261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

penalty rather than death, so that all recollection

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penalty rather than death, so that all recollection

of a persecution during the reign of Gallus soon vanished from the Church.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: J. C. Orelli, Inecriptionum Latinarum . . . Coilectio, nos. 281, 997, 998, 1000, 3 vole., Zurich, 1828,1858; Eusebius, Hist. scat., V11. i., x. 1; idem, Chronicon, 2289‑72; Jerome, Chronicon, 2268­2270. Consult: L. 8. Le Nain de 7111emont, Hiet. des em­psrsure, x. 245‑246, Dresden, 1754; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, i. 250‑252; Milman, Latin Christianity, i 85; Nean­der, Christian Church, i. 138, 268, 711; and the literature under PERSECUTIONS, CHRISTIAN, IN THE ROMAN Em­POiE, and CYPRIAN.

GALLUS (HAHN), ftICOLAUS: Leader of the Reformation in Regensburg; b. at K6then (19 m. n. of Halle), Anhalt, 1516; d. at Zellerbad, near Liebenzell (20 m. w. of Stuttgart), Wurttemberg, June, 1570. At Wittenberg, where he became a student in 1530 and received the master's degree in 1537, he won the commendation of Melanchthon. In 1543 Luther sent Hieronymus Nopus as preacher to Regensburg at the request of the city council and with him went Gallus, who was ordained by Bugen­hagen in April. In 1548 trouble arose in Regens­burg over the acceptance of the Interim. Gallus wrote a treatise against it, and had to leave the city; services in the only Evangelical church there were discontinued. For a time Gallus preached for Cruciger (who was ill) at Wittenberg, then in 1549, through the influence of his brother‑in‑law, Hein­rich Merkel, city secretary at Magdeburg, he went to the Ulrich Church in that city. He joined Flacius in opposition to the adiaphorism of the Wittenberg circle and published a Disputation von Mitteldingen in 1550. He remained in Magdeburg after its capit­ulation in 1551, and kept up the dispute against Osiander and Major. In June, 1553, Prince Wolf­gang of Anhalt called him to his native city to as­sist in the settlement of the administration of the church property. In August, 1553, Gallus was called back to Regensburg as leader of the Evangel­ical cause. He worked there for almost seventeen years, and the effects of his activity were felt far beyond the borders of the town. In the disputes of the following years he fought faithfully on the side of Flacius. Like him he tried to influence Mehanchthon by letters, but the latter treated Gallus rather haughtily. It probably angered him that Gallus had republished (1554) his Sententite veterum de coma Domini, which was directed against (Ecolam­padius. In 1561 Gallus warned the princes con­vened at Naumburg of the spreading Calvinistic doctrine of the Lord's Supper. He also got into a dispute with Brenz, whom he suspected of leanings toward Melanchthonism. From 1562 to IBM he furnished a refuge to Flacius, who had been expelled from Jena. Melanchthon reproached Gallus for fighting continually against the Evangelicals, instead of combating Romanism. But the re­proach was not pertinent; during the diet in 1556 he preached against the Roman Catholics, and there are still extant manuscripts containing theses of dis­putation against the Ingolstadt Catholics. In this connection may be mentioned Gallus' writing di­rected against Corpus Christi day: Vom abg6tti­schen Fest, FrohnLiehnama‑Tag genannt (1561). His congregation esteemed him highly for his seal


