Galilee (Josephus, Ant'. XIII., xi. 3), and Hyrcanus II. was confirmed by Pompey as ethnarch of the region. The later destiny of Galilee was bound up with that of Judea. The proconsul Gabinius divided the whole Jewish country into five districts, each with its own synedrium, that for Galilee sitting in Sepporis. But this arrangement did not prove satisfactory. The risings of the years 55 and 53 B.c. were suppressed by the Romans, but Herod first secured peace in the land 45 B.c. After the rule of Antigonus, 40‑37, Galilee was united with Herod's kingdom (37‑4 s.c. ), and Augustus gave Herod also the tetrarchy of Zenodorus. After the death of Herod, hatred of the Romans and hopes of the Messiah kindled the fires of insurrection. Judas of Gamala, son of an Ezechias executed by Herod, rebelled and was subdued by Varus (see JuDAs OF GALILEE). Meanwhile Augustus had confirmed Herod's will and Galilee and Perma fell to Antipas, who made his capital first in Sepporis and then in Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee. While the census of Quirinius (7 A.D.) did not affect Galilee, it set loose forces of
insurrection. The Zealots arose under 3. Galilee Judas of Gamala and the Pharisee
the Home Zaddok. Judas was killed (Acts v. of Insurrec‑ 37), but he had sown seed which pro‑
tion. duced fruit. Both John the Baptist
and Jesus found Zealots among their
disciples (John i. 35‑42; Mark iii. 18). These
continued movements caused Antipas great anxiety
(Luke xiii. 31, 32). An event of the year 40 showed
how great was the feeling against the Romans.
Caligula had ordered Petronius, the governor of
Syria, to place the emperor's statue in the Temple
at Jerusalem, and thousands of Jews assembled
in Ptolemais and Tiberias, in the latter place con
Nero, part of Galilee came under Agrippa II., viz.,
Tiberias and Tarichma. At the beginning of the
war in 67, Sepporis yielded to the Romans and the
other cities, Tarichaea, Tiberias, Gamala, and the
fortress on Tabor and at Gischala were subdued.
After 70, Vespasian took the entire district, so
rife with sedition, under his private control, and
Judea was administered by governors probably of
pretorian rank. Agrippa's realm after his death
in 100 was joined to the province of Syria.
A review shows that the population of Galilee was heterogeneous. Besides the Jews, themselves not of pure strain, there were Arameans, Itureans (perhaps Arabs), to say nothing of Phenicians and Greeks. On this account the contempt of the Jews for Galileans is explicable (John i. 46, vii. 52), and the dialect was distinguishable from that used in the south (Matt. xxvi. 73; Mark xiv. 70). Nevertheless in the second century Galilee became the home of Jewish scholarship, the place where the Masoretic work was done upon the text of the Old Testament and where the beginning was made of the collection which became the Jerusalem or Palestinian Talmud.
The best‑known cities belonged to Lower Galilee.
Near the southwestern boundary and south of the Wadi al‑Malak lay Simomas, the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, the modern Semuniyah. South of Tabor the modern Nein locates the Nain of Luke vii. 11. On the plateau between Tabor and the Sea of Galilee the modern village of Sarona locates the Saronas of Eusebius (Onoma8ticon, 296). In the time of Christ the region immediately west of the Sea of Galilee was densely populated. In the south, not far from the outlet into the Jordan, lay the Talmudic fortress Bethirah, to be identified with the Tarichaea of Josephus, the modern Khirbet al‑Karak. Four miles north was the celebrated spring of Tiberias, with Tiberias itself half an 4. Cities. hour farther north, according to the Talmud the site of the Rakkath of Josh. xix. 35. After Herod Antipas had built it, he found it difficult to get Jews to settle there, since they regarded it as unclean on account of the many graves in the vicinity or on the site. An hour still to the north is located the village al‑Majdal, identified with the home of Mary Magdalene. From there to Khan Minyah stretches the plain, the Gennesaret of Mark vi. 53. On the location of Capernaum see CAPERNAUm. The best road from the shore of the Sea of Galilee westward is through the Wadi al‑Hammam, where Herod's famous battle with the supporters of the Hasmoneans was fought (Josephus, War, I., xvi. 2, 4). The basalt hill of Kam Hattin is identified by the Roman Catholics as the Mount of Transfiguration, but without good reason. To the southwest is situated Kafr Kanna, often identified with the Cana of John ii.; others locate Cana at Khirbet Kana, and a third identification is with Hanat al‑Jalil, at the north of the plain of al‑Battof. But half an hour north of Nazareth (q.v.) is a spring still known as Ain Kana, surrounded by masonry, and near it a basin of masonry. This site better fulfils the conditions required for the site of Cana. One and a half hours north of Nazareth is Safuriyah, which marks the site of Sepporis, a town by nature a fortress, and for that reason influentil•1 in history. Before Tiberias was built, it was the chief city of the district. In the north of the plain of al‑Battof (plain of Asochis, Ant. XIII., xii. 4), at the modern Tell Jafat was the fortress of Jotapata (Josephus, War, III., vii.‑viii.). In Upper Galilee, near the north shore of the Sea of Galilee and near Capernaum, the present Khirbet Karazah is the site of Chorazin (Matt. xi. 21). Upon a high spur, giving a wide view southward, was Zafed, a city reckoned with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Tiberias as one of the holy places. Westward lies Meron, often mentioned in the Talmud and still a place of pilgrimage for Jews who honor the doctors of the law buried there. Gischala lay to the north, the modern ruins bearing the name al‑Jish.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. A. Smith, Historical Geography o/ the Holy Land, London, 1897; Sehther, Geschichte, i.‑ii., Eng. trawl., I., i., II., i.; A. Neubauer, La Geopraphie du Talmud, Paris, 1868; V. Gudrin, Description de la. Palestine, III., Galil6e, i. ii., ib. 1880; C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener, Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, vol, i., London, 1881; S. Merrill,Galilee in the Time o/ Christ, Boston, 1881; W. M. Thomson, Land and Book, Central
Galilee, Sea of THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZUG 428
Palestine, London, 1883; B. Stade, Gesehichte des Volkes
Israel, vol. i., Berlin, 1887; H. Graets, tiewhiehte der Ju
BIBLIOGaAP87: For literature consult list under GALn.Eb.
