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ambassador, and in 1542 he was one of those who conducted the negotiations with the imperial am­bassador in London. He enjoyed the favor of Henry to the last, but with the accession of Edward VI. he was removed from the Council of State and from the chancellorship of the university. In con­sequence of his opposition to the religious innova­tions of the new council, Gardiner was committed to the Fleet on Sept. 25, 1547, but was allowed to return to his diocese the following December. Sum­moned to London in May, 1548, he still refused to acknowledge the supremacy of the council and maintained the doctrine of the real presence, for which he was imprisoned in the Tower for a year. In Dec., 1550, he was tried before Cranmer, and on Feb. 15, 1551, was deprived of his bishopric and con­fined to the Tower until the death of Edward in 1553.

With the accession of Mary, Gardiner was re­leased and restored to office. As lord high chan­cellor he crowned the queen Oct. 1, 1553, and prided at the opening of Parliament four days later, in addition to being reelected chancellor of Cambridge and master of Trinity Hall. He ad­vocated rigorous measures against those who re­fused obedience to the Roman Catholic Church, but the severity popularly ascribed to him is doubt­less exaggerated. He also strove to restore Eng­land to the papal allegiance, and even sought to have Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon declared valid, thus implying the illegitimacy of Elizabeth. He was likewise obliged to work in favor of Mary's marriage to Philip II., although in reality he was opposed to it. He sought to restore the ecclesiastical courts and the episcopal juris­diction, and one of his last official acts was the re­enforcement of the statute De hteretico combauendo. The chief works of Gardiner were: De vera obedien­tia (London, 1535 ; Eng. tmnsl. by M. Wood, Geneva [?], .1553); Conquestio ad M. Bucerum de ejusdem pseudologia (Louvain, 1544); A Detection of the Devil's Sophistry (London, 1546); An Ex­planation and Assertion of the True Catholic Faith, Touching the Most Blessed Sacrament of the Altar (Rouen, 1551); Palinodia libri de vera obedientia (Paris, 1552); and Epiatolee ad J. Cheeum de pro­nuntiatione lingutr Greecce (Basel, 1555). A few minor works also exist in manuscript.

BIHLIoaEAPH7: Sources are: Calendars of Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII.; ed. Brewer and Gairdner, 2 vole., London, 1884. Con­sult: C. H. and T. Cooper, Agenar Cantabripienses, i. 139­140, ib. 1858; J. B. Mullinger, Hitt. of Unioerenty of Cam­bridge, ii. 58‑83, ib. 1888; $. R. Maitland, Essays on Sub­jects Connected with the Reformation, ib. 1899; DNB, xx. 419‑425 (careful and authoritative).
GARISSOLES, g8"rf"sal', ANTOINE: French Protestant; b. at Montauban (110 m. s.e. of Bor­deaux) June, 1587; d. there Mar., 1651. He was pastor at Puylaurens from 1610 to 1620, when he was called to Montauban. He was professor of theology at the Academy of Montauban from Oct., 1527, till his death, and with the exception of Cha­rmer and Cameron, he is the best‑known lecturer of this ancient institution. In 1645 he presided at the Synod of Charenton and distinguished himself by his successful resistance to ‑ royal demands that

menaced Protestant liberties. At this synod he also attacked the doctrine of mediAte imputation of Placesus. His works include: La voie du salut expose en huiE sarmona. (Montauban, 1637); Deereti eynodici Carentoniorwia (1648); Theses theologicta (1648); Disprut¢tionee elenchticee (1650;; and Cate­chesim scclaaiarum in Gallia (Geneva, 1656).

BawootuPat: Bulletin de la A du yrotestantsma

franmir, 1874; Ltohtenberser, ESN, v. 408‑408.

