261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

Gaudsntlw (#anraea THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG

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ed. J. E. B. Mayor, pp. 286, 678, Cambridge, 1869; G.

Oliver, Lives o/ the Bishops of Exeter, pp. 150‑151, Lon­don, 1861; DNB, xxi. 69‑72.

GAUDEIYTIUS: Bishop of Brixia (the present Brescia); b. probably at Brixia c. 360; d. probably soon after 410. He was a.pupil of Philastrius (q.v.) and may have been consecrated by him. He was absent oa a journey to Jerusalem and Cappado­cia when Philastrius died, and clergy and people unanimously chose him bishop and asked for his return. Gaudentius accepted the position reluc­tantly, entering on his duties about 387. Little. is known of his further activity. With two other deputies of the Emperor Honorius and of the Ro­man Bishop Innocent I. he went to Greece to inter­cede for Chrysostom (q.v.) before the Emperor Arcadius; the mission was unsuccessful, but Gau­dentius won Chrysostom's gratitude by his act of love. Gaudentius must have been still alive in 410, in. which year Rufinus dedicated to him his translation of the Recognitiones of Clement.

Gaudentius wrote a number of small treatises, among them ten sermons on Easter (c. 390), which are dedicated to a certain Benevolus who was prevented by sickness from attending service in the church. The first sermon is addressed to candi­dates for baptism and treats of the celebration of Easter on the basis of Ex. xii.; the others were delivered before baptized persons. Six of them treat of Christ, the true paschal lamb, and the Lord's Supper; the eighth and ninth, of the wedding‑feast at Cana and virginity; the tenth, of Easter in par­ticular and of Sunday in general. With these ten sermons go eleven addresses on miscellaneous sub­jects, and two letters. The addresses are plain and simple and by no means deficient in beautiful thoughts. Like his contemporaries he shows an in­clination to allegorical interpretation of Scripture.

(K. LmMBACHt.)

Bimtoassray: An excellent edition of the sermons in by P. Gagliardi. Padua, 1720, reproduced essentially in MPL, xx. 827‑1002. On the life of Gaudentius consult: ASB, Oct., xi. 587‑604; MPL, xx. 791‑826; G. Brunati, Lep­gendario o.vite di sang Bresaani, pp. 73‑104, Brescia, 1834; J. Nirsehl, Lehrbuch der Patrolopie and Patrsatik, ii. X93, Mains, 1883.

GAULANITIS, g8"la‑n?'tis: A district to the east of the Sea of Galilee and of the upper Jordan. According to Eusebius (Onomasticon, 242), the name is derived from Gaulon, the name of a large town, the Golan in Bashan of the Old Testament and the Gaulana of Josephus (Ant. IV., vii. 4). The name is used in Josephus with varying signification. Sometimes it is the equivalent of Bashan, though again he sets off from it the regions of Trachonitis and Batanea, thus restricting it to the district im­mediately bordering the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan. The last is the better usage. There is a division of the district into Upper and Lower Gaulanitis. The boundaries are only in part dis­tinguishable. The deep bed and abrupt banks of the Yarmuk are the fixed natural Names and southern limits. Equally certain is the

Extent. western boundary on the Sea of Galilee

and the Jordan, except that Hippo and

Paneas are not always reckoned as belonging to it.

The northern and eastern limits are uncertain,

except as marked on the north by the foot of Her­mon. On the southeast the tributaries of the Yar­muk make a sharp demarcation in the plain, yet neither the Nahr al‑Rukkad nor the Nahr al‑Allan is recognized as the boundary.; From the fact that Saham al‑Jaulan was once reckoned to this district, the boundaries must once have extended beyond the Nahr al‑Allan, eastward, therefore, as far as the upper course of the Yarmuk. In Josephus (Life, 37) the modern Sulam (Seleima in the in­scriptions; cf. Le Bas and Waddington, Inscrip­tions, iii. 543) at the foot of Jabal Hauran, and so the southern part of Batanea or Hauran, belonged to Gaulanitis, extending the district as far as the Lejjah, at least as a governmental province. Herod the Great drew 3,000 Idumeans and 600 Jews from Trachonitis and Batanea to check the Arab marauders.