GALILEO, gS"li‑15'8 (properly Galileo Gslilei):
Italian physicist and astronomer; b. at Pisa Feb.
15, 1564; d. at Areetri, near Florence, Jan. 8, 1642.
In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study
medicine and the Aristotelian philosophy, but soon
abandoned medicine for mathematics and physical
science. In 1585 he left the university and went
to Florence to study under Otilio Ricci. He was
professor of mathematics at Pisa 1589‑91, and at
Padua 1592‑1610, lecturing there to crowds of
enthusiastic pupils from all over Europe. In 1610
Cosmo II., grand duke of Tuscany, appointed him
philosopher and mathematician at the Florentine
court, thus relieving him of all academic routine
and enabling him to devote himself entirely to his
Galileo's opposition to the Ptolemaic cosmology
first brought him under the suspicion of the In
quisition in 1611, though he continued his investi
gations and publicly defended the Copernican sys
tem. In a letter to his friend Father Castelli,
dated Dec. 21, 1613, he maintained that the theolo
gian, instead of trying to restrict scientific investiga
tion on Biblical grounds, should make it his business
to reconcile the phraseology of the Bible with the results of science. In 1615 a copy of this letter was produced before the Inquisition, with the result that the following year Galileo was warned by the pope to desist from his heretical teachings on the pain of imprisonment. In 1632 he again drew the attention of the Inquisition by publishing a defense of the Copernican system. After a long and wearisome trial he was condemned on June 22, 1633, solemnly to abjure his scientific creed on banded knees. This he did under threats of torture; but whether he was actually put to the torture is still a mooted question. He was also sentenced to indeterminate imprisonment, but this was soon commuted to residence at Sienna, and the following December he was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri, though he remained under the surveillance of the Inquisition. In 1637 he became totally blind.
Galileo's chief contributions to science are his formulation of the laws governing falling bodies, the invention of the telescope, the discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum, and numerous astronomical discoveries, including the phases of Venus, four satellites of Jupiter, and the spots on the sun. His works were stricken from the Index in 1835. The most important are Dialogo . .
copra i due siatemi dal mondo (Florence, 1632); and Discorsi a demostrazioni matematicU intorno 4 due nuove science (Leyden, 1638; both these are in Eng. tranal. by T. Salusbury, The Systems of the World, in Four Dialogues, wherein the two grand Systemes of Ptolemy and Copernicus are . . . discoursed of, . . . The ancient and modern Doctrine of Holy Fathers . . . concerning the rash Citation of the Testimony of . . . Sacred Scripture in Conclusions merely natural. Mathematical Discourses and Demonstrations touching two new Sciences pertaining to Mechaniks and Local Motion . . . with an Appendix of the Centre of Gravity of some Solids.A Discourse concerning the Natation of Bodies upon . . . the Water, London, 1661; by J. Weston, London, 1730). The beat editions of his works are that by E. Alberi (16 vols., Florence, 1842‑56) and the new complete edition now being prepared by A. Favaro at the expense of the State (Florence, 1890 sqq.).
