261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

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Galilee (Josephus, Ant'. XIII., xi. 3), and Hyrcanus II. was confirmed by Pompey as ethnarch of the re­gion. The later destiny of Galilee was bound up with that of Judea. The proconsul Gabinius divided the whole Jewish country into five districts, each with its own synedrium, that for Galilee sitting in Sepporis. But this arrangement did not prove satisfactory. The risings of the years 55 and 53 B.c. were sup­pressed by the Romans, but Herod first secured peace in the land 45 B.c. After the rule of Anti­gonus, 40‑37, Galilee was united with Herod's kingdom (37‑4 s.c. ), and Augustus gave Herod also the tetrarchy of Zenodorus. After the death of Herod, hatred of the Romans and hopes of the Messiah kindled the fires of insurrection. Judas of Gamala, son of an Ezechias executed by Herod, rebelled and was subdued by Varus (see JuDAs OF GALILEE). Meanwhile Augustus had confirmed Herod's will and Galilee and Perma fell to Antipas, who made his capital first in Sepporis and then in Tiberias on the Sea of Galilee. While the census of Quirinius (7 A.D.) did not affect Galilee, it set loose forces of

insurrection. The Zealots arose under 3. Galilee Judas of Gamala and the Pharisee

the Home Zaddok. Judas was killed (Acts v. of Insurrec‑ 37), but he had sown seed which pro‑

tion. duced fruit. Both John the Baptist

and Jesus found Zealots among their

disciples (John i. 35‑42; Mark iii. 18). These

continued movements caused Antipas great anxiety

(Luke xiii. 31, 32). An event of the year 40 showed

how great was the feeling against the Romans.

Caligula had ordered Petronius, the governor of

Syria, to place the emperor's statue in the Temple

at Jerusalem, and thousands of Jews assembled

in Ptolemais and Tiberias, in the latter place con­

tinuously for forty days, beseeching him not to

profane the Temple, and Petronius gave up the

design. From the year 44 the Zealots continued to

gain ground among the people, though treated by

the Romans as common brigands. By a gift of

Nero, part of Galilee came under Agrippa II., viz.,

Tiberias and Tarichma. At the beginning of the

war in 67, Sepporis yielded to the Romans and the

other cities, Tarichaea, Tiberias, Gamala, and the

fortress on Tabor and at Gischala were subdued.

After 70, Vespasian took the entire district, so

rife with sedition, under his private control, and

Judea was administered by governors probably of

pretorian rank. Agrippa's realm after his death

in 100 was joined to the province of Syria.

A review shows that the population of Galilee was heterogeneous. Besides the Jews, themselves not of pure strain, there were Arameans, Itureans (perhaps Arabs), to say nothing of Phenicians and Greeks. On this account the contempt of the Jews for Galileans is explicable (John i. 46, vii. 52), and the dialect was distinguishable from that used in the south (Matt. xxvi. 73; Mark xiv. 70). Never­theless in the second century Galilee became the home of Jewish scholarship, the place where the Masoretic work was done upon the text of the Old Testament and where the beginning was made of the collection which became the Jerusalem or Palestinian Talmud.

The best‑known cities belonged to Lower Galilee.