The name enters history in the account by Jose­phus of the campaigns of Alexander Jannaeus (102­76 B.C.), who conquered Golan, Seleucia, and Gamala from a certain Demetrius. Pompey (63 B.c.) assigned Golan to tile province of Syria and left Hippo free (Ant. XIV., iv: ‑4; War, I., vii. 7). Under Augustus the district belonged to Herod the Great, and after his death it went

History. to the tetrarchy of his son Philip,

while Hippo was a part of the province

of Syria. It belonged to the province of Syria

during the period 34‑37 A.D., and was then granted

by Caligula to Agrippa I. (Ant. XVIII., vi. 10),

after whose death (44 A.D.) it was included in the

general control of Palestine until in the year 53 it was

granted by Claudius to Agrippa II., whose death

caused it to return to the government of Syria.

Hippo lay at an elevation of 1,500 feet above the Sea of Galilee. The Talmud gives the Aramaic name as Susita, the Susiyah of the Arabic geogra­phers, where are extensive ruins half an hour west of Fik in the lower Jaulan, Fik being the old Aphek, not far from Hippo (Eusebius, Onomasticon, 219, 91). The site of Hippo, however, lies one hour west of Pik. The inhabitants were largely Greeks. According to Josephus (Life, 9), the district belong­ing to the city was so extensive that it bordered upon the districts belonging to Gadara, Scythopolis, and Tiberias. About four miles to the north, on the bank of the Wadi al‑Samak are some ruins, inclu­ding the remains of a wall and a tower, called by the Arabs al‑Sur (connected with kursi, " a seat"), recognized by many scholars as the site of the city of the Gerasenes, Gergesenes, or Gadareneo of Matt. viii. 28 sqq., Mark v. 1 sqq., and Luke viii. 26 sqq. (see GEFAsBNES). The investigations of W. A. Neumann in the region lead. him to see in Jabal Kurein Jaradi, the name of a hill to the north, the traces of the old place‑name, which he would read Gerada, not Gadam. Not far from the entrance of the Jordan into the sea lay the fishing

Principal village Bethsaida, built by Herod

Cities. Philip into a city and named Julias in

honor of Julia, daughter of Augustus.

Pliny (Hist. nat., V., xv. 71) locates it on the east

coast. . The fishing village is best placed at al Araj,

immediately on the sea, where the fishermen still

land and dry their nets. Possibly the city is to



be located at al‑Tell,.where the Arabs have their

winter huts. Leading New Testament references

to the place are Mark vi. 30‑44; cf. Luke ix. 10 sqq.;

Mark viii. 22; John i. 44, xii. 21. The question of a

second Bethsaida in Galilee is to be decided in the

negative, since that province was often regarded as

extending eastward of the Sea of Galilee. The

residents of Bethsaida were Jews. According to

Mark viii. 27, Jesus led his disciples from Bethsaida

to the villages of Ceesarea Philippi, on which journey

Peter made his celebrated confession (verse 29).

Ca'sarea Philippi lay in the district of Paneas (Ba­

niss), named from Pan and the celebrated grotto of

the source of the Jordan (Eusebius, Hist. eecl.,

vii. 17). Near this grotto Herod the Great erected

a splendid temple, about which his son Philip built

a city which he named C8eesarea after the emperor

(Josephus, Ant. XVIII., ii. 1). Agrippa II. ex­

tended it and renamed it Neronias after Nero, a

name which did not adhere, since Ceesare& Philippi,

or Casarea Paneas, or Paneas is the usual designa­

tion. It was a favorite resort of Vespasian and Titus

for rest from the exertions of war. The population

was prevailingly heathen. Of the places inland

from the sea little is known. The ruins now called

Selukiyah doubtless mark Seleucia. The situation

of the strong fortress of Gamala can not be certainly

identified. Since Kalat al‑Hozn has been given up,

the village Jamli is regarded as a probable site,

located by Schumacher on the east bank of the

gorge of the Nahr al‑Rukkad. Furrer and Van

Kasteren place it on the Tell al‑Ahdeib or Ras al‑Hal,

between Jamli and the Rukkad. The conjunction

of the ruins and the present name (Jamb) makes

this identification probable. The place was con­

quered by Alexander Jannaeus (Josephus, Ant. XIII.,

xv. 3), and by the Romans under Vespasian after

a siege of a month (Josephus, Wars, IV., i. 1 sqq.).