BIBwoa8AP8r: A. Favaro, Galilee Galilei, Florence, 1888• F. Picavet, GaliUe, daetructeur de la scolaetique at fondateur de 7a philomphie ecientihque, Paris, 1895; Primate Life o/ Galileo, London, 1869 (based on his correspondence with his daughters); H. de L'Itpinois, Galil6a, son prooM, as eondamnagon, d'aprts lee documents in6dits, Paris, 1878; g. van Gabler, Galileo and the Roman Curia, London, 1879; F. R. Wegg‑Prosser, Galileo and his Judges, ib. 1889 (gives summary of the " Dialogue "); O. Lodge, Pioneers in Science, ib. 1892; D. Nasmith, Makers of Modern Thought, 2 vols., ib. 1892; A. D. White, Warfare of Science with Theology, 2 vols., New York, 1898; J. J. Fahie, Galileo, his Life and Work, London, 1903; HL, v. 18‑44 (RomAn Catholic, gives good list of literature). A. Favaro, professor of law in the University of Padua. has published in Italian " Galileo and the Inquisition," 1907, giving the,original documents referring to Galileo's prosecution from the archives of the Vatican and the Holy Office.
GALITZIft, gee‑lit'zin' (GALLITZIN, GOLIZYN), ADELHEID AMALIE, PRINCE93. See OVERBER(i, BERNBARD HEINmcm GALL, SAM. See SAINT GAm, MoNAsTERT or.
reasons, being called for to refute the calumnies of
Roman priests. Up to 1559 the Protestant oon
gregstions of France were independent, each being
at liberty to set up its own confession, and the "sum
maries 11 were sufficient for all purposes.
The first impulse toward a general statement of the doctrine and discipline of all French Reformed congregations was given by a dispute over the doctrine of predestination which broke out in the congregation of Poitiers. As the preachers of that city could not
settle the difficulties, the congregation Origin of of Paris was called to aid. The aethe Con‑ sembled preachers came to the confession. elusion that only a common symbol The Synod and a common church order could of 1559• guard against the external and internal dangers of the Church, and it was resolved to convene a general assembly representative of the Reformed Church in France to provide what was needed. The congregation of Paris invited the other congregations to a national synod. Calvin disapproved of the doings of the Reformed congregations, and at his instigation the church council of Geneva sent three deputies to Paris, N. des Gallars, Arnauld, . and Gilbert, with the draft of a confession in thirty‑five articles‑and a personal letter from Calvin to Frsngois de Morel. In the mean time, the synod had begun its sessions on May 26, 1559, under the presidency of Morel. There were present probably about fourteen deputies, preachers or elders, but the number is variously given from eleven to seventy‑two. During the final three days forty articles of church discipline were decided on. On May 28, the envoys from Geneva arrived. They submitted Calvin's draft and it was accepted with soma slight changes.
The arrangement is the same as in Calvin's " Institutes " and the Geneva catechism of 1540. The symbol contains forty articles and is divided into four parts, corresponding to the four chief dogmas‑‑God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Church.. The word of God; as reviled in Holy Scripture,
is declared the only and infallible rule Cones of of faith. The Bible derives its author‑
the Con‑ ity from the testimony of the Holy
feasioa. Spirit in the believing soul. The
chief dogmas are as in the sommairea‑
Adam's tall, original sin, total depravity of human
from the substance of the flesh and blood of Christ "
The confession was unanimously accepted by the deputies and, according to Chandieu, was " read and proposed to the people and signed by all who could attend according to time and locality." Although it was intended to be kept secret, in the very same year it was published in Switzerland
and in Francs, under the title Cosfes
Later His‑ lion de foy faicte dun common accord
tort' of the par lea Prang ois~ui d1sinnvive aelon
Confession. to purtE de 1 tgila de NSJC (I
Peter iii.). It was then printed at the beginning of the French Bible, in place of the summary (cf. the Geneva Bible of 1559). A preface addressed to the king was added, and with this addition the confession was handed to him in 1561 by eight deputies from s$ provInoas, chosen at
Qalncan Confession GaUicanism
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
the second national synod in Poitiers (Mar. 10, 1561), with a petition from all congregations. The confession was finally laid before the whole world at the seventh national synod of La Rochelle (Apr. 2, 1571), which convened under the protection of a royal patent. All Reformed congregations of France were represented, and Theodore Beza had been called from Geneva to preside: There were also present Queen Jeanne d'Albret, Prince Henry of Navarre (the later Henry IV.), the Prince of CondS, Admiral Coligni, and many other noblemen. The confession waq read and signed by all. During the time of the so‑called" Churches of the Desert" (Oglisw du d&ert; 1685‑1787p; ~se~e CAMIsARD9; Comm, ANToNz; HUGUENOTS; RABAUT, PAUL), the authority of the symbol began to wane until its subscription became optional. In 1848 unsuccessful attempts were made by H. Gasparin and F. Monod to substitute a new confession. The deputies assembled at Paris rejected everything except Christ crucified as a basis of agreement. Another attempt in 1872 was more successful. A new rule of faith was declared in which the Reformed Church of France professed to remain true to the principles of faith upon which it was founded and to maintain the authority of Holy Scripture in agreement with the forefathers and martyrs of the Confession. of La Rochelle. Since that time a gulf has existed between the orthodox and the liberal party in the Reformed Church of France.