Wimpfeling he tried to reform the school system; but their efforts were not success­ful and Geiler, in spite of his appreciation as preacher, came at the end of his life to the conclu­sion that a general reform of Christianity was impossible. The only achievements possible, ac­cording to him, were isolated reforms on a small scale.

Most of the literature which is considered to‑day as Geiler's production did not proceed directly from his pen. His sermons were either copied, and prepared for print, or sometimes he simply handed over his Latin notes, from which his sermons were reconstructed in German or these notes were used after his death. It will therefore always be a question how far his publications

His Ser‑ are authentic. Some of his editors

mons. are unknown; of those known may

be mentioned Jacob Otther of Speyer;

the physician Johann Adelphus Milling; Johann

Pauli, the well‑known author of the humorous

collection Schimpf and Ernst; Heinrich Wesarner;

and Peter Wickram, Geiler's . sermons lasted

usually one hour. He gave free range in the pulpit

to his talents of popular oratory in the vernacular.

and his spontaneous invention of anecdotes, com­

parisons, word plays, and proverbs give his sermons

their charm. They are either sermons on the

Gospel arranged in the form of homilies or consist

of series which are grouped around one 'common

picture. To the scholastics be owes his fondness

for analyzing his material into divisions and sub­

divisions and his tendency to quote recognized

authorities. His interest centers chiefly in the daily

happenings of public and private life. Satire and

humor are his principal weapons. He makes his

sermons interesting by striking similes which some‑



times form the central point of a long series of ser­

mons. But even when they border on the bur­

lesque he is always in earnest. It is true he some­

times goes too far in his similes and allegories, but

allegorizing was the fashion of his time and the taste

of his hearers was not refined. He rendered a great

service to the German language by using exclusively

the vernacular in his sermons and not a mixture of

Latin and German, as was the custom of his time.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Geiler's Ausgewdhlte Schriften, ed. P. de

Lorenzi (with omission of " offensive " passages), ap­

peared in four volumes at Treves, 1881‑83. The two

early works on Geiler by J. Wimpfeling (1510) and B.

Rhenanus (1513) are in J. A. von Riegger, Amlenitates

literaria Friburpenses, Ulm, 1755. Consult: L. Daeheux

(Roman Catholic), Un R6formateur catholique a la fin du

ave. sickle, Paris, 1876; C. Schmidt (Protestant), Histoire

littdraire de l'Alsace, i. 335‑461, Paris, 1879; ADB, viii.


GELASIUS, je‑16'sht‑us or g6"18‑si'us: The

name of two popes.

Gelasius I.: Pope 492‑496. He was a Roman

by birth, and entered upon his administration as

successor to Felix 111. on Mar. 1, 492. The schism

with Byzantium which had begun under Felix in

484, on occasion of the excommunication of the

Patriarch Acacius of Constantinople for his encour­

agement of the Monophysite doctrine (see FELIx

III.; MONOPHYSITEB), continued under Gelasius.

Nor was Gelasius on good terms with Odoacer, the

eastern emperor's " governor," but he got on better

with the Ostrogothic king Theodoric, who from

493 resided at Ravenna as king of Italy, and as

yet refrained from encroachments upon the province

of the Church. This reserve of the Arian was of

the utmost moment for Gelasius, who set his heart

on extending the rights of the Roman primacy.

In his letters he claimed the right to receive appeals

from all parts of the world, and he contested the

admissibility of appeal to any other tribunal from

a deliverance by the bishop of Rome. The pre­

eminence of the see of Rome is guaranteed for him

by Matt. xvi. 18; beside it, the churches of Alexan­

dria and Antioch occupy second and third rank.

FIe spurned with indignation the equality with the

Roman bishop desired by the bishop of Constan­

tinople, and he upheld with great energy against

the Emperor Anastasius the independence of the

spiritual power. Concerning the genuineness of the

so‑called Decretum de libris recipiendis et non

recipiendis ascribed to Gelasius I. there has been

much disputation, but the matter is to be decided

affirmatively. It may be that a part derives from

Pope Damasus, maybe the entire matter was re­

cast by Hormisdas in the sixth century; but the

main portion was probably proclaimed under Gela­

sius at a Roman synod in 496. The decree com­

prises: (1) a table of the writings of the Biblical

Canon; (2) a discussion of the primacy of the Ro­

man Church; (3) a list of the synods to be accepted

as valid; (4) and (5) a catalogue of the writings ac­

cepted and rejected by the Roman Church. Gela­

sius furthermore composed sundry dogmatic and

polemical treatises; the origin of the so‑called

Sacramentarium Gelasianum (ed. H. A. Wilson,

Oxford, 1894) is debatable (see LITURGICS). Gela‑

sius died Nov. 19, 496, and is accounted a " saint "