in the maintenance of pure doctrine and moral discipline, and his personal life was blameless.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources: Some of his letters are printed in CR, viii., ix., and in J. Fecht, Hiat. eccl. awculi xvi., supplement vol., pp. 27 eqq.; part of his writings are in W. Preger, M. Flaciua, ii. 540 eqq., Erlangen, 1861 (where other biographical material is found). Consult: L. Wid­mann in Chroniken der deutschen Sthdte xv. 187 eqq.; W. Germann, J. Forater, pp. 371 eqq., Meiningen, 1894; E. B5h1, Beitrdpe zur Geechichte der Reformation in Oes­terreirh, Jena, 1902; ADB, viii. 351 sqq.
GAMALIEL ("God is my rewarder"): A cele­brated rabbi of the first century. There were at least two noted leaders of this name, the one men­tioned Acts v. 34 being generally called the Elder or Gamaliel I. to distinguish him from his grandson. According to Acts xxii. 3 he was the teacher of Paul. In Jewish literature he is known as the ancestor of the later Jewish patriarchs (ethnarchs) of Palestine. The family claimed descent from Benjamin and even from David. That Hillel the Great was Gamaliel's grandfather is claimed, but is not certain. Jewish tradition speaks of Gamaliel as president of the Sanhedrin, but these statements refer generally to Gamaliel II. A few practical enactments are ascribed to him. Thus he decided (Mishnah, Gitlin iv. 2) that in the letter of divorce the formula " and every name which he (she) has " be added to the name of the husband and the wife, thus precluding the possibility of invalidating a letter of divorce in case one had different names. In the interest of orphans he introduced the custom that the widow state under oath that she had thus far received nothing, before taking her dowry from the estate (Gittin iv. 6). He considered the evi­dence of one witness of the death of a husband as sufficient to allow the widow to marry again (Yebamot xvi. 7). That he became a Christian as the Clem­entine Recognitions (i. 65) state is an invention. He died probably before the year 70, for his son Sim­eon played an important part during the rebellion, whereas Gamaliel is mentioned no more.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. D. Ginsburg, in Mtto, Cgclopaedia o/ Bibli­cal Literature, ii. 60‑61, Edinburgh, 1864 (gives rabbini­cal references); J. Derenbourg, L'Hist. et la gtographie de la Palestine, i. 239‑246, Paris, 1867; H. Gritz, Geachichte der Juden, iii. 373 sqq., Leipsic, 1878; F. W. Farrar, Paul, vol. i., excursus v., London, 1879; J. Hamburger, Real­Eneyklop4die filr Babel and Talmud, ii. 236‑237, Strelitz, 1883; M. Bloch, Inatitutionen des Judentuma, IL, i. 118­202, BrUnn, 1884; M. Brauneehweiger, Die Lehrer der Miachnah, pp. 50 aqq.; Frankfort, 1890; Schilrer, Ge­echichte and Eng. transl., consult Indexes; DR, ii. 106; EB, ii. 1638‑39; JE, v. 558‑560.

GAMES: A means of securing entertainment and relaxation, as is indicated by the most general Hebrew term " to play," ;zih,.,hak ( = " to laugh long and heartily "). The Old Testament gives no detailed information about the games of children, but it may be assumed that Hebrew young people employed their mental, muscular, and nervous energy in the same way as the children of all other peoples. Even the positive prohibition of images by Islam has not prevented the children from delighting in models of horses, sheep, and the like. Since in spite of Ex. xx. 4 there were varied prod­ucts of the arts in animal and other forms in the

Temple; the Hebrew children doubtless had their playthings made after similar models. A hint of a mode of entertainment may be given in Job xli. 5­" Wilt thou play with him [leviathan] as with a bird? or wilt thou bind him for thy maidens? " (cf. Baruch iii. 17). The excavations in Taanach have revealed bone implements such as the Arabs still employ in playing dice. The Talmud (Rosh ha‑Shanah i. 8) pronounces those who train doves for speed trials or to lure other doves into their dove‑cotes and those who use dice incompetent to bear witness. There is mention of a game of drafts in Sanhedrin 25b. Early rabbis condemned card‑playing. To win money from a Jew by a game is robbery, to win it from a Gentile is not robbery though a breach of the law. " Odd and even " was a game of the Egyptians; Assyrian dice of bronze with spots of gold have been found; a similar game, played by the drawing of arrows, was used by the ancient Arabs; the,' Homeric Greeks had both drafts and dice; and Tacitus reports that the Germans played with dice. Doubtless the early Hebrews in their moments of leisure, as they sat at their doors or met in public gathering‑places (Gem. xix. 1; Lam. v. 14) or on festal occasions (Judges xiv. 10 sqq.), amused themselves in similar manner, and it is known that they sharpened their wits in the pro­pounding and answering of riddles (Judges xiv. 14 sqq.; I Kings x. 1; Prov. xxx. 21 sqq.). The drama does not seem to have been congenial to the Hebrew character, and for this reason the interpreta­tion of Canticles as a drama. seems less reasonable, though in later times the Jews are reported to have gone upon the stage and written dramas (Josephus, Life, iii.; Clement of Alexandria, Strom., i. 155).