GARLANDS: Garlands and flowers played an important part in the private and public life of the ancient Egyptians. The court used a hundred garlands daily for the adornment of wine‑vessels, and at festal repeats the guests decked themselves with wreaths. Flowers were offered to the gods and the sarcophagus of the dead was entwined with them. The use of wreaths and flowers by Greeks and Romans is well known. The Israelites had no especial fondness for flowers, although it may be mere accident that there is no mention of flower gardens. The use of green sprays and flowers for personal adornment at banquets, marriage feasts, and on other festival occasions was, however, not foreign to the Israelites (Isa. xxviii. 1; cf. Ezek. xxiii. 42; Cant. iii. 11; III Mace. iv. 8). Later, under the influence of Hellenism, this custom be­came general; fragrant flowers were regarded as elements of a cheerful and joyous life (Wisd. of Sol. ii. 8); joy and mirth found expression in the adorn­ment of the person and house with garlands (III Mace. vii. 16; Ecclus. vi. 31, xv. 6). Garland and crown are used as metaphors for ornament and honor of every kind (Job lua. 9; Prov. xii. 4, xiv. 24). It does not appear, however, that garlands were used in religious observances; at least there is no mention of the adornment of the Temple with natural flowers. To place wreaths upon sacrificial animals was a pagan custom (Acts xiv. 13). Only at the Feast of Tabernacles, according to later usage, those who took part in the procession car­ried branches of citron and palm.


BnewoaaAmT: Tertullao, De corona: B. Ugolini, The‑

saurus antiqaitaham sacnarunk vol. xxx.. 34 vole., Venice, 1744‑89; L. LBw, in Ben Chananja. 1887, nos. 11. 12: DD, i. 529‑531; EB, i. 723, 983; JR, iv. 370: and ord#arx in the la=ioons

GARRET, HENRY HIGHLAND: Colored Pres­byterian, United States minister and consul‑gen­eral to Liberia; b. at New Market, Md., Dec. 23, 1815; d. in Monrovia, Liberia, Feb. 13, 1882. He was born in slavery, but escaped with his father to the North and settled in New York City in 1826. He was educated at the Canaan Academy (N. H.) and at the Oneida Institute, near Utica, N. Y., where he was graduated in 1840. He was licensed to preach in 1842 and was thereupon pastor in Troy for nearly ten years. In 1850 he went to Europe in the interest of the free‑labor movement and for three years lectured in Great Britain on slavery. In 1851 he was a delegate to the peace conference at Frankfort, and in 1853 he went to Jamaica as a missionary for the United Presbyterian Church of Scothmd. He was pastor of the Shiloh Presbyterian Church, New York, 1855‑65, and of a church in Washington, D. C., 1865‑69. He then





became president of Avery College, but soda re­signed this position and returned to Shiloh Church. He was appointed minister and consul‑general to Liberia in June, 1881.
GARNIER, gdr"nyb', JEAN: French Jesuit; b.

at Paris Nov. 11, 1612; d. at Bologna Oct. 26, 1681.

He joined the order of the Jesuits at the age, of

sixteen, and soon demonstrated his theological

talent and his aptness for study and teaching. For

forty years he held professorships of ancient lan­

guages, rhetoric, theology, and philosophy, and pub­

lished numerous works, the value of which could

not be denied even by enemies of the order. Of

lasting importance are his Pelagian studies, compri­

sing awork on the Pelagian Bishop Julian of Eclanum

(Juliani Eelanensis episVpi libellus fWei Primum

edilus cum nods et dissertationibus trios, Paris,

1648), as well as his edition of the writings of Marius

Mercator (1673) with a commentary and treatises

on Pelagianism. Such was the excellence of this

latter work that when Cardinal Noris saw it, he

declared that his own book on the history of the

Pelagian heresy would have remained unwritten

if he had seen the Marius Mercator at an earlier

date. In 1675 Garnier edited the Breviarium

causce Nestorianorum et Eutychianorum of the

Carthage archdeacon Liberatus, appending learned

notes and excursus of his own. He also dis­

cussed other problems of church history in the

three dissertations which he appended to his Leer

diurnus Romanorum pontificum (1680). After the

death of Garnier his supplement to the works of

Theodoret was edited by Hardouin, a brother of

the same order, with a preface containing a biogra­

phy of tile author (Paris, 1684). His earliest

works, Organi philosophim rudiments (Paris, 1651)

and Regulee falei catholicee de gratis Dei Per Jeaum

Christum (Bourges, 1655), are less noteworthy. He

wrote also T raetatus de o f ficiis con f essoris erga

singula pcenitentium genera (Paris, 1689), and

Systems bibliothecoe eollegii Parisiensis S. J. (1678).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Hurter, Nomenclator literarius, ii. 484, 831, Innsbruck, 1893; De Backer, Bibliothaqae de la compagnis de Jiaw, ed. C. $ommervogel, iii. 1228 sqq., Paris 1892; %L, v. 104‑I05.