Near the southwestern boundary and south of the Wadi al‑Malak lay Simomas, the Shimron of Josh. xi. 1, the modern Semuniyah. South of Tabor the modern Nein locates the Nain of Luke vii. 11. On the plateau between Tabor and the Sea of Galilee the modern village of Sarona locates the Saronas of Eusebius (Onoma8ticon, 296). In the time of Christ the region immediately west of the Sea of Galilee was densely populated. In the south, not far from the outlet into the Jordan, lay the Talmudic fortress Bethirah, to be identified with the Tari­chaea of Josephus, the modern Khirbet al‑Karak. Four miles north was the celebrated spring of Tiberias, with Tiberias itself half an 4. Cities. hour farther north, according to the Talmud the site of the Rakkath of Josh. xix. 35. After Herod Antipas had built it, he found it difficult to get Jews to settle there, since they regarded it as unclean on account of the many graves in the vicinity or on the site. An hour still to the north is located the village al‑Majdal, identified with the home of Mary Magdalene. From there to Khan Minyah stretches the plain, the Gennesaret of Mark vi. 53. On the location of Capernaum see CAPERNAUm. The best road from the shore of the Sea of Galilee westward is through the Wadi al‑Hammam, where Herod's famous battle with the supporters of the Hasmoneans was fought (Josephus, War, I., xvi. 2, 4). The basalt hill of Kam Hattin is identified by the Roman Catholics as the Mount of Transfiguration, but without good reason. To the southwest is situ­ated Kafr Kanna, often identified with the Cana of John ii.; others locate Cana at Khirbet Kana, and a third identification is with Hanat al‑Jalil, at the north of the plain of al‑Battof. But half an hour north of Nazareth (q.v.) is a spring still known as Ain Kana, surrounded by masonry, and near it a basin of masonry. This site better fulfils the conditions required for the site of Cana. One and a half hours north of Nazareth is Safuri­yah, which marks the site of Sepporis, a town by nature a fortress, and for that reason influentil•1 in history. Before Tiberias was built, it was the chief city of the district. In the north of the plain of al‑Battof (plain of Asochis, Ant. XIII., xii. 4), at the modern Tell Jafat was the fortress of Jotapata (Josephus, War, III., vii.‑viii.). In Upper Galilee, near the north shore of the Sea of Galilee and near Capernaum, the present Khirbet Karazah is the site of Chorazin (Matt. xi. 21). Upon a high spur, giving a wide view southward, was Zafed, a city reckoned with Jerusalem, Hebron, and Tiberias as one of the holy places. Westward lies Meron, often mentioned in the Talmud and still a place of pilgrimage for Jews who honor the doctors of the law buried there. Gischala lay to the north, the modern ruins bearing the name al‑Jish.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. A. Smith, Historical Geography o/ the Holy Land, London, 1897; Sehther, Geschichte, i.‑ii., Eng. trawl., I., i., II., i.; A. Neubauer, La Geopraphie du Tal­mud, Paris, 1868; V. Gudrin, Description de la. Palestine, III., Galil6e, i. ii., ib. 1880; C. R. Conder and H. H. Kitchener, Survey of Western Palestine, Memoirs, vol, i., London, 1881; S. Merrill, Galilee in the Time o/ Christ, Boston, 1881; W. M. Thomson, Land and Book, Central

Galilee, Sea of THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZUG 428

Galiioan Confeasdon

Palestine, London, 1883; B. Stade, Gesehichte des Volkes

Israel, vol. i., Berlin, 1887; H. Graets, tiewhiehte der Ju­

dea, vol. iii., Index, " GalilAa," " • Galil$er," " • Zeloten,"

ib. 1888; W. M. Moller, Asian and Europa, Leipsic, 1893;

J. Wellhausen, laraelit%sdke and iiidssehe Gaachichts, Ber­

lin, 1894; F. Buhl, tiaopraphie des allen Palastina, Frei­

burg, 1898; W. Sanday, Sacred Sites of the Gospels, pp. 20­

48, London, 1903; Robinson, Researches, Vol. ii.; DB, ii.

98‑104; EB, ii. 1628‑36; JE, v. 553‑554.

GALILEE, SEA OF: The body of water into

which the Jordan widens north of the Dead Sea and

south of Lake Huleh. In the Old and the New

Testament several names are applied to it. In

the Greek of the New Testament it appears as a

limns ("lake"; Luke v. 1, viii. 22‑33), and as a

thalassa (" sea "; John vi. 18, 23). In one place

(Luke v. 1) it is called the Lake of Gennesaret, a

name given also to the plain along the northwestern

shore and to a town in the plain. Sea of Tiberias

is the terminology in John vi. 1, xxi. 1, in the

first passage also Sea of Galilee. The term Sea of

Galilee is the beat known to the New Testament,

occurring Matt. iv. 18, xv. 29; Mark i. 16, vii. 31;

John vi. 1. In the Old Testament it appears as the

Sea of Chinnereth (Num. xxxiv. 11; Josh. xiii. 27)

and the Sea of Chinneroth (Josh. xii. 3), variant

forms of the same word, the origin of which is

doubtful. I Mace. xi. 67 speaks of " the water of

Gennesar." This body of water is thirteen miles

long, and nearly seven miles wide, less than 200 feet

in depth, approximately an elongated oval in shape,

and its surface is 700 feet below the Mediterranean.