There were also what may be classed as sensuous games in distinction from those already mentioned which exercise primarily the mental faculties. In these song and music occupy prominent parts (Ex. xv. 20‑21; I Sam. xvi. 16 sqq.; Isa. v. 12; Jer. xxx. 19; Amos vi. 5; see Music, HEBREW). Games which exercised the powers of body and will were numerous; among these dances take first place (Job xxi. 11; Jer. xxxi. 4), in which the course of the seasons or national success or personal prowess was celebrated in joyous and concerted movement (Judges xxi. 21; I Sam. xviii. 6; see DANCING). With such dancing to the accompaniment of music and song Samson was probably expected to enter­tain his enemies (Judges xvi. 25). The foot‑race is implied in Ps. xix. 5, and by the references to the speed of Saul, Jonathan, and Asahel (II Sam. i. 23, ii. 18). Skill of hand and arm were employed in a game of ball (Isa. xxii.18), which game is recognized among Assyrian sports, is mentioned by the rabbis, and was known to the Egyptians. The shooting of arrows at a mark was likewise a means of entertain­ment (I Sam. xx. 20; Job xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12). Throwing the stone is suggested by Zech. xii. 3 (cf. C. eon Orelli, Durchs heilige Land, Basel, 1890, p. 291). The Jews raised energetic protest against the adoption of Greek sports (I Mace. i. 14; II Mace. iv. 9‑15); but the Herodian faction had theaters and amphitheaters near Jerusalem and Joppa, and Herod's interest in such matters is re­ported by Josephus (Ant. XV., viii. 1, ix. 6, XVI., v.



1). Gladiatorial shows were most strongly con­

demned by the Jews. In the New Testament Paul

makes frequent reference to the foot‑race and its

rewards (I Cor. ix. 24‑27; Phil. iii. 12; II Tim. ii.

5; cf. James i. 12; Rev. ii. 10). (E. K6NIG.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. J. Van Lennep, Bible Laude, . . Cue­

toma and Manners 1llusimtive of Scripture, pp. 573‑574,

New York‑, 1875; J. G. Wilkinson, Manners and Customs

of the Ancient Egyptians, London, 1878; E. Buchholz,

Die homeriachen Realien, ii. 1, pp. 280‑299, Leipsic, 1881;

J. 8. Howson, Metaphors of St. Paul, chap. iv., London,

1883; A. Huber, Udber das " Meiair " . Spiel der

heidniachen Araber, pp 9 sqq, Leipsic, 1883; A. Wiinsche,

Die Rdtselweiaheit bei den Hebraern, ib. 1883; M. Lazarus,

Die Reize des Spieles, Berlin, 1883; T. Mommsen, R6mi­

sehe Altertilmer, ii. 517 sqq., Leipsic, 1887; G. Dalman,

Paldstiniacher Diuyan, 1901, pp. 95 eqq., 182 eqq., 254

sqq.; DB, ii. 106‑108.