GARNIER, JULIEN: French Benedictine of the Congregation of 'St. Maur; b. at Connerrd (16 m. e. of Le Mans). c. 1670; d. at Charenton (5 m. s.e. of Paris) June 3,.172,5. In 1699 he joined the Maurist order, and became the collaborator of the famous Dom Mabillon. His thorough knowledge of the Greek language and literature led his order to entrust him with the preparation of a new edition of the works of Basil, and after 1701 he devoted all his time and energy to this tremendous under­taking. The first volume appeared after twenty years of uninterrupted toil (Paris, 1721), and in the following year he published the second. His labors had worn him out, however, and he died be­fore the publication of the third volume, which was prepared by Dom Prudent Mayan (1730).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Hurter, Nomenclator 1%terariue, ii. 1106, Innsbruck, 1893.

GARRETT, ALEXANDER CHARLES: Protes­tant Episcopal bishop of Dallas, Tex.; b. at Bally‑

mote (13 m. s.w. of Sligo), County Sligo, Ireland, Nov. 4, 1832. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1855), was ordered deacon (1856) and ordained priest (1857). After being curate of East Worldham, Hampshire (1856‑59), he was a mission­ary in British Columbia for ten years, being eve­ning lecturerat the cathedral in Victoria; missionary to the Indians, naval chaplain at Esquimalt, rec­tor of St. Paul's, Nanaims, and missionary to the miners at Cariboo.‑ He was rector of St. James', San Francisco . (1870‑72), and dean of Trinity Cathedral, Omaha, Neb. (1872‑74). In 1874 he was consecrated missionary bishop of Northern Texas, and on the creation of the diocese of Dallas in 1895 became bishop of that see. He was the founder of St. Mary's Institute for girls at Dallas, and also secured the erection of St. Matthew's Cathe­dral in the same city. He has written Historical Continuity (New York, 1875) and The Philosophy of the Incarnation (Baldwin lectures; 1891).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: W. s. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 229, New York, 1895.
GARRIGAN, PHILIP JOSEPH: Roman Catho­lic bishop of Sioux City, Ia.; b. at Cavan (26 m. s.s.e. of Enniskillen), County Cavan, Ireland, Sept. 8, 1840. He was educated at St. Charles' College, Ellicott City, Md. (1862‑66), and St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary, Troy, N. Y., from which he was graduated in 1870. After being curate of St. John's, Worcester, Mass. 1870‑73, he was vice­president of St. Joseph's Provincial Seminary 1873­1875, and rector of St. Bernard's Church, Fitch­burg, Mass., 1875‑88. He was then vice‑rector of the Catholic University of America, Washington, 1888‑1902, and in 1902 was consecrated bishop of the newly created diocese of Sioux City.
GARRUCCI, gdr‑ru'cht, RAFFAELE : Italian Jesuit and archeologist; b. at Naples Jan. 23,1812; d. at Rome May 5, 1885. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of fourteen, and after 1845 published numerous monographs and books on Christian archeology, including numismatics, , epig­raphy, painting, sculpture, and the art of the cata­combs in all its ramifications. His principal works are : Antichitd dei Bebiani (Naples, 1845); La Storia di Isermia (1848); Tre sepolchri del cimiterio di Pretestato in Roma (1852); Questioni pompejani (1853); Inscriptions gravces sur les murs de Pompei (Brussels, 1854); 11 Crocifrsso graffito in casa dei Cesari (Rome, 1857); Yetri ornati di figure in oro trovati nei cimiteri dei Cristiani primitivi (1858); Monumenti del Museo Lateranense (2 vols., 1862); Cimiterno degli antichi Ebrei scoperto in vigna Randanini (1862); Storia dell' ante cristiana nei primi Otto secoli dells ehiesa (6 vols., Prato, 1872‑81); and Le Monete dell' Italic antica (Rome, 1885). He also prepared the first edition of the Hagiv­glypta Rive pieturm et seulpturm sacree antiquiores prcesertim qutv homes reperiuntur, which had been written by Jean 1'Heureux (Macarius) as early as 1605 (Paris, 1856).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: De Backer, BibliotALqm de la compagnie de June, ed. C. 8ommervogel, vol. iii., Paris, 1892; 3lim­men Gus Maria‑Laarl4 x. 158‑180; %L, v. 105‑108.