Gamala was the center of a toparehy. Another

Gamala mentioned in Ant. XVIII., v. l is perhaps the

Jamli discovered by Schumacher in Ajlun. The

Bathyra built by Herod the Great is probably the

modern Bait Ari, south from Jamli. See TRACHO‑

Nrns. (H. GUTHE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: ;G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy

Land, London, 1897; U. J. Seetzen, Rewn, vols. i., iv.,

Berlin, 1854‑59; J. G. Wetzstein, Reimbericht fiber Hau­

ran, Berlin, 1860; idem, Das batanuiacAe Giabelpcbirpe,

Leipsic, 1884; A. Neubauer, La GEopraphie du Talmud,

Paris, 1868; P. Le Bas and W. H. Waddington, inscrip­

tions precquea at latines, vol. iii., Paris, 1870; C. R. Conder

and H. H. Kitchener, Survey of Western Palestine, Mem­

oirs, vol. i., London, 1881; S. Merrill, East of the Jordan,

ib. 1881; W. M. Thomson, Land and Book, Central Pales­

tine, ib. 1883; G. Schumacher, Across the Jordan, ib. 1886;

idem, The Jaulan, ib. 1888; P. de Lsgarde, Onomastica

sacra, G,3ttingen, 1887; W. A. Neumann, Qum Darheradi,

Freiburg, 1894; F. Buhl. Geographie den alien Paldetina,

Freiburg, 1896; Schflrer, Geschichte, i. 427, Ii. 4, 12‑13,

Eng. tranal., I. ii. 12, II. i. 2‑4.

GAUSSEft, g&'sdn', ETIENNE : French Protes­

tant; b. at Nines at the beginning of the seven­

teenth century; d. at Saumur (100 m. s.w. of Or­

l6ans) 1675. He became professor of philosophy

in the academy at Saumur in 1651 and in 1665

professor of theology. He was rector of the acad­

emy in 1667. The school Of Saumur represented

at that time a more liberal conception of French

Protestantism than did the schools of Sddan and

Montauban; and Gaussen contributed much to propagate this conception. His works were highly rated by his contemporaries, and up to the middle of the eighteenth century they were frequently reprinted, both in Holland and Germany. To be mentioned particularly are: De consensu gratin cum nature (Saumur,1659); De roerbo dei (1665); and Quattuar dimertutiones theologian (1670), including De rations studii theolagiei, De nature theologize, de rations concionandi, and De utilitate philosophize ad theologian, forming, according to Bayle, the beat manual of the time for the study of theology.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. and It. Hang, La Prance proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, vol. v., Paris, 1886; Bulletin du proteatan­t%sme franpaia, i. 311, ii. 158, 327; Lichtenberger. EBB, v. 441‑442.

GAUSSEH, FRAft!POIS SAMUEL ROBERT LOUIS: Swiss clergyman; b. at Geneva Aug. 25, 1790; d. there June 18, 1863. Two years after completing his studies at the university of his native city (1814), he was appointed minister at Satigny, near Geneva, where he succeeded Oellerier, one of the few members of the Swiss clergy who clung to orthodoxy, and who exercised a profound influence on the formation of Gaussen's theological convict:ons. The period was almost contempo­raneous with the dawn of the religious revival in French Switzerland. This awakening resulted in the issuance of an order (May 7, 1817) by the Venerable compagnie den pasteurs, practically pro­hibiting the preaching of certain important doctrines of divinity. Gaussen and Cellerier pro­tested against this ruling in 1819, chiefly by re­publishing the new French edition of the Helvetic Confession, to which they added a preface in which they declared that a Church must have a declaration of faith, and that the Second Helvetic Confession correctly voiced their personal convictions. In the meantime Gaussen pursued his clerical duties in Satigny, besides holding religious meetings in his own home, as well as in his mother's house in Geneva, striving to revivify the, national church, but not advocating separation from it. At Geneva, which gradually became the center of his activity, Gaussen founded a missionary society, which held meetings, first in private houses and later in the church. In 1828, through the intervention of the VEnfble compagnie, certain new members were elected to its committee whom Gaussen considered heterodox in their views, and he therefore with­drew from the society. This conflict with the clergy of Geneva was the precursor of frequent storms which influenced his future career. Calvin's cate­chism had long been used as a basis for the in­struction of the young, but the Venerable compagnie now substituted another in its stead, and ordered Gaussen to use it. He tried to do so, but found it unsatisfactory:and laid it aside. The clergy of Ge­neva lodged a complaint against him, and after a lengthy dispute he was finally censured by the compagnie, and deprived of his right to take part in its meetings for a period of one year (cf. Lettrea de Mr. le Pasteur Gau8aen d la vin&abk compagnie den pasteurs de Gen~w, 1831; and Expose historique den discussions &v&s entre la. rnmpagnie den pa8teurs de Genwv et Mr. Gaussen, 1831) With his friends,



