261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction



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417 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ~ e Punishment


unconscious approximations to Roman Catholic doctrines. The chief work of Severna is his "Ex­position against those who ignorantly say and unlaw­fully teach that we, the true and orthodox Children of the Eastern Church, are Schismatics from the Holy and Catholic Church. 'I Of this only the first portion has been published (Ogdom acriptorum grcecorum by N. Metaxas, Constantinople, 1627). It is a polemic against. the Roman Catholics, occasioned by the charge of the Jesuits Possevino and Bellar­mine that the Greek Catholics were 'heretics. In his work he seeks to show what are the differences between the Roman an Greek Churches, which is the true Church, and the proof that the Orthodox possess the true faith and are neither schismatics nor heretics. Severus wrote little except in system­atic theology, although he collaborated in ‑Sir Henry Savile's edition of Chrysostom (Eton, 1612). Certain anecdota are given by Legrand, while some of his fetters have been edited by G. Lami, M. Crusius, and others. (PHILIPP MEYER.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R. Simon, Fides ecclesioa orientadia, seu Gabrielie Metropolitie Philadelphiensis, Paris, 1671; Fa­bricius‑Harlee, Bibliotheca Grorca, ai. 625, Hamburg, 1808;. E. Legrand, Bibliographic HcWnique, Paris, 1885 sqq.
GABRIEL SIONITA: A learned Maronite; b. at Edden, Mount Lebanon, in. northern Palestine, 1577; d. in Paris 1648. At the age of seven he entered the Maronite college at Rome, where he studied and taught till 1614. Through the French ambassador, Cardinal du Perron, he was persuaded to, go to Paris to collaborate on a ,proposed polyglot Bible. In Jan., 1615, he was appointed professor of Arabic and Wac at the Sorbonne. He took his doctorate in theology in 1620 and became a priest in the same year. After many interruptions the Paris Polyglot was taken up by Michel le Jay in 1630 and finished in 1645, Gabriel furnishing the Arabic and Syriac versions (see BIBLES, POLY­GLOT). On account of his unruliness and alleged inaccuracy, the editors of the Bible discharged him in 1640 and called Abraham Ecchellensis (q.v.) to take his place. They even induced Richelieu to put Gabriel in prison at Vincennes, but after three months he secured his liberty and resumed his former position, on promising to deliver the Arabic and Syriac versions. He published several works in Arabic, Latin, and Italian, including: Geograpkaa Nubiensis (Rome, 1592; Paris, 1619) told Grammatica Arabica Maronitarum (Paris, 1616).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Le Long, Bibliotheca sacra, ed. Maseh, 5 vola., Halls, 1778‑90; C. P. Goujet, Menwires historiquea et littirairee sur le college royal de France, vol. iii., Paris, 1758; C. G. JScher, Allgemeines GelehrterrLexicon, iv. 619, Leipeie, 1787; HL, v. 4‑5.

GABRIELS, HENRY: Roman Catholic bishop of Ogdensburg, N. Y.; b. at Wanneghem, Belgium, Oct. 6, 1838. He studied at Audenarde (1852‑57), St. Nicolas (1857‑58), Ghent (1858‑60), and the University of Louvain (S.T.L., 1864). He taught theology in St. Joseph's' Seminary, Troy, N. Y., 1864‑92 and was president of the same institution 1871‑1892, in addition to being vicar‑general for Og­densburg and Burlington, and diocesan examiner for New York and Albany. In 1892 he was consecrated IV‑27




bishop of Ogdensburg. He has written Quteationea

Mechlinienaea in rubricas breviarii et misaalis Ro­

mani (New York, 1887) and Rudiments o f the He­

brew Grammar (a translation of the seventh edition

of the Rudiments linguce Hebraicce of C. H. Vosen and

F. Kaulen; St. Louis, Mo., 1891).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A sketch of his life is found in the Mono­graph Series of the U. 8. Catholic Historical Society, iii. 7‑16, New York, 1905.