preacher and hymn‑writer; b. at Jeinsen (a. of Han­

over) Jan. 24, 1763; d. at Herrnhut (42 m. e. of

Dresden) June 21, 1841. His father's house was a

meeting‑place for the Moravian brethren of that part

of Germany, and a candidate from Herrnhut was a

private tutor in his father's family. At the age of

five Karl was sent to the institution of the Brethren

in Zeist, then to Neuwied‑on‑the‑Rhine. His edu­

cation was completed in the Paedagogium in Niesky

and in the theological seminary in Barby. In 1784

he received his first position as teacher at the Pa'da­

gogium. In 1789 he. became docent of historical

and philosophical sciences in the theological semi­

nary. Starting from the criticism of Kant and fol­

lowing closely Jacobi and Reinhold, he endeavored

to build a foundation for the Moravian conception

of Christianity. But his lectures on philosophy

only fostered an aversion to theology and practical

service in the Congregation of Brethren so that the

authorities were compelled to dismiss Garvein 1797,

acknowledging, however, their kindly feelings to­

ward him. From 1799 to 1816 he was successively

preacher in the Moravian congregations at Amster­

dam, Ebersdorf, Norden, Berlin, and from 1816 to

1836 at Neusalz‑on‑the‑Oder. In 1837 he retired

to Herrnhut. [carve was one of the most noted of

the Moravian hymn‑writers; his best hymn is

probably Dein Wort, 0 Herr, is$ milder Thau, trans­

lated by Miss Winkworth as " Thy Word, O Lord,

like gentle dews."] He wrote: Chxistliche Gesange

(G&rlitz, 1825); Briidergesdnge (Gnadau, 1827);

Der deutsche Verabau (Berlin, 1827); Die Themes

der Dichtkunst (1828); Die Schule der Weisheit

(Leipsic, 1830); and Der Volka»ertreter (Carlsruhe,

1839). JOSEPH Mt)LLER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A notice by his son Leopold appeared in the Nakrolog der Deutaduen, mix. 1, pp. 609‑610. Con­sult also Julian, Hymnology, pp. 404‑405.

GARVIE, ALFRED ERNEST: English Congre­gationalist; b. at Zyrardow, Russian Poland, Aug. 28, 1861. He studied at George Watson's College, Edinburgh, and the universities of Glasgow (M.A., 1889) and Oxford (B.A., 1892). After being lec­turer at Mansfield College in 1892, he held pas­torates at Macduff Congregational Church 1893‑95 and at Montrose Congregational Church 1895‑1903. In 1903‑07 he was professor of the philosophy of theism, comparative religion, and Christian ethics in Hackney and New Colleges, London, of which he has been principal since 1907. He was exam­iner in Biblical languages and literatures in Edin­burgh Congregational Hall 1895‑1902, and presi­dent of the Hampstead Free Church Council 1906­1907. In theology he is moderately progressive and liberal, and is a Lutheran rather than a Cal­vinist. He has written The Ethics of Temperance (London, 1895); The Ritsehlian Theology (Edin­burgh, 1899); Commentary on Romans in The Cen­tury Bible (London, 1901); The Gospel for To‑Day (1904); The Christian Personality . (1904); My Brother's Keeper (1905); and Religious Education (1906).