Merle d'Aubign6 and Galland, Gaussen now founded an " Evangelical Society " to distribute Bibles and tracts, and to interest the public in missionary work among the heathen. Shortly afterward the Evangelical Society decided to found a school for the dissemination of Evangelical teachings, and this resolve was imparted to the state councilor of Ge­neva, as well as to the churches, in circular letters signed by Galland, Merle d'Aubign6, and Gaussen. Gaussen was accordingly deposed by the consistory on Sept. 30, 1831, while his two colleagues were suspended. For a long time he traveled through Italy and England, awakening strong sympathy for his cause in the latter country, but viewing the Roman Catholic Church with extreme disfavor. In 1834 he returned to Geneva, and accepted the chair of dogmatics at the newly established theo­logical school. He inclined strictly toward Re­formed Orthodoxy, and deviated from its doctrines only with regard to his theory of predestination, ac­cepting the teaching of election by grace but deny­ing supralapsarianism. Three points of Evangelical theology were especially treated by Gaussen: the divinity of Christ, the prophecies, and the divine au­thority of Holy Scripture. In his Thdopneustie (Ge­neva, 1840; Eng. transl., Theopneustia; theplenary Inspiration of the Holy Scriptures, London, 1841) he maintained that all passages. in the Old and New Testaments were verbally inspired, but his theory of inspiration was attacked by members of his own theological school, and later also by Edmund Scherer, and he accordingly wrote, in vindication, Le Canon des Saintes ‑0critures au double point de true de la. science et de la foi (Lausanne, 1860; Eng tranal., Canon of the Holy Scriptures as Viewed. Through Science and Faith, London, 1862). He was also the author of numerous other works, including Legons sur Daniel (3 vols., uncompleted, 1861; Eng. transl., The Prophet Daniel Explained, 1873‑74), consisting of several of his catechetical lectures on Daniel; and of Les premiers chapftres de l'Exode, and Le propWe Jonas (the latter two published pos­thumously). His works enjoyed a wide circulation both in England and in France. (E. BARDEt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. von der Goltz, Die retornsierte Kirche Gents im 19. Jahrhundert, pp. 103, 289, 467, Basel, 1862; Lichtenberger, ESR, v. 442‑443.


GAUTIER, go"ty6', CHARLES LUCIEN: Swiss Reformed; b. at Cologny (2 m. n.e. of Geneva), Switzerland, Aug. 17, 1850. He studied in Geneva (B.Lit.,1867; B. Th6ol., 1874), Tiibingen, and Leip­sic (Ph.D., 1877), and was professor of Old Testa­ment exegesis and theology at Lausanne (Free Church of the Canton of Vaud) from 1877 to 1898, when he retired as honorary professor. He was president of the synod of the Free Church of the Canton of Vaud in 1885, 1886, 1891, and 1892. In theology he is Evangelical in his sympathies, although not an enemy of the critical school. He has written Le Sacerdoce dams l'Ancien Testa­ment (Geneva, 1874); Ad‑Dourra al‑Fdkhira, la perle precieuse de Ghazali : traits d'eschatologie musulmane (1878); La Mission du prophUe Ez4chiel (Lausanne, 1891); Au del& du Jourdain (Geneva,