by the Roman Catholic Church.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Epiatolm are in MPL, lix. 13‑140, and one of them in MGH, Epist., iii (1891), 32‑33. Sources are in Jaffd, Regesta, i. 83‑95, 619‑743; Liber pontiAmlie, ed. Duchesne, i. 255, Paris, 1886, ed. Mommsen in L1iGH, Gest. Pont. Rotn., i (1898), 116‑118. Consult: A. Roux, Le Pape S. GElase I., Paris, 1880 (on the life and writings); J. Langen, Geschichte der r6mischen Kirche, ii. 159‑214, Bonn, 1885; Zahn, Kanon, IL, i. 259 sqq.; Hefele, Con­ciliengeschichte, ii. 616 sqq.; Bower, Popes, i. 282‑291; Milman, Latin Christianity, i. 348‑349.

Gelasius II. (Giovanni da, Gaeta): Pope 1118­

1119. He was born at Gaeta, and, after receiving

his education in the monastery of Monte Cassino,

was drawn to the curia by Urban II., appointed

chancellor, and also promoted to the rank of cardi­

nal deacon. He loyally supported Paschal II. (q.v.)

when this pope was taken captive by Henry V. of

Germany in 1111, and was sharply attacked by a

portion of the college of Cardinals on account of

the treaty he had concluded with the emperor in

relation to investiture. After the death of Paschal

II. Cardinal Giovanni was unanimously elected as

his successor (Jan. 24, 1118), and he adopted the

name of Gelasius II. The conclave was scarcely

ended when he was taken captive by the Frangi­

pani party, but was soon released. However, the

news then reached him that Henry V., upon word

that the papal election had occurred without his

cooperation, was approaching in rapid marches.

In the fear that a treaty similar to the one exacted

of his predecessor might be forced upon him,

Gelasius fled hurriedly to Gaeta, where, on Mar.

9 and 10, he was consecrated priest and bishop.

Upon his declining the demands of Henry in re­

gard to investiture, and when thereupon the latter

induced the Romans to elect Mauritius Burdinus,

archbishop of Braga, as antipope (Gregory VIII.,

q.v.), Gelasius decreed from Cp,pua on Apr. 7

the ban of excommunication against the emperor

and the schismatic pope. After Henry's departure

from Rome, he returned thither himself, but was

very soon compelled to leave the city anew

to escape the Frangipani plots; he now turned to

France. The contest with Henry V. was prosecuted

with great energy in Germany by the pope's legate,

Kuno of Proeneste. Gelasius died at Cluny Jan.

18, 1119. CARL MIRBT.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Epistolm are in Bouquet, Recueil, xv. 223‑228, the Epiatolar et privilegia, in MPL, clxiii. 487­514. The early Vita by Pandulfus Aletrinus is in ASB, May, 9‑13, and MPL, cWii. 475‑484. Consult: J. Lan­gen, Geschichte der rbm£schen Kirehe, iv. 271‑277, Bonn, 1893; Jaffd, Regesta, i. 775 sqq.; G. Richter, Annalen der deutechen Geschichte im M4tteWter, Ill., ii. 603‑607, Halle, 1898; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 141, 245; Milman, Latin Christianity, iv. 125‑129; Bower, Popes, ii. 453‑455. GELASIUS OF CYZICUS: Greek church his­torian of the fifth century. He was the son of a presbyter at Cyzicus, and is known through his history of the First Council of Nicwa, which lie composed in Bithynia about 475 for the purpose of combating Monophysite appeals to the Nic(enum. The work, in three books, is largely a compila­tion from Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theo­doret. The data not derived from these sources came from an original documentary collection,


a sort of protocol covering the transactions at Nicsea, which had formerly been in the possession of Bishop Dahmatius of Cyzicus (c. 410). These original documents seem to have possessed real historic value. The work was first edited, in Greek and Latin, by the ficotchman Robert. Balfour (Paris, 1599), and since then it has been reprinted in all the large collections of councils (e.g., Mansi, Con­cilia, ii. 753‑946; also MPG, Ixxxv. 1179‑1360).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. H. Turner, in JTS, 1900, pp. 125‑126;

G. Loeschoke, Da# Syntagma des Gelasius. CVzieenus,

Bonn, 1908; DCB, ii. 621‑623.