GAD: The name of a Canaanitic deity of fortune. In Isa. htv. 11 (A.V.) occur the words: " But ye are they .' . . that prepare a table for that troop " (the Hebrew of which is better rendered in the R.V. "that prepare a table for Fortune"; margin "Gad," Gk. tai. daimoniai). The "Gad"of the R.V. margin reproduces the Hebrew, which is evidently a proper name introduced in connection with Meni (q.v.), both Gad and Meni being deities worshiped by apostate Israelites in the worship of the former of wNch a table (lectisternium) was spread. This is the only unquestionable mention of the deity in the Old Testament. Other traces occur, however, which make probable the fact of an extensively propagated cult of Canaanitic or Aramean origin. Thus a place named Baal‑gad, " Lord of (good) fortune," situated " in the valley of Lebanon . . . under mount Hermon " is given as the extreme northern limit of Joshua's conquest (Josh: xi. 17, Iii. 7, xiii. 5); while Migdal‑gad, " Tower of Gad," appears as a 'place in the southwest lowlands of Judah (Josh. xv. 37). In Gen. xxx. 11 (belonging to the J narrative) at the birth of Zilpah's first son her mistress is said to have exclaimed " a troop cometh," R.V.,."Fortunatel" margin, "fortune!" or " Fortune is come " (an attempt to render in the R.V. more closely the Hebrew begad or ba gad). The Talmudists understood this exclamation to refer to the god Gad in the sense of " Gad is here, bringing good fortune," but later commentators are much divided over the sense of the passage. Since from the passage in Isaiah (and other evi­dences to be adduced) it is clear that Gad is. the name of a deity, it would be expected that the word would be found as an element in proper names. In Num. xiii. 10 appears mention of a " Gaddiel the son of Sodi," and in xiii. 11 of " Gaddi the son of Susi," the latter possibly a shortened form of the former; in II Kings xv. 14, 17 Menahem is called " the son of Gadi " (Septuagint, Gaddi), and pos­sibly ";Gad " in I Sam. xxii. 5 is a form still more simplified. Azgad, " Strong is Gad," as the name of a clan or a chief, appears in Ezra ii. 12, viii. 12; Neh. x. 15. While all of these names do not neces­sarily contain conscious reference to a deity, there is a probability that, in the light of known practises of later Jews, at least some of them may have been formed with the god in mind. The practise of spreading the lectisternium for Gad continued in Some Jewish families as late as the eleventh century, this in a way vouching for the worship mentioned in Isaiah, while Buxtorf (Lexicon talmudicum) adduces the custom of keeping in the house a couch called " the couch of Gada," finely fitted up, never used by the family, 'but reserved for " the prince of the house," i.e., the protector " Fortune."

In other Semitic regions the name appears as an



(1EaQ

Galilee

a111ee


THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG




element in names, though the meaning can not always be determined. In most cases it is possible to take the element Gad as an appellative, "for­tune." Thus there are found in very different provenance the combinations Gad‑Nebo, " Fortune of Nebo," and Gad‑shirath. So in a number of Palmyrene inscriptions the word occurs in com­binations where the second element is the name of another deity, e.g., Gad‑Allat, while gadya, " for­tunate," occurs. One Palmyrene inscription found at a sacred spring points indubitably to a deity to whom the spring was sacred, reading " to Gada " (of. the place name " Ayin‑Dada," N61deke, ZDMG, xxix., 1875, 441) and the " Gad‑spring " near Jerusalem. In Phenician and Carthaginian environ­ment the word is found as an element in personal names, while in many more probable cases the reading is not sufficiently clear to give entire cer­tainty; moreover the meaning can not always be definitely determined and may be appellative. Gad­rnelek, " Gad is king," is an inscription on a stone found in Jerusalem, possibly due to Canaanitic influence. In Arabic the proper name Abd al‑Gadd is found, certainly a deity's name (Wellhausen, Heidenlum, p. 148). Isaac of Antioch (Opera, ed. Bickell, ii. 210, Giessen, 1877) reports that tables were prepared on the roofs by his countrymen for Gadda or (pl.) Gadde, and he mentions a " demon " Gadlat as belonging to the city of Beth‑hur. Jacob of Sarug speaks of a female. goddess of Haran named Gadlat, while by the plural gadde he means demons. It is noteworthy that both of these references fall in with what is shown by comparative religion as happening within the Semitic sphere; (1) the devel­opment of a shadowy consort correspondmg in name to the male deity, and (2) in a subsequent stage of development or under another religion the degradation of both deities to the rank of demons. Post‑Christian Jews, especially the rabbis, used the name as that of a demon. Temples of Gad were known in Syria, and Buxtorf cites a passage which speaks of an image of Gad. Jacob of Sarug says that " on the summit of the mountains they now build monasteries instead of belt‑gadde " (i.e., tem­ples to Jupiter and Venus, who were identified with the deities of good luck). In late times Gad appears to have been so popular that his name acquired the sense of " genius, godhead." Under the Greek rigime Gad seems to have passed over into the Greek form TychS, who is very often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions in the region of Syria and became a patron of very many Greek cities, possibly also the patron of rulers. The Greek TychB is unquestionably not of native Greek origin, but is an importation from the East, and on Greek soil was sometimes masculine. Whether the Syrian Tychis is the earlier Gad, renamed under Greek in­fluence, can not be definitely decided, as the data are not yet sufficiently numerous or continuous.