1895); Souvenirs de Terre‑Sainte (Lausanne, 1898); Vocations des prophdes (1901); Autour de la Mer Morte (Geneva, 1901); and Introduction & l'Ancien Testament (2 vols., Lausanne, 1906).
GAVAZZI, ga‑vat'si, ALESSANDRO: One of the founders of the " Free Church of Italy " (see ITALY); b. at Bologna Mar. 21, 1809; d. at Rome Jan. 9, 1889. He entered the Order of Barnabites in 1825, and four years later became professor of rhetoric at Naples. His radical views soon at­tracted unfavorable notice, and in 1840 he was trans­ferred to a subordinate position in the States of the Church. He welcomed the election of Pius IX. and enthusiastically supported the liberal movement which marked the beginning of the new r6gime. Appointed chaplain of the Roman troops sent to Lombardy, he assisted in inciting resistance to Austria, but was arrested at Vicenza and confined at Corneto until released by the inhabitants of Viterbo. The change in the papal policy, however, filled him with hatred of the pope, and on the capture of Rome and the reinstatement of Pius in 1849, he fled to England and renounced his faith. He then became pastor of a Protestant Italian congregation in London, and lectured in England, Scotland, and Ireland against his former religion. In 1860 he joined the army of Garibaldi as a chaplain, and after the establishment of the kingdom of Italy re­sided in Rome, where in 1877 he started a theologi­cal seminary for the " Free Church," of which he was the principal founder (see ITALY), and officiated as professor of dogmatics, apologetics, and polemics. Among his numerous works special mention may be made of the following: Memoirs (London, 1851); Orations (1851); Lectures in New York (New York, 1853); Recollections of the Last Four Popes (London, 1858); Records of Two Years' Christian Work in Italy (1865); La Bibbia regola di fede degli evangelici (Florence, 1868); Dei Con­cilt ecumenici (1869); No Union with Rome (London, 1871); and The Priest in Absolution (1877).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. M. Campanella and G. B. Nicolini, Bi­ography o/ Father Gavazzi, New York, 1853 (prefixed to the Lectures); J. w. King, Alessandro Gavazzi: a Biog­raphy, London, 1860.

GEBAL ("Mountain"): 1. A Phenician city of seamen and merchants engaged in the Mediterranean trade, mentioned Ezek. xxvii. 9 and perhaps re­ferred to in Josh. xiii. 5; 1 Iiings v. 18. The name is preserved in the modern Jibeil, about 20 m. n. of Beirut. Its Assyrian name was Gubal or Gubla; the Greeks called it Byblos. The Egyptians knew it before 1500 B.c. as a center of religious life and liter­ature, it figures in the Amarna Tablets (q.v.), impor­tant inscriptions have been found there, and it was the home of Philo Herenius, who transmitted the fragments of Sanehuniathon's " History." The modern place is near the shore; probably the older city was on a spur of the mountains, farther in­land.

2. A district named in the Bible only in the late Ps. lxxxiii. 7 in connection with Edom, the Ishmael­ites, Moab, Ammon, and the Amalekites, whose home was toward the south or southeast of the


Oebhard II

Dead Sea, therefore to be located in that region.

It is doubtless the modern Jibal of the Arabs, the

district located by Josephus (Ant. II., i. 2, IX., ix. 1)

as near Petra, and by Arabian geographers as the

northern part of the region east of the Wadi al­

Arabah (the depression south of the Dead Sea).


BIBLIoaSAPHT: DB, ii. 117; EB, ii. 1863‑56. On 1, con­

sult: W. M. Miiller, Asien and Europa, pp. 185 sqq.,

Leipsie, 1893; . E. Benin, Mission de PUnieie, pp. 174

eqq., Paris, 1864; H. Winekler, in Keilwhrifaiche Bib­

liothekc, vol. v., Berlin, 1898. On 2, consult: Robinson,

Researches, ii. 154; Guy Is Strange, Palestine under as

Moatenw, London, 1890; F. Buhl, Gesdhichte der Edomi­

ter, Leipsic, 1893.




Protestants in the Lower Rhine Lands (§ 1).