Roman Catholic; b. at Mittelbuch (a village of

Wurttemberg) Jan. 23, 1816; d. at Munich May

11, 1892. He studied at Ttibingen, and became

vicar at Achstettin and Gmund in 1838 and teacher

at Horb in 1841. He made a scientific journey at

the expense of the State in 1842‑43, and in the fol­

lowing year was appointed acting pastor at Wurm­

lingen and professor at Rottweil. After serving as

teacher at Gmiind, he became professor of theology

and philosophy at the episcopal seminary of Hildes­

heim in 1847, but in 1855 entered the Benedictine

monastery of St. Boniface at Munich. Gams was

a prolific writer, his principal works being: Aus­

gang and Ziel der Geschichte (Tubingen, 1850); Die

Geschichte der Kirche Jesu Christi im .neunzehnten

Jahrhundert (3 vols., Innsbruck, 1854‑58; sup­

plementary volume; 1860); Margott, die Siege der

Kirche im ersten Jahrzehnt des Pontifikats Pius IX.

(1860); Kateehetische Reden gehalten in der Basilika

zu Miinchen (2 vols., Regensburg, 1862); Kirch.en­

geschiehte von Spanien (3 vols., 1862‑79); Das

Jahr des Martyrtodes der heiligen Apostel Petrus

and Paulus (1867); Zur Geschiehte der spanischen

Staatsinquisitian (1878); and Der Bonifacivsverein

in Deutschland 1850‑1880 (Paderborn, 1880). He

wrote also a biography of J. A. Mohler (Regensburg,

1866) and edited his Kirchengeschichte (3 vols.,

1867‑68), as well as the Series episcoporum ecclesia

catholiea quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo

(1872; supplements 1879 and 1886).

GANGRA, SYNOD OF (circa 340). See Eu­



lic; b. at Cambridge, Mass., July 14, 1853. He

studied at Boston College, which he left in 1872 to

encer the Society of Jesus. He studied the usual

courses of the Society at Frederic, Md. (1872‑75,

1889‑90), and Woodstock College, Woodstock, Md.

(1875‑78, 1883‑87), and was professor of Latin,

Greek, and mathematics at Holy Cross College,

Worcester, Mass., 1878‑83. He taught philosophy

at Boston College (1887‑88) and at Woodstock

College (1888‑89), and after being assistant to his

provincial in 1890‑91 was president of St. John's

College, Fordham, N. Y., until 1896. He was then

again assistant to two provincials for five years;

in 1901‑06 provincial of the Maryland‑New York

province, and in 1907 became instructor of ter‑

tiaries in the Novitiate of St. Andrew‑on‑Hudson, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. He has been a member of the Missionary Band since 1906.

GARASSE, ga"r&, FRANQOIS: French Jesuit; b. at Angoul6me (66 m. n.e. of Bordeaux), France, 1584; d. at Poitiers (60 m. s.s.w. of Tours), France, June 14, 1631. He joined the Jesuit order in 1600, and soon became known as a powerful pulpit orator. As a writer he devoted himself chiefly to polemics, sparing no opponents of his order, and attacking even the dead. In 1622 he published a pamphlet against Ptienne Pasquier, a Roman Catholic, who had died several years before, because the latter had defended the university against the Jesuits in 1565. Under the pseudonym " Andreas Schiop­pius " he wrote a polemical pamphlet entitled Elixir calvinisticum (Charenton, 1615) aimed at the French Reformed Protestants, and in 1619 he pub­lished at Brussels his Rabelais reforme, which was more of a satire than a polemic. He was especially antagonistic toward Pierre du Moulin, a prominent and scholarly Reformed polemic author. Garasse's writings are characterized by a lack of earnestness, scientific spirit, and thorough knowledge of his subject, as well as by a want of dignity and truth­fulness. He died of the plague at Poitiers, whither he had been sent at his own request to care for the sick.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. Hurts% Nomenclator literariua, i. 289, Innsbruck, 1892; Der, Bibliothkque de la compagnie

de Jesus, ed. C. Sommervogel, iii. 1184 sqq., Paris, 1892.