The origin of the god Gad is in doubt. It is possible that he arose as the personification of the abstract concept good fortune, though it must be said that this process is not usual in the Semitic sphere. None of the Old Testament passages which bear on the question are very early, unless the view of the critical. school be correct which inclines to the




belief that the tribe of Gad, like that of Asher, took its name from the god. The newer explanation of the composite origin of the Hebrew nation as in­cluding clans absorbed by conquest, tradition recording this fact by assigning to the clans so absorbed a humbler origin as the descendants of concubines, would make for an early origin of the deity. But these conclusions are by no means universally accepted, and the worship, even the existence, of Gad in strictly Canaanitio provenance earlier than the Exile rests on the two place names Baal‑gad and Migdal‑gad (ut sup.).

GEO. W. G1LM08IM.

BrsmoaBABHr: J. Bolden, De die Syria, L, i., London, 1017, and the additions of Boyer in ed. of Amsterdam, 1080; F. C. Movers, Die PAonisier, i. 174, Bonn, 1841; D. A. Chwolson, Die Asabier, ii. 220‑227, St. Petersburg, 1850; W. W. von Baudissin, Jahve et Moloch, pp. 30 eqq., Leip­dc, 1874; F. Lenormant, Chaldaean Magic, p. 120, London, 1877; J. H. Mordtmann, in ZDMG, xxxi (1877), 99‑101, xxxix (1885), 44‑40; P. Scholz, Galaendienst and Zauber­wescn bei den $ebrurn, pp. 409‑411, Regensburg, 1877; C. U. A. Siegfried, in JPT, i (1875), 350‑307; F. W. A. Baetbgen, Beitrdge sur semitiechen Religionageschiahte, PP. 7&‑80, 159‑181, Berlin, 1888; T. NSldeke, in ZDMG, xlii (1888), 479 eqq.; (1. Kerber, Die religiongeschichtliche Bedeatung der htbrdiachea Rigennamen, pp. 00‑88, Freiburg, 1897; the commentaries of Dillmann, Cheyne, Delitssch, and (3. A. Smith on lesiah, on the passage 1xv. 11, of Dentssoh on Gened% at xxz. 11, and T. K. Cbeyne, Intro­duction to Book of Isaiah, pp. 305‑300, London, 1895; DB, ii. 70; EB, ii. 1557‑1558. " Fortune."

GADARA, GADAREIM See GxxAsENxs; PERAA.

GAETANO, ga"6‑tWna (CAJETAN), OF TIENE. See THEATmms.

GAILOR, THOMAS FRANK: Protestant Epis­copal bishop of Tennessee; b. at Jackson, Miss., Sept. 17, 1856. He studied at Racine College, Ra­cine, Wis. (B.A., 1876), and at the General Theo­logical Seminary (S.T.B., 1879), and was ordered deacon in 1879 and ordained priest in 1880. After being rector of the Church of the Messiah at Pu­laski, Tenn., 1879‑82, he was appointed professor of ecclesiastical history in the University of the South, where he was also chaplain after 1883 and vice­chancellor after 1890. He was consecrated bishop coadjutor of Tennessee in 1893, and became bishop five years later, on the death of Bishop Quintard. He has been a member of the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church since 1886 and a member of many important committees, such as that on marginal readings in 1895‑1902. He is at present chairman of the Court of Review for ecclesiastical trials in the fourth department of the Church. In theology he is a High‑churchman with wide sympathies. He has written A Manual o f Devotion (New York, 1887) and The Apostolic Succession (1890).

BisraoosAPay: W. S. Perry, The Episcopate in America, p. 357, New York, 1895.