Bavarian Intrigues in Lower Germany (§ 2).

Gebhard II (§ 3).

Gebhard's Downfall (§ 4).

Progress of the Counterreformation (§ 5).

The Reformation nowhere completely permeated

the Lower Rhenish districts. Small congregations,

it is true, struggled here and there for a modest

existence, and a part of the nobility appeared to

incline toward the new doctrines; but the new

movement was not supported by the towns. In

both of the most powerful imperial

i. Protes‑ cities of these regions, Cologne and

tants in Aachen, the Roman preponderance

the Lower in councils and civic life remained un­

Rhine impaired. But from 1570 onward, the

Lands. disturbances in the Netherlands hav­

ing driven countless refugees into the

neighboring districts of the Lower Rhine, quite a

number of Reformed congregations became estab­

lished in the duchy of Juliers and Cleves, and in the

electorate and city of Cologne. Wesel came to be

a center for the new propaganda. At Aachen the

Protestants began to contend, after 1574, for the rule

of the city. Indeed as early as 1571 there came into

effect a firm organization of all these "Netherland­

ish "congregations, which drew to themselves many

of the native Protestants. In spite of sporadic action

on the part of the authorities, the congregations

were tacitly tolerated, in the main, a contributory

factor to this end in the city of Cologne being re­

gard for mercantile relations with the Netherlands;

while at the court of Juliers a Protestant party

even endeavored to gain a legislative influence over

the infirm and vacillating Duke William IV.

If therefore the Reformation had nowhere gained

the supremacy in these districts, and had not even

attained to a position of security, nevertheless,

toward the dose of the decade 1570‑80, Protestants

were everywhere to be found, and no Counterref­

ormation tendency was then active. The Jesuits

had begun their activity in Cologne soon after their

society was founded, and made that point a center

of their missionary and literary enterprises in the

rest of Germany; but their efforts in Cologne it­

self never accomplished anything assured and

fruitful. They were thwarted by lack of support

from the political authorities; the electors showed

no inter in the society, and the city council, the

clergy, and the university put obstacles in its course. The victory that was eventually achieved at this place by the Counterreformation was owing to the pressure of alien dynastic interests, and the chief part in this result for the Roman cause was played by Bavarian statecraft.

Duke Albert V. of Bavaria had destined his third son, Ernest (b. 1554), for the clerical vocation; in 1565 he became a canon at Salzburg, and soon after­ward at Cologne, Treves, and Wurzburg as well; in the autumn of 1565 he likewise became bishop of Freising. Albert's wishes no doubt centered upon the neighboring archdiocese of Salz­z. Bavarian burg; but in 1569, when Elector

Intrigues Salentin of Cologne incurred difficul‑

in Lower ties with the curia for non‑recognition

Germany. of the Council of Trent and was con­

templating resignation, Ernest was pro­

posed by his father, who had the support of the

Spanish government at Brussels, as Salentin's suc­

cessor. At the imperial diet at Speyer, in 1570,

the negotiations with Salentin were so far advanced

that Ernest went to Cologne in November, and served

his first residence there as canon till May, 1571,

such being the preliminary condition in the line

of election. Salentin's resignation, however, was

deferred, and in 1573 he actually submitted to the

Council of Trent, and was thereupon confirmed by

the curia as archbishop, foregoing the priestly con­

secration. In 1577, after the Bavarian court had

failed in an attempt to secure Munster for Ernest,

efforts looking to Cologne were resumed and

prosecuted more zealously than before. Moreover,

the support of the curia now heightened the hope

of some practical result. Duke Ernest, who for a

time, in 1572, had well‑nigh thwarted all his father's

plans by a suddenly outcropping disinclination to­

ward the spiritual vocation, was sent to Rome in

the spring of 1574, for a sojourn of nearly two years,

by way of reward for submitting to his father's

will. At Rome he won the particular good‑will of

the pope, so that Gregory XIII. resolved to support,

with all his might, Ernest's installation as coadjutor

to Salentin; in fact, the advancement of Bavarian

family interests appeared to be the only possible

way of recovering a more secure standing for the

Roman Catholic Church in Lower Germany. The

status which had been gained in 1573 by the elec­

tion of Ernest as bishop of the small see of Hildes­

heim could not as yet, by itself alone, afford a very

trustworthy base of support.