French Protestant, statesman and author; b.

at Orange (18 m. n. of Avignon) July 12, 1810;


d. at Geneva May 8, 1871. He studied law in Paris and entered politics. After having held various political appointments he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies from Bastia, Corsica, in 1842. On being defeated for reelection in 1846 he aban­doned politics and devoted himself thenceforth to writing and lecturing, chiefly on social and religious subjects. He worked for the abolition of slavery, the suppression of war, the establishment of relig­ious liberty, and the separation of Church and State. In 1849 he settled at Geneva, where he lived till his death. His principal works are: Esclavage et trait6 (Paris, 1838); Las Int&&s gdn&aux du protee­tantisme franpsis (1843); Christianisme et paganiame (2 vols., 1846); Des tables tournantes, du. sumaturel en g6n&al, et des esprits (2 vols., 1854; Eng. trawl., Science vs. Modern Spiritualism, 2 vols., New York, 1857); Lm &oles du doute et Z'&ole de la foi (Ge­neva, 1854; Eng. trawl., The Schools of Doubt and the School of Faith, Edinburgh, 1854); Un Grand Peuple qui se reUve (Paris, 1'861; Eng. tmnd., The Uprising of a Great People, New York, 1861, and London, 1862); L'Am6rique devant L'Europe (1862; Eng. trawl., America before Europe, New York and London, 1862); La Famine (2 vols., 1865; Eng. transl., The Family, London, 1867) ; La LiUrtg morale (2 vols., 1868); L'4yalW (1869); La Conscience (18,72); and L'6glise selon Z'hangile (2 vols., 1878). Other translations from Gasparip are: The Doctrine of Plenary Inspiration (Edin­burgh, 1852), from five articles in the Archives du Christianisme; and The Concessions of the Apostle Paul and the Claims of Truth (1854), translated from an unpublished manuscript.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Accounts of his life are by T. Borel, Paris, 1878; L. Ruffet, ib. 1884; and C. Barbey‑Boiseier, 2 vole., Paris, 1902.

GASQUET, FRANCIS AIDAN: English Bene­dictine; b. in London Oct. 5, 1846. He was gradu­ated at St. Gregory's College, Downside, Bath, in 1864, and entered the Benedictine order in 1865, being a postulant at Belmont Priory, near Hereford, 1865‑70 and at Downside Priory 1870‑74. , In 1874 he was ordained priest, and from 1878 to 1885 was prior of the community, but was compelled to resign on account of ill health. On his recovery he was appointed by Pope Leo XIII. to engage in historical research, and accordingly, removed to Lon­don. In 1896 he was appointed a member of the commission of Anglican orders, and during a visit in Rome discovered important documents bearing on the controversy. Four years later he was ap­pointed abbot president of the English Benedic­tines, and in this capacity controls .four won­asteries and over 300 monks. He has written Henry VIII. and the English Monasteries (2 vole., London, 1888); Edward VI. and the Book of Com­mon Prayer (in collaboration with Edmund Bishop; 1890); The Great Pestilence (1893); . The Last Abbot of Glastonbury (1895); A Sketch of Monastic Con­stitutional History (1896); The Old English Bible, and Other Essays (1897); The Eros of the Reforma­tion (1900); A Short History of the Catholic Church in England (1903); English Monastic Life (19030; Henry the Third and the Church (1905);, Lord Acton and his Circle (1906); Pariah Life in Madia‑



val England (1906); and The Black Death of 131,8

and 131,,9 (1908). He has also edited Montalembert's

Monks o f the West (6 vols., London, 1895); William

Cobbett's History of the Protestant Reformation in

England and Ireland (1896); Vita Antiquissima

Beati Gregorii Magni (1903); and Analeeta Anglo­

Premonstratensia (1904).


HEINRICH): German Protestant; b. at Breslau

Nov. 28, 1813; d. at Heidelberg Feb. 21, 1889.