GARDENS, HEBREW: In gardening the Israel­ites were pupils of the Canaanites. The Hebrew gars meant either a vegetable‑garden (I Kings xxi. 2) or an orchard (Jer. xxix. 5; Amos iv. 9; Eccles. ii. 5). In the first‑mentioned were raised onions, garlic, cucumbers, and melons (which, eaten with bread, were leading articles of diet), and aromatic herbs, such as mint and caraway. Such gardens required careful and bountiful watering (Isa. lviii. 11; Jer. xxxi. 12). Vegetables were often planted in the fields after the harvest of the winter crop (see AGRICULTURE, HEBREW).

Of greater importance were the orchards (see FRUIT‑TREES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT), which formed the gardens characteristic of the Old Testa­ment. The kings of Jerusalem had such gardens in the valley southeast of the city (II Kings xxv. 4; Jer. xxxix. 4; cf. II Kings xxi. 18, 26), which served as pleasure‑grounds, particularly when provided with water. To " sit under one's vine and fig‑tree " was characteristic of a happy period (I Kings iv. 25; Micah iv. 4). The old Hebrew, like other dwellers in the scantily watered East (cf. the descriptions of paradise, in the Koran and the general Mohammedan conception), thought of paradise as an Eden with trees of all kinds, where, at evening, cool breezes blow (Gen. iii. 8). It was customary to place the family vault in a " garden " (11 Kings xxi. 18, 26; Matt. xxvii. 60). In Baby­lon such pleasure‑grounds were popular (cf. B. Meisaner and P. Rost, Bauinschriften Sanheribs, v. 14 sqq., Leipsic, 1893), and the kings and noblemen of Persia delighted in beautiful parks (Xenophon, Cyropadia, I., iii. 12; Anabasis, I., ii. 71; cf. Esther i. 5, vii. 7). Indeed, the word parries, the later



Hebrew designation for such a garden, meaning " paradise " and also " forest " (Neh. ii. 8), was borrowed from the Persian. I. BENZINGER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Bensinger, Archdolopie, pp. 35‑36: E. Day, Social Life among the IIebrewe, New York. 1901; DB, ii. 108‑110; EB, ii. 1640‑44 (both of these are especially ex­cellent); JE, vi. 470‑472.

GARDINER, FREDERIC: Protestant Episco­palian; b. at Gardiner, Me., Sept. 11, 1822; d. at Middletown, Conn., July 18, 1899. He studied at Hobart College, Bowdoin College (B.A., 1842), and the General Theological Seminary, New York City, from which he was graduated in 1845. Or­dered deacon in 1845, he was advanced to the priesthood in 1846. He was minister and rector of Trinity Church, Saco, ‑Me., 1845‑47, curate at St. Luke's, Philadelphia, 1848, and rector of Christ Church, Bath, Me., 1848‑54. He spent the years 1854‑56 in Europe, then became rector of Trinity Church, Lewiston, Me., for a year. From 1857 to 1865 he was in charge of his father's estate at Gar­diner, and at the same time rector of St. Matthew's, Hallowell, Me., besides assisting Bishop George Burgess in his tentative theological school at Gar­diner. In 1865 he accepted a call to the professor­ship of the literature and interpretation of the New Testament at the Protestant Episcopal Theo­logical Seminary at Gambier, O., but resigned two years later, and after being a general missionary in the diocese of Massachuset* for a year, was assist­ant rector of Trinity Church, Middletown, Conn., 1867‑68. From 1869 to 1882 he was professor of Old Testament and Christian evidences in Berkeley Divinity School, Middletown, Conn., and from the latter year until his death was professor of the literature and interpretation of the New Testament in the same institution, also. serving as librarian throughout this period. He wrote The Island of Life, an Allegory (Boston, 1851); Commentary on the Epistle of St. Joule (1856); Harmony of the Gospels in Greek (Andover, 1871); Harmony of the Gospels in English (1871); Diatessaron, The Life of Our Lord in the Words of the Gospels (1871); The Principles of Textual Criticism (1876); The Old and New Testaments in their Mutual Relations (New York, 1885); Was the Religion of Israel a Revelation or merely a Development! (1889); and the posthu­mous Aids to Scripture Study (1890). He wrote also the commentary on Leviticus for the Ameri­can edition of Lange's commentary (New York, 1876), and on II Samuel and Ezekiel for Bishop C. J. Ellicott's Old Testament Commentary for Eng­lish Readers (London, 1883‑84), besides editing Chrysostom's " Homilies on Hebrews " for The Nicene and Post‑Nicene Library of the Fathers, xiv. (New York, 1890).