But against the common plans of Salentin, the curia, and the Bavarian court, opposition manifested itself on the side of the chapter at Cologne; when, in 1577, Salentin resigned, Ernest was defeated, at the new election, by Gebhard Truchsess, who was elected by the Protestants and the lukewarm Catholics of the chapter. Duke Albert, as well as the papal nuncio Portia, protested against the election; but as both the emperor and the electors espoused Gehbard's cause, and as he passed for a good Catholic, receiving priestly consecration in Mar., 1578, and swearing to the Council of Trent, the curia disregarded the Bavarian protest and in Mar., 1580, confirmed the election. By that time Duke Albert had died, and his successor, William



V., was ready to come to terms. Ernest received

some compensation, in 1581, by obtaining the rich

diocese of Li€ge.

Gebbard (b. at the Waldburg, 5 m. e.s.e. of

Ravensburg, in Swabia, Nov. 10, 1547; d. at Stras­

burg May 21, 1801) descended from the old Swan

bian family of the Truchsesses of Waldburg; his

father was Imperial Councilor Wilhelm Truch®ess;

his uncle, Cardinal Otto of Augsburg. A careful

education had fallen to his portion, as even at an

early age he was destined for the spir­

e. Gob‑ itual vocation. He attended, so the

hard II. accepted report has it, the universities

of Dillingen, Ingolstadt, and (longest)

Louvain; then terminated his studies with a sojourn

in Italy, 1587. His spiritual career began in 1580

with the acquisition of a prebendary position at

Augsburg; in 1561 he became canon at Cologne;

capitular at Strasburg in 1567; and capitular at

Cologne in 1568, in place of the newly elected

elector Salentin. From data of the year 1569 it is

known that Gebbard led a scandalous life at Augs­

burg, and by request of Cardinal Otto, Duke Albert

V. interposed with exhortations which appear to

have occasioned some improvement. In 1574

Gebhard became dean of the cathedral at Stras­

burg; in 1576, by papal nomination, provost of the

cathedral at Augsburg. At all events, his ecclesi­

astical behavior must have been clear of suspicious

imputations, and the curia was ready to confirm

his election as elector of Cologne.

A personal matter drew the elector, some years

after his election, into the ecclesiastical strife, and

gave new life to the Bavarian hopes. Gebhard,

about 1580, had formed a liaison with Countess

Agnes of Manafeld, a canoness of the cloister at

Gerresheim. Under the insistencies of the dishon­

ored woman's relatives, Gebhard resolved on

marriage. Originally, no doubt, he meant to re­

sign his office and renounce the spiritual career;

but the same friends who had been active in secur­

ing his election now induced him to retain the

archiepiscopal position despite his marriage. After

somewhat prolonged, though not, indeed, by any

means satisfactory preliminaries, and after formal

conclusion thereof in the city of Bonn, which, for

that matter, was anything but unanimously in

accord with him, the elector publicly announced,

in Dec., 1582, and in Jan., 1583, that he licensed

the exercise of both confessions in the archdiocese,

the old as well as the new; and that he himself

intended to adopt the Augsburg Confession, to

remain archbishop, and to marry. Gebhard's

shortsightedness betrays itself in the fact that on

publicly declaring his purpose he still had no assur­

ance that he had sufficient support in the arch­

diocese, or that he would receive encouragement

from the German Protestants or from Orange

and the States‑General. Up to that time, only the

counts of Wetterau and Palgrave John Casimir

had showed themselves ready to help. In case a

general Protestant support were lacking‑and this

was just what happened, thanks to the mistaken

policy of Elector Augustus of Saxony‑the unsuo­

cesaful issue of this attempt toward religious free­

dom was inevitable from the outset.

Even before Gebhard had publicly announced his

purposes, his adversaries were stirring (from the

autumn of 1582); the cathedral chapter at Cologne,

opposing on both ecclesiastical and personal grounds

the secularization of the archdiocese, devised meas­

ures of resistance, and formed an alliance with the

governor‑general of the Netherlands,

;. Geb‑ Alexander of Parma; moreover the ter­

hard's ritorial estates of the diocese declared

Downfall. themselves against Gebhard's project.