As a mere child he learned Greek, before undertaking

the study of Latin, from Franz Passow, professor

at Breslau, and thus laid the foundation for his

later researches in Greek Christianity. After at­

tending the gymnasia at Breslau and Schweidnitz

he entered the University of Breslau in 1832 to

study theology, but was at first interested chiefly in

philosophy, philology, and belles‑lettres. In 1834­

1835 he studied at Halle, being influenced especially

by Gesenius, Wegacheider, and Thilo, later at Ber­

lin, where Neander exerted a deep influence upon

him. In 1836 he returned to Breslau (Ph.D., 1836;

Th.Lic., 1839) and established himself as privat‑do­

cent of theology there in 1839. In 1846 he became

professor extraordinary at Breslau, and in 1847 at

Greifswald, where he was made full professor in

1855. In 1862 he became professor of systematic

theology at Giessen, whence he went to Heidelberg

in 1868 as the successor of R. Rothe. Here he

taught, besides systematic theology, New Testa­

ment exegesis and hymnology. As represent­

ative of the faculty of Heidelberg, he took part in

the general synods of 1871, 1876, and 1881, ad­

vocating a moderate liberalism. In 1885 he was ap­

pointed church councilor.

Gass was a strong advocate of the Evangelical

union, and was one of the most learned among the

masters of German Evangelical theology. His

works are distinguished by diligent research and

rest upon a conscientious and intelligent use of the

sources. He first directed his attention to the

history of the Greek Church in the Middle Ages,

a field almost entirely neglected until his time.

His first work, Gennadius and Pletho (Breslau,

1844), treats of the struggle of Aristotelianism and

Platonism during this period. In Die Mystik des

Nikolaus Kabasilas, vom Leben in Christo (Greifs­

wald, 1849) he edited for the first time the " Life

in Christ " of Kabasilas, metropolitan of Thesea­

lonica about 1350, and gave an interesting sketch

of the history of Greek mysticism. He wrote also

Geschichte der Athoskloster (Giessen, 1865) and

collected his smaller contributions to the history of

dogma in the Greek Church in Slik der grie­

chischen Kirche (Berlin, 1872), the first compre­

hensive work on this theme since Heineccius'

Abbildung der alien and neuen griechischen Kirche

(Leipsic, 1711). Gass tried to present a critical

description of the character of the Greek Church,

by considering not only its dogmatic tradition,

but also its rites, liturgy, and worship, and the

spiritual, national, and moral conditions in gen­

eral. He also rendered valuable service to the

history of Protestant dogmatics by his Geschichte

der protestantischen Dogmatik (4 vols., Berlin, 1854­

1867), which presents the dogmatic development

from Melanohthon to Schleiermacher. In his later years Gass devoted himself to the study of Christian ethics. His most important works in this field are: Die Lehre vom Gewissen (Berlin, 1869), Optimismus and Pessimismus (1876), and Geschichte der Ethik (2 vole. in 3, 1881‑87). Of other works may be mentioned: Georg Calixt and der Synkre­tismus (Breslau, 1846) and Das Recht der Union, eine Schutzrede (Giessen, 1867). He also edited Schleier­maeher's Briefwechsel mit J. C. Gass (his father, Berlin, 1852), and with A. Vial, E. L. T. Henke's posthumous Neuere Kirchengeschichte (3 vols., Halle, 1874‑80). With H. Reuter and T. Brieger he edited, after 1876, the Zeitschrift Pr Kirchenge­schichte (Goths, 1876 sqq.). G. GRfzMACHER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Badische Biographieen, ed. F. von Weeeh, iv. 527‑536, Carlsmhe, 1891. The funeral oration, by H. Basserman, is in Protestantische Kirchenwitung, 1889, pp. 251 eqq.


theologian; b. at Leopoldahagen (a suburb of

Anklam, 47 m. n.w. of Stettin) May 26, 1766;

d. at Breslau Feb. 19, 1831. He began his educa­

tion at the monastic school at Bergen, studied

theology and philosophy at Halle 1785‑89, and in

1795 was appointed field chaplain in Borcke's

regiment, and. preacher at the garrison at Stettin.