GAINES, WESLEY JOHN: Methodist Episco­pal bishop; b. a slave, near Washington, Ga., Oct. 4, 1840. Until the age of fifteen he remained on the plantation where he was born, acquiring an elementary education by his own efforts, while his theological training was obtained later, especially

rn 1870, from Protestant Episcopal clergy. In 1855





416 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA lee




he was taken to Stewart County, Ga., and in the following year to Muscogee County in the same State. He was licensed to preach (1865), was admitted to the South Carolina Conference (1866), and was ordained deacon and elder (1867). He was sta­tioned at Florence Mission, Ga. (1867), Atlanta (1867‑69), Macon (1871‑73), Columbus (1874‑77), again at Macon (1878‑80), and Atlanta (1881‑88). In 1888 he was elected bishop. He has been a trustee of Wilberforce University, Ohio, vice‑presi­dent of Payne Theological Seminary, president of the board of trustees of Edward Waters College, Jacksonville, Fla., and the founder of Morris Brown College, Atlanta, of which he is $lso trustee and treasurer. He is likewise president of the financial board of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, and has written African Methodism in the South (Atlanta, 1890).

GALATE0, ga"ld‑0'6, GIROLAM0. See ITALY, THE REFORMATION IN, § 3.

GALATIA. See ASIA MINOR, VII.

GALATIANS, EPISTLE 1'0 THE. See PAUL THE APOSTLE.

GALBANUUM. See INCENSE, I., § 3.

GALE, THEOPHILUS: English non‑conformist;

b. at Kingsteigaton (12 m. s.q.w. of Exeter),

Devonshire, 1628; d. at Newington, London, Feb.

or Mar., 1678. He studied at Magdalen Hall, Ox­

ford (B.A., 1649; M.A., 1652), and in 1650 received

the fellowship of one of the ejected fellows. Afterhav­

ing distinguished himself as a university preacher,

he accepted an appointment as preacher in Winches­

ter Cathedral in 1657, but retained his fellowship.

At the Restoration he lost his preferments and

became a tutor to the children of Lord Wharton.

He traveled abroad with his pupils 1662‑6.5, and on

the termination of his engagement in 1666, he settled

at Newington, London, as assistant pastor to John

Rowe, whom he succeeded in 1677. On his death

he left his theological library to Harvard College.

Gale is known by his Court o f the Gentiles (parts i.

and ii., Oxford, 1669‑71; parts iii. and iv., London,

1677; 2d. ed., London, 1682), which is a learned

attempt to trace all European languages back to

Hebrew and to prove that all ancient philosophy

and theology were derived from the Hebrew

Scriptures. Among Gale's other works are: A



True Idea of Jansenism (London, 1669); Anatomy

of Infidelity (1672); and Idea Theologlci (1673).

BIBLIOGRAPRT: A. a Wood, Athena thonlenltl, ii. 461. 7511, 778, London, 1692; E. Calamy, Historical Account, pp. 64‑&5, ib. 1713; S. Palmer, Nonconformist's Henwrial, i. 239, ib. 1802; DNB, xx. 377‑378.

GALERIUS: Roman emperor, 293‑311. See DIOCLETIAN.

GALFRID, gdl'frid (GAUFRm, GOTTFRM), OF CLAIRVAU%: Cistercian abbot; d. after 1188. He was born at Auxerre, and was a pupil of Abelard, but obtained Bernard's favor in 1140, and later became his secretary (notarius). In 1159 he was made abbot of the monastery at Igny, in 1162 of Clairvaux, but had to give up this position in 1167. In 1170 he became abbot of Fossanova, near Rome, in 1176 of Hautecombe in Savoy. The most




important part of Galfrid's activity refers to Ber­nard of Clairvaux, of whose biography he wrote books iii.‑v. and the third part of book vi., besides collecting materials. For the pdings against Gilbert of Poitiers at Reims in 1149 he collected pa­tristic quotations against him and published them afterward (MPL, clxxxv. 595‑618). At the request of the order he also wrote a biography of the arch­bishop Peter of Tarentaise. Commentaries on the Song of Songs, on the Apocalypse, and sermons are still extant in manuscript. Galfrid nowhere develops any new. thoughts nor does he betray any deep conception of persons and thin, but he shows a certain ability in the way of presentation. His unlimited admiration of Bernard and his hostility to Abelard and Gilbert make it necessary to accept his statements with caution.

S. M. DEuTacH.

BIHISOORAPn7: Mabillon, Introduction to the Vita• Ber­nardi, in MPL, dzxzv. 221 eqq.; Histoirs liWraire de la Frame, xiv. 430‑451; H. Reuter, Alasander 111., vol. ii., Leipsic, 1882; G. Hailer, Der heilips BeryAard von Clair­saux, i. 27 sqq., Monster, 1886; E. Vaoandard, Vie de St. Bernard, Paris; 1895; KL. v. 932‑933.