The most influential member of the

chapter, the suffragan bishop, Duke Frederick of

Saxe‑Lauenburg, even began, on his own responsi­

bility, open war against the innovation. The city

of Cologne arrayed itself against the elector; the

Emperor charged him to desist; and the curia

instituted canonical procedure against all apostates.

In Apr. 1583, Gebhard was excommunicated and

deposed from his rank. Bavarian statecraft now

began to stir anew, and the curia, no less than

Gebhard's antagonists in the chapter at Cologne,

accepted Duke Ernest as their sole possible can­

didate. He had appeared in Cologne at the be­

ginning of. March, and at the new election, duly

appointed under date of May 23, he was unani­

mously elected archbishop. Ernest and Gebhard

now confronted each other as champions of differ­

ent principles no less than as exponents of personal

interests; nor was Gebhard disposed to recede.

Promptly after his election, Ernest, supported by

his brother Duke William V., by the Spanish

Government at Brussels, and by the curia, collected

an army; his elder brother, Duke Ferdinand of

Bavaria, was appointed commander‑in‑chief, in the

summer of 1583; and Spanish regiments were

furthermore in readiness to cooperate, since it would

be a new menace to the shattered Spanish dominion

in the Netherlands if the electorate of Cologne

fell into Protestant hands. Gebhard's military

forces were quite unequal to this opposition.

Among the archdiocesan subjects, only the estates

of the duchy of Westphalia had declared in his

favor; in the Rhenish districts of the electorate,

Gebhard, at the beginning of the war, had only

a few secure points in his hand (Bonn, Bedbur,

Berk, and Uerdingen); in the southern portion of the

diocese, his brother Karl Truchsess fought on his

side and in the north his most capable partizan,

Count Adolphus of Neuenar, but both with meager

commands. Palgrave John Casimir, to be sure, the

sole Protestant prince who attempted to furnish

real assistance, marched up to his support with

seven thousand men in the summer of 1583; but

his army, unfit to begin with, and by no means well

handled under his own leadership, was well‑nigh

ready to disband after two months of fruitless

maneuvering on the right bank of the Rhine, and

in consequence of a shortage of pay. In October

John Casimir was recalled from the seat of war to

Heidelberg, to assume the regency on occasion of

the death of his brother, Elector Louis. The ban

of the Empire, threatened by the emperor, con­

tributed to the collapse of this auxiliary service.

Negotiations with the States‑General leading to no

result, Gebhard was left to his own resources for

facing the much stronger adversary. In spite of



this, half a year elapsed before the new elector's preponderating power achieved its purpose; first in the archdiocese, then also in Westphalia, one city and one castle after another slowly succumbed. Gebhard sought refuge in the Netherlands, and finally died at Strasburg in 1601. The battle over the electoral dignity and religious freedom was decided from 1584; by admission to the electoral college early in 1585, Ernest won for himself the legal recognition of the Empire.

Gebhard was impelled by no great idea, nor could he claim through virile activity the title to high striving ambition. He meant well, both at the outset as Roman Catholic and later as Protestant, but was wanting in depth and tenacity. His victori­ous adversary, personally, was not at all his superior. Ernest had pretty nearly the same good and evil traits, and lived a spiritual life just as little as his predecessor; " he is a great sinner, but you must cut your cloth to the figure," was the papal nuncio's remark of him. Again, Ernest's personality was almost indifferent as regards the. result; he was carried to his position by the rising tide of the Counterreformation. Over Gebhard, who stood alone, the, victory was the curia's, Bavaria's, and Spain's.

Now that the political task was accomplished; the ecclesiastical forces of the Counterreformation began to exert themselves; the Jesuits and the papal nuncios proceeded to invest their field. In the Rhenish districts of the diocese and in West­phalia, Protestantism was combated energetically; by the acquisition of Munster, where Ernest was elected in 1585, and by the induction, 5. Progress under Bavarian influence, of trust­of the worthy Roman Catholics into the epis‑

Counter‑ copal sees of Oanabriick, Paderborn,

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