As a theologian he early departed from orthodoxy,

although he endeavored to restore the beautiful

" individuality " of Christianity, his Beitrage zur

Verbreitung eines religaosen Sinnes in Predigten

(Stettin, 1801) giving evidence of this desire. In

1806 the Napoleonic war took Gass to Halle, where

he met Schleiermaeher, who had been his close

friend for three years, and Steffens. Gass soon

returned to Stettin, but the disbanding of his

regiment in the latter half of 1807, together with

domestic troubles, led him to settle in Berlin,

where he was appointed preacher at the Marien­

kirche. In 1810 he was called to Breslau, where

he remained until his death, officiating as Konsis­

torialrat and as a member of the church and school

committees of the government of Silesia. When

the University of Frankfort‑on‑the‑Oder was trans­

ferred to Breslau in 1811, Gass was given the

chair of systematic theology. As a theologian,

he was a follower of Schleiermacher, although he did

not absorb the latter's doctrinal idiosyncrasies.

In the beginning of his career as a member of the

Silesian consistory, Gass was in accord with the

highest functionaries, but later he sided with the

opposition. His attitude during the controversies

regarding union, organization, and ritual may be

gathered partly from his letters to Schleiermacher

and partly from the Jahrbuch des protestantischen

Kirchen‑ and Schulwesens von and fur Schlesien

(2 vols., Breslau, 1818‑20), which he edited. Among

his other works the most important are the following:

Ueber den ehristlichen Cultus (Breslau, 1815); An

meine evangelischen Mitburger (1823); Ueber den

Religionsunterricht in den oberen Klassen der Gym­

nasien (1828); and Ueber den Reichstag zu Speyer

von 1629 (1827). (W. GASSt.)

BIBLIoaRAPBy: F. $chleiermacher, Briehoecheel mit J. C. Gass, Berlin, 1852; Aus Setaeiermacher'a Leben, in Briefen, Berlin, 1858. Eng. transl., The Life of SchleiermacAer as Unfolded in his Autobiography and LeNers, London, 1860.


GASSENDI, gas‑sen'di, PIERRE: French Ro­man Catholic philosopher and mathematician; b. at Champtercier, near Digne (55 m. n.e. of Aix), Jan. 22, 1592; d. at Paris Oct. 24, 1655. He was educated at Digne and Aix. At sixteen he was offered an instructorship in rhetoric at Digne, and in 1613 he became professor of theology at Aix. In 1617 he took orders, and was then professor of philosophy at Aix till 1623, when he resigned his position for a canonry at Grenoble. In 1633 he be­came provost of the cathedral at Digne, and in 1645 professor of mathematics at the Collbge Royal in Paris. Gassendi is known chiefly as an opponent of Descartes, and as the reviver of Epicu­reanism, which he endeavored to harmonize with Christianity. He adopted Epicurus's atomistic physics, his empirical theory of knowledge, his hed­onistic ethics, and also his view of the freedom of the will. He held that God created the atoms and endowed them with certain properties, but that he also exercises a supervision over them. Gassendi prepared the way for the empiricism of Condillac and Locke and occupies an important place in the history of atomistic philosophy. Aside from a number of polemical writings against Descartes, his principal works are, Exercitationes paradoxite versus Aristoteles (bk. i., Grenoble, 1624; bk. ii. The Hague, 1659); De vita moribus et doctrine Epicure (Lyons, 1647); Institutio astronomica (Paris, 1647); and Syntagma philosophia Epicuri (Lyons, 1849).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: De Camburat, Abrcpe de la vie et du sys­ttme de Gassendi, Bouillon, 1770; C. Jeannel, Gassendi spiritualists, Montpellier, 1859. Works on his philosophy are by: L. Mandon, ib. 1861; P. F. Thomas, Paris, 1889.
GAST, gust, FREDERICK AUGUSTUS: Ger­man Reformed; b. at Lancaster, Pa., Oct. 17, 1835. He studied at Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. (B.A., 1856), and the Mercersburg Theological Seminary (1856‑57). In 1859 he was ordained, and was pastor at NewHol­land, Pa., 1859‑‑65 and at Loudon and St. Thomas, Pa., 1865‑67, in addition to being chaplain of the Forty‑fifth Pennsylvania Volunteers from March to July, 1865. He was principal of the academy of Franklin and Marshall College 1867‑71, as­sistant professor in the college 1871‑72, and tutor in the theological seminary at Lancaster 1872‑74. Since 1874 he has been professor of Hebrew and Old Testament theology in the same institution.
GATAKER, gat'a‑ker, THOMAS: English Puritan; b. in London Sept. 4,1574; d. at Rotherhithe (2 m. s.e. of St. Paul's) July 27, 1654. He studied at St. John's College, Cambridge, and was appointed to a fellowship in the newly founded Sidney Sussex College in 1596. After preaching for a few months at Everton, near Cambridge, he went to London in 1600, where he preached occasionally at St. Mar­tin's‑in‑the‑Fields and served as tutor in the family of Sir William Cooke. In 1601 he received the lec­tureship at Lincoln's Inn, and in 1611 the rectory of Rotherhithe, which he held till his death. In 1643 he was nominated a member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, and in 1644 he was put upon the committee for examining ministers. He bad