GALFRID OF VENDa11M: Abbot of the clois­

ter at Vend6me from 1093; d. at Angers Mar. 26,

1132. When Pope Urban II. (q.v.) fell into sore

straits under the party of the antipope Clement III.,

Galfrid hastened to Rome and rendered such great

service that he was appointed a cardinal‑priest, and

received still further tokens of the pope's good‑will.

He enjoyed favorable relations with Paschal II.

as well; also with Ca,lixtua II. and Honorius Il.

In church history at large, Galfrid is a factor of

some significance on account of his share in the in­

vestiture controversy (see INVESTITURE); he be­

longed to those of the clergy who stoutly demanded

the revocation of the privilege of investiture con­

ferred by Paschal II. on the German king. He

was the author of certain minor teleological

writings. CARL MIRBT.

BuswoaRAPey: Gottfried's Npistola, libelli sad Opuwula were edited by J. Sirmond, Paris, 1610, and are also in MPL, clvii. The libdli, ed. E. Smkur, are in MGH, Li­belli de life, ii (1893), 880‑700. Consult: Histoire lit­thaire de la Francs, :d. 180; L. Compain, i¢tude ear Geoffmi de Venddme. Paris, 1891; E. Sackur, in NA, xviii (1893).666‑673; C. Mirbt, Die Publisistikinzsifalt6 Grepom VII., Leipsi0. 1894.
GALILEE.

I. The lerse)itie Period. Geographical Limits (; I).

Names and Boundaries (11). Earlier History (¢ 2).

History (1 2). Galilee the Home of Insur.

Cities (g 3). section (5 3).

II. The Jewish Period Cities (1 4).

Galilee (Hebr. Galil; Aram. Gallila, Gelila; Gk. H8 Galilaia) is the most northern district of Pales­tine. The form of the name indicates two distinct periods in the history of the region, the. Israelitic and the Jewish.

L The Inaelitic Period: The word Galfl or Galilah (11 Kings xv. 29) means a circle, region, district. It is used nearly in its primary sense in Isa. ix. i (cf. I Mace. v. 15), and suggests in these passages a region not in the complete possession of the Hebrews. The passage in Isaiah defines the region closely enough, mentioning on one aide Zebulun and Naphtali, on the other 11 beyond







THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG


420


Jordan," and also " the way of the sea," which is

the caravan route from Damascus to Acre via

Bahrat al‑Hulah, Wadi al‑Hammam

r. Names and past Kam Hattin, and also the and Bound‑ " district of the nations " (R. V. mar‑

aries. gin). The region through which this

road passes beyond Kam Hattin is the

land of Zebulun; the Jordan region is the stretch on

the west side from Bahrat al‑Hulah to Dan. The

" district of the nations "includes the mountain

region to the north of the plain of al Battof (cf.

Josh. xx. 7 and II Kings xv. 29). The last two

expressions in Isa. ix. 1 correspond to the " land

of Naphtali " in the preceding context.

The earliest reports of this region come from the inscriptions of Sethos I. and Rameses II. (fourteenth and thirteenth centuries B.C.) in con­nection with the conquered territory between the Kishon and Lebanon, in which Asher is mentioned. By this is not necessarily meant the tribe of Asher, since the incriptions clearly mean a country. Gen. xxx. 9‑13 makes Asher a son of Jacob and Zilpah, the bondservant of Leah, that is, a stock of mixed Hebrew and Canaanitic blood: or, in other words, Hebrew settlers in the district of

2. History. Asher had assumed the name of the region, though they had in time become its masters. A similar explanation applies to the case of Naphtali as the son of Jacob and Bilhah, the bondservant of Rachel (Gen. xxx. 1‑8). The two Canaanitic stocks out of which these peoples devel­oped were the Amorites and the Hivites. The Amorites came from Lebanon later than 1250 B.C.; the Hivites dwelt at the foot of Hermon (Josh. xi. 3) or Lebanon (Judges iii. 3). In the Song of Deborah, Naphtali and Zebulun receive praise, while Asher is charged with indifference and lack of effort, but in Judges vi. 35, vii. 23, Asher is reckoned among the fighting tribes. The indica­tions of history and of Judges i. 31‑33 are that the district of Asher was less under Hebrew control than that of Naphtali. But it is clear from the reading of events that the population of the region had little influence at least upon the religion of Israel. Solomon ceded to Hiram of Tyre twenty cities in Galilee which belonged to the region of Cabul (I Kings ix. 10‑14) which Hiram gave to Solo­mon (II Chron. viii. 2), though the history in the Books of Kings does not bear out the Chronicler. Benhadad I. wasted "all the land of Naphtali" (I Kings xv. 20); after the victory of Ahab