GARDINER, JAMES: A colonel of Scottish dragoons famous for his remarkable religious ex­perience; b. at Carriden (17 m. w. of Edinburgh), Linlithgowshire, Jan. 11, 1688; killed at the battle of Prestonpans Sept. 21, 1745. At fourteen he became an ensign in a Scottish regiment in the service of Holland. In 1702 he exchanged to the English army and distinguished himself in the campaigns of Marlborough. Until Judy, 1719, he led a career of notorious licentiousness. Then while

waiting for an appointment with a dissolute woman, he picked up a Christian book (Watson's Christian Soldier according to Doddridge; Gurnall's Christian Armour according to Carlyle); suddenly a blaze of light illuminated the paper, and, looking up, Gardiner saw what he took for a vision of Christ on the cross and thought he heard him speak. He now forsook his old ways, and thereafter led an exemplary Christian life.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Doddridge, Some Remarkable Passage, in the Life of . . . Col. J. Gardiner, London, 1747 (very often reprinted, e.g., Edinburgh, 1848); idem, Sermon on the Death of Col. Gardiner, ib. 1747; DNB, u. 414‑416.
GARDINER, STEPHEN: Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor of England; b. at Bury St. Edmunds (60 m. n.e. of London), Suffolk, between 1483 and 1490; d. at Whitehall, London, Nov. 12, 1555. He was educated at Trinity Hall, Cam­bridge, where he later became fellow (Doctor of Civil Law, 1520; Doctor of Canon Law, 1521), and in 1524 was made a lecturer in the university, shortly before his appointment as tutor to a son of the Duke of Norfolk. He now became secretary to Wolsey, and from 1525 to 1549 was master of Trinity Hall. He visited France with Wolsey in 1527, and in 1528 he and Edward Fox were sent as ambassadors to the pope in the interests of the divorce from Catherine of Aragon desired by the king. It was Gardiner's tact and determination which induced Clement VIII. to assent to a com­mission to try the case in England. Gardiner was made archdeacon of Norfolk on Mar. 1, 1529, and early in the following year again went to Italy in an unsuccessful endeavor to secure the king's di­vorce. He was appointed secretary to the king, and in Feb., 1530, visited Cambridge in a vain effort to induce the university to decide in favor of the divorce. In 1531 he was collated to the archdeaconry of Leicester, and on Nov. 27, 1531, he was consecrated bishop of Winchester. From December to March he was once more in France as an ambassador, in Apr., 1532, he was appointed custodian of John Fisher (q.v.), and in May was one of the assessors of the court which annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine, while at the corona­tion of Anne Boleyn on June 8 he and the bishop of London bore her train. He was again in France on business connected with the divorce in Septem­ber, but his resistance to Henry's claim of spiritual supremacy led him to resign his secretaryship and retire to his diocese. He was soon summoned to court, but on Feb. 10, 1535, formally renounced the jurisdiction of the pope and published his De verd obedientia (London, 1535). Thus regain­ing the favor of the king, Gardiner was again ap­pointed ambassador to France, and during this time dissuaded Henry from making a league with the Continental Protestants. The suspicions en­tertained concerning him, however, caused him to be superseded as ambassador at Paris by Bonner, but in the following year he was sent as ambassador to Germany.

With the downfall of his rival Cromwell in 1540, Gardiner became supreme, and was even elected chancellor of Cambridge as successor to Cromwell. In 1541 he was once more in Germany as royal

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