previously declined the mastership of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1645 he was a member of a com­mittee to select persons to translate the directory of worship into Welsh, and also of the committee of seven charged with the preparation of the first draft of a confession of faith. On Jan. 18,1649, he signed the first address against the trial and execution of the king. In the matter of church government he advocated a modified episcopacy. Gataker was a man of minute scholarship, and his best‑known works are his valuable annotated edition of Marcus Aurelius (London, 1652), and his commentaries on Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Lamentations, published in the Assembly's Annotations (1645, 1651). Other works are: Of the Nature and Use of Lots (London, 1619); A Discussion of the Popish Doctrine of Tran­substantiation (1624); A Short Catechism (1624); and Sermons (2 parts, 1637). H. Witsius edited his Opera critica (2 vols., Utrecht, 1697‑98).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are his own Discours Apologetical, London, 1654; his autobiography in the posthumous Adversaries Miscellanea, ib. 1659; and Gray Hayres Crowned toroth Grace, a Puneral Sermon with Memoir, 1655. Consult: A. A Wood, Athena! Oxonienses, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 1257, 4 vols., ib. 1813‑20; B. Brook. Lives of the Puri­tans, iii. 200, ib. 1813; D. Neal, Hist. of the Puritans, iii. 451, ib. 1822; A. F. Mitchell, Westminster Assembly and Standards, passim, ib. 1883; DNB, xxi. 80‑$2.
GAUDEH, g8'den, JOHN: Bishop of Worces‑

ter; b. at Mayland (35 m. e.n.e. of London) 1605; d. at Worcester Sept. 20, 1662. He was educated at St. John's College, Cambridge (B.A..1623; M.A., 1626), and at Wadham College, Oxford (B.D., 1635; D.D., 1641). In 1640 he became vicar of Chippen­ham and chaplain to the earl of Warwick, through whose influence he was nominated to the deanery of Bocking in 1641. On Nov. 29,1640, he preached before the House of Commons. He was a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643, but on account of his conservative views on episcopacy was soon removed from that body. Although he opposed the policy of Cromwell and published a number of books in behalf of the Church of England, he conformed to Presbyterianism and continued to hold his preferments throughout the Protector­ate. At the Restoration in 1660 he was made chaplain to the king and bishop of Exeter, and in 1662 he was translated to the see of Worcester. He was a member of the Savoy Conference (q.v.); and according to Baxter, if all had possessed his moderation the Episcopalians and Presbyterians would have been quickly reconciled. Gauden was probably the author of Eik6n Basilik8; the Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes and Sufferings (1648), an ostensible work of Charles I. that quickly passed through twenty‑seven edi­tions. The book was translated into Latin and was attacked by Milton in his Eikonoclastes (1649). It is a defense of the king'P conduct and an account of his misfortunes from 1640 to 1648, interpolated with prayers and meditations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the authorship of Rikbn Basilika con­sult C. Wordsworth, Who wrote Etwor PaouA4eqt Cam­bridge, 1824; idem, King Charks 1., Author of Icon Basi­like, ib. 1828; H. J. Todd, A Letter . . . concerning the Authorship, 1825. On Gauden consult: A. A Wood, Athmas Osonienese, ed. P. Bliss, iii. 612‑618, 4 vole., London, 1813‑20; T. Baker, Hist. of CoUsps of Bt. John.

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