GELLERT, gel'lert, CHRISTIAN FUERCHTE­GOTT: German poet and writer; b. at Haynichen, in the Erzgebirge, Saxony, July 4, 1715; d. in Leipsic Dec. 13, 1769. He was the son of a clergy­man. After obtaining his first instruction in the school of his native city and attending, from 1729, the Fiirstenschule in Meissen, he went, in 1734, to Leipsic to study theology. Since a congenital timidity and bashfulness as well as pulmonary weakness did not permit him to become a preacher, after four years of study and two of private tutor­ship, he returned in 1741 to Leipsic. He gave les­sons for his support and made his d6but as an author by the publication of his earliest' fables and tales in the Belustigungen des Verstandea and Witzes for 1741. In 1744 he joined the faculty of the university as privat‑docent and lectured on poetry and oratory. Nearly all his secular works belong t0 this period. Of his comedies the Band appeared in the Belustigungen in 1744, and Sylvia in 1745; the Betschwester and Los in der Latterie in the Bremer Beitrdge in 1745‑46. In 1746 also appeared his novel Leben der schwedischen Grafin von G‑. In 1746 and 1748 appeared the first two books of his celebrated fables, which, with the addition of a third book, have been often reprinted and trans­lated. In 1751, Gellert became professor extraor­dinary; the students flocked to hear his lectures on literature and morals, and his influence over them was great. Even a tendency to hypochon­dria, the result of physical suffering, did not in any way lessen his popularity. In spite of the recog­nition awarded him, he remained singularly modest; he declined the position of professor ordinanus as well as calls to Hamburg and Halle, preferring to remain in Leipsic.

Gellert's Geidliche Oden ttnd Lieder met with general approval on their first appearance in 1757, and several were immediately introduced into new hymnals; they even found a warm reception with Roman Catholics. The secret of their influence lies decidedly in their strong religious tone in union with great ease and naturalness of expression. It is true that much may be said against them from an esthetic and dogmatic point of view; many are not suitable for hymns and some were called by Gellert himself " Biblical contemplations "; others, however, have a truly religious quality and a‑lyric strain, as, for example, the Christmas hymn, Dies ist der Tag den. Gott gemacht ("This is the day which God has made"), and the Easter hymn, Jesus le$t, mit ihm such ich ( "Jesus lives and I live with him"). The pious subjectivity of the poet, which

comes out in all his hymns, has found an echo in a thousand hearts and in this way has become truly objective. Gellert's hymns have been often repub­lished and translated into foreign languages. His prose writings also, especially his lectures on morals and his shorter essays of an apologetic and parenetic character exerted a happy influence upon the re­ligious thought of his time. They lack, however, the sharply defined ethical and dogmatic concep­tions which are required to‑day.

Gellert's works first appeared in ten parts, Leip­

sic, 1769 74; they have often been reprinted, the

last time in Leipsic and Berlin, 1867. In the later

editions are found a collection of letters from and

to Gellert, but this does not include his letters to

Fraulein Erdmuth von Sch6nfeld (issued as the

first part of the Dahlener Antiquaritts, Leipsic, 1861)