The northern and southern shores slope gently to the

plain of the Jordan, while the eastern and western

shores are terminated by the hills which rise

abruptly on the east, less so on the west. It is

subject to sudden storms of great violence which

make its navigation always a matter of peril. Its

waters swarm with fish, and one town, Bethsaida

(" Home of Fishermen "), took its name from this

fact. The most sacred associations of the lake are

connected with the life of Jesus.

BIBLIOGaAP87: For literature consult list under GALn.Eb.

GALILEO, gS"li‑15'8 (properly Galileo Gslilei):

Italian physicist and astronomer; b. at Pisa Feb.

15, 1564; d. at Areetri, near Florence, Jan. 8, 1642.

In 1581 he entered the University of Pisa to study

medicine and the Aristotelian philosophy, but soon

abandoned medicine for mathematics and physical

science. In 1585 he left the university and went

to Florence to study under Otilio Ricci. He was

professor of mathematics at Pisa 1589‑91, and at

Padua 1592‑1610, lecturing there to crowds of

enthusiastic pupils from all over Europe. In 1610

Cosmo II., grand duke of Tuscany, appointed him

philosopher and mathematician at the Florentine

court, thus relieving him of all academic routine

and enabling him to devote himself entirely to his

scientific investigations.

Galileo's opposition to the Ptolemaic cosmology

first brought him under the suspicion of the In­

quisition in 1611, though he continued his investi­

gations and publicly defended the Copernican sys­

tem. In a letter to his friend Father Castelli,

dated Dec. 21, 1613, he maintained that the theolo­

gian, instead of trying to restrict scientific investiga­

tion on Biblical grounds, should make it his business

to reconcile the phraseology of the Bible with the results of science. In 1615 a copy of this letter was produced before the Inquisition, with the result that the following year Galileo was warned by the pope to desist from his heretical teachings on the pain of imprisonment. In 1632 he again drew the attention of the Inquisition by publishing a defense of the Copernican system. After a long and wearisome trial he was condemned on June 22, 1633, solemnly to abjure his scientific creed on banded knees. This he did under threats of tor­ture; but whether he was actually put to the torture is still a mooted question. He was also sentenced to indeterminate imprisonment, but this was soon commuted to residence at Sienna, and the following December he was allowed to return to his villa at Arcetri, though he remained under the surveillance of the Inquisition. In 1637 he became totally blind.

Galileo's chief contributions to science are his formulation of the laws governing falling bodies, the invention of the telescope, the discovery of the isochronism of the pendulum, and numerous astronomical discoveries, including the phases of Venus, four satellites of Jupiter, and the spots on the sun. His works were stricken from the Index in 1835. The most important are Dialogo . .

copra i due siatemi dal mondo (Florence, 1632); and Discorsi a demostrazioni matematicU intorno 4 due nuove science (Leyden, 1638; both these are in Eng. tranal. by T. Salusbury, The Systems of the World, in Four Dialogues, wherein the two grand Systemes of Ptolemy and Copernicus are . . . dis­coursed of, . . . The ancient and modern Doctrine of Holy Fathers . . . concerning the rash Citation of the Testimony of . . . Sacred Scripture in Conclu­sions merely natural. Mathematical Discourses and Demonstrations touching two new Sciences pertain­ing to Mechaniks and Local Motion . . . with an Appendix of the Centre of Gravity of some Solids.­A Discourse concerning the Natation of Bodies upon . . . the Water, London, 1661; by J. Weston, London, 1730). The beat editions of his works are that by E. Alberi (16 vols., Florence, 1842‑56) and the new complete edition now being prepared by A. Favaro at the expense of the State (Florence, 1890 sqq.).