or his diary of the year 1761 (ed. T. O. Weigel, 2d

ed., Leipsic, 1863). CARL BERTHEAU.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. A. Cramer, Gellert's Leben, Leipsic, 1774; C. H. Schmid, Nekrodog . . . der Deatechen, ii. 481­532, Berlin, 1785; C. H. Jbrdens, Leaikon deutacher Dichter and Prosaiaten, ii. 5488, vi. 140 sqq., Leipsie 1808‑11; H. DSring, Christian Ftirchfegott Gellert'a Leben, Greiz, 1833; G. E. Leo, Dae fromme Leben Gellerte, Dres­den, 1846; H. Gelzer, Die neuere deutsche National‑Litera­tur, i. 37‑61, Leipsic, 1847; K. R. Hagenbach, Die Kir­chengeschicAte des 18. and 19. Jahrhunderts, i. 339 Sqq., Leipsie. 1848, Eng. tranal., Hist. of the Church in the 18th and 18th Centuries, New York, 1869; Das Gellerh buck, ed. F. Naumann, Dresden, 1854; K. J. Nitzsch. Ueber Lavater and Gellert, Berlin, 1857; E. Koch, Ge­schichte des Kirchenliedes, vi. 263 eqq., Stuttgart, 1870; S. W. Duffield, English Hymns, p. 285, New York, 1886; A. Schullerus, Gellert's Leben and Werke. Leipsic, 1894; Julian, Hymnologv, pp. 406‑408.
GELPKE, ERNST FRIEDRICH: German theo­logian; b. at Breitenfeld (4 m. n. of Leipsic) Apr. 8, 1807; d. at Bern Sept. 1, 1871. He studied at Grimma, Leipsic, and Berlin, in the latter univer­sity coming under the influence of Schleiermacher and Neander. His Evangelische Dogmatik (Bonn, 1834), written while he was a privat‑docent at Bonn, gained him a call, in the year of its publica­tion, to the newly founded university of Bern. There he lectured at first on New Testament exe­gesis, and later on dogmatics and moral theology, in addition to teaching in the gymnasia of the city. His chief work was his Kirchengeschichte der Schweiz (2 vols., Bern, 1856‑61), which, however, extends only to the eleventh century. In his theology Gelpke belonged to the mediating school, although his Jugendgeschichte des Herrt (1841) betrayed so strongly the influence of Strauss that it created a sensation at Bern. Humanistic idealism led him to join the freemasons, and he became grand mas­ter. Several of his poems were published, includ­ing his trilogy Napoleon (1854).

(E. BLtiacHt.)

131BLIOGRAPHY: Frau M. Bach‑Gelpke, in Sammlunp berni­acker Biographies, i. 28 sqq., Bern, 1885; ADB, viii. 552.

GELZER, gelt'zer, HEINRICH: 1. German his­torian; b. at Schaffhausen Oct. 17, 1813; d. at his estate " Witwald " in the Jura Mountains, canton of Basel, Aug. 15, 1889. He was the son of an artisan, began the study of theology at Zurich, but on the advice of his physician, who considered his health not strong enough for the office of a preacher,



turned to history. He continued both theological and historical studies in Jena, Halle, and G6ttingen where he was influenced especially by Hase, Tho­luck, Otfried Miiller, and Ewald. Returning to Switzerland, he became private tutor in Bern, and formed here an intimate friendship with K. J. vow Bunsen, the Prussian ambassador. In 1839 he established himself as privat‑docent at Basel. In 1843 he became professor extraordinary of the history of Switzerland and universal history; in 1844 be was called to Berlin as professor of history. Besides his activity as teacher, he was frequently consulted in political and educational problems. A severe illness compelled him to go to southern France and Italy, and after a time he settled at Basel and founded and edited the Protestantische Alonatsbldtter /Or innere Zeitgeschichte (1853‑70), a periodical which attempted " to win the educated circles for the great moral‑religious mission belong­ing to them, from the universal standpoint of genuine German Protestantism." At the same time, Gelzer was active in the spheres of secular and ecclesiastical politics. From the beginning of the sixties he was an intimate adviser of Grand duke Frederick of Baden. His theological stand­point was on the whole that of Rothe and Hundes­hagen. As early as 1839, before the appearance of Rothe's "Ethics," Galzer expressed the opinion that " perfect religion must be moral throughout and that perfect morality must be religious through­out." He demanded a theology that should go back to the leading ideas of a Herder, Fichte and Schleiermacher, without giving up the spiritual acquisition of romanticism and pietism, and in that way renew its conception of Christianity and Christian redemption.

Gelzer published among other works Die drei letzten Jahrhunderle der Schweizergeachichte (2 vols., Aarau, 1838‑39), in which he treats in detail the religious conditions and history of morals beside political events; Die Religion im Leben (Zurich, 1839); Die ztvei ersten Jahrhunderte der Schtreizer­geschichte (Basel, 1840); Die neuere deutsche National­Litteratur nach ihren ethischen and religiosen Ge­sichtspunkten (2 vols., Leipsic, 1847), his most popular work; Protestnntische Briefs sue Siidfrank­reich and Italien (Zurich, 1852), the result of a journey to Italy. His Dr. Martin Luther . . . in geschichtlichen Umrissen (Hamburg, 1847‑51) ap­peared in several English translations, The Life of Martin Luther . . . in Fifty Pictures (London, 1853; Philadelphia, 1855; London, 1858).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. GSIrtius, Heinrich Gelzar, Goths, 1892; R. $ti

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