BIBwoa8AP8r: A. Favaro, Galilee Galilei, Florence, 1888• F. Picavet, GaliUe, daetructeur de la scolaetique at fonda­teur de 7a philomphie ecientihque, Paris, 1895; Primate Life o/ Galileo, London, 1869 (based on his correspondence with his daughters); H. de L'Itpinois, Galil6a, son prooM, as eondamnagon, d'aprts lee documents in6dits, Paris, 1878; g. van Gabler, Galileo and the Roman Curia, London, 1879; F. R. Wegg‑Prosser, Galileo and his Judges, ib. 1889 (gives summary of the " Dialogue "); O. Lodge, Pioneers in Science, ib. 1892; D. Nasmith, Makers of Modern Thought, 2 vols., ib. 1892; A. D. White, Warfare of Science with Theology, 2 vols., New York, 1898; J. J. Fahie, Galileo, his Life and Work, London, 1903; HL, v. 18‑44 (RomAn Catholic, gives good list of literature). A. Favaro, professor of law in the University of Padua. has published in Italian " Galileo and the Inquisition," 1907, giving the,original documents referring to Galileo's prosecution from the archives of the Vatican and the Holy Office.



lioaa Oonfesrioa


dist Episcopalian; b. at Boston Feb. 3, 1846. He

studied at Wesleyan University (B.A., 1870), and

held pastorates at Guilford, Conn. (1870‑72),

Bridgehampton, Long Island (1872), First Church,

Taunton, Mass. (1872‑73), East Pearl Street, New

Haven, Conn. (1873‑76), North Church, Hartford,

Conn. (1876), Hazelville, Conn. (1877), Warren

Street, Brooklyn (1877‑80), 8t. Paul's, Fall River,

Mass. (1880‑81), First Church, Taunton, Mass.

(1882‑83), and Hazardville, Conn. (1884‑86),

while in 1887‑88 he was presiding elder of the New

Bedford district. From ) 889 to 1893 he was presi­

dent of Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis., and

president of Maine Wesleyan Seminary and College

from 1893 to 1897. He was then associate principal

of Lasell Seminary, Auburndale, Mass., from 1897

to 1901, and since the latter year has been president

of the Lucy Webb Hayes National Training School

for Missionaries and Deaconesses of the Methodist

Episcopal Church, Washington, D. C. He has

written (hod Revealed, or Nature's Beat Word (New

York, 1899).

GALLANDI, g31"lan"df', ANDREA: Italian

Oratorian and scholar; b. at Venice Dec. 7, 1709;

d. there Jan. 12, 1779. He achieved fame by his

edition of the Bx?bliotheca wterum potrum antiquorunt­

que acriptorum ecclesiasticorum Grteco‑Latina (14

vols., Venice, 1765‑81). Despite the fact that he

did not include works of the ancient theological au­

thors which were already extant in separate editions,

Gallandi's Bxbliotheca is more complete, so far as

minor works and authors are concerned, than any

collection previous to that of Migne. He likewise

edited a number of treatises De roWustia canonum

collectionxbus (1778), which included works by

Constant, Petrus de Marca, and the Ballerini

brothers. (A. HAuos.)

BIHwoQRAPHT: Nouvelle biapraphie ~ale, Ax. 291, Pads,

1858; G. A. Moeehini, Leneratura Venesiana, iii. 138. 4

vole., Venice, 1808‑08; H. Hurter, Namencktor litarariw,

iii. 98, Innsbruck, 1895.

GALLICAN CONFESSION (Con/sasio Gallicana,

French Confession of Faith, Confession of La

Rochelle): A confession adopted by the first

national synod of the Reformed Church of France in

1559. During the first period of the Protestant

congregations in France, there was no official symbol.

There existed, however, the so‑called sommaires,

short statements of the principal truths

The Ear‑ of Holy Scripture which are found in

tier"Sum‑ Protestant Bibles, the two oldest being

maries." one in Latin in Robert Stephens'

Bible (1532) and another in French in

the Bible of Faber Stapulensis (1534). They are

found also in Stephens' Latin New Testament

(1552) and in the French New Testament of J.

Gerard (1553) in a form revised and supplemented

by Calvin. These original symbols of the French

Protestant Church were prompted by apologetic

reasons, being called for to refute the calumnies of

Roman priests. Up to 1559 the Protestant oon­

gregstions of France were independent, each being

at liberty to set up its own confession, and the "sum­

maries 11 were sufficient for all purposes.

The first impulse toward a general statement of the doctrine and discipline of all French Reformed con­gregations was given by a dispute over the doctrine of predestination which broke out in the congregation of Poitiers. As the preachers of that city could not

settle the difficulties, the congregation Origin of of Paris was called to aid. The ae­the Con‑ sembled preachers came to the con­fession. elusion that only a common symbol The Synod and a common church order could of 1559• guard against the external and internal dangers of the Church, and it was re­solved to convene a general assembly representative of the Reformed Church in France to provide what was needed. The congregation of Paris invited the other congregations to a national synod. Calvin disapproved of the doings of the Reformed congre­gations, and at his instigation the church council of Geneva sent three deputies to Paris, N. des Gallars, Arnauld, . and Gilbert, with the draft of a confession in thirty‑five articles‑and a personal letter from Calvin to Frsngois de Morel. In the mean time, the synod had begun its sessions on May 26, 1559, under the presidency of Morel. There were present probably about fourteen deputies, preachers or elders, but the number is variously given from eleven to seventy‑two. During the final three days forty articles of church discipline were decided on. On May 28, the envoys from Geneva arrived. They submitted Calvin's draft and it was accepted with soma slight changes.

The arrangement is the same as in Calvin's " Institutes " and the Geneva catechism of 1540. The symbol contains forty articles and is divided into four parts, corresponding to the four chief dogmas‑‑God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Church.. The word of God; as reviled in Holy Scripture,

is declared the only and infallible rule Cones of of faith. The Bible derives its author‑

the Con‑ ity from the testimony of the Holy

feasioa. Spirit in the believing soul. The

chief dogmas are as in the sommairea‑­

Adam's tall, original sin, total depravity of human

nature, redemption through the blood of Christ,

free grace of God, justification by faith. Pre­

destination is taught with emphasis, but without

supralapsarianiam. In the doctrine of the Lord's

Supper Calvin's conception of " being nourished

from the substance of the flesh and blood of Christ "

is retained.

The confession was unanimously accepted by the deputies and, according to Chandieu, was " read and proposed to the people and signed by all who could attend according to time and locality." Al­though it was intended to be kept secret, in the very same year it was published in Switzerland

and in Francs, under the title Cosfes­

Later His‑ lion de foy faicte dun common accord

tort' of the par lea Prang ois~ui d1sinnvive aelon

Confession. to purtE de 1 tgila de NSJC (I

Peter iii.). It was then printed at the beginning of the French Bible, in place of the summary (cf. the Geneva Bible of 1559). A preface addressed to the king was added, and with this addition the confession was handed to him in 1561 by eight deputies from s$ provInoas, chosen at

Qalncan Confession GaUicanism



the second national synod in Poitiers (Mar. 10, 1561), with a petition from all congregations. The confession was finally laid before the whole world at the seventh national synod of La Rochelle (Apr. 2, 1571), which convened under the protection of a royal patent. All Reformed congregations of France were represented, and Theodore Beza had been called from Geneva to preside: There were also present Queen Jeanne d'Albret, Prince Henry of Navarre (the later Henry IV.), the Prince of CondS, Admiral Coligni, and many other noblemen. The confession waq read and signed by all. During the time of the so‑called" Churches of the Desert" (Oglisw du d&ert; 1685‑1787p; ~se~e CAMIsARD9; Comm, AN­ToNz; HUGUENOTS; RABAUT, PAUL), the authority of the symbol began to wane until its subscription became optional. In 1848 unsuccessful attempts were made by H. Gasparin and F. Monod to sub­stitute a new confession. The deputies assembled at Paris rejected everything except Christ crucified as a basis of agreement. Another attempt in 1872 was more successful. A new rule of faith was declared in which the Reformed Church of France professed to remain true to the principles of faith upon which it was founded and to maintain the authority of Holy Scripture in agreement with the forefathers and martyrs of the Confession. of La Rochelle. Since that time a gulf has existed be­tween the orthodox and the liberal party in the Reformed Church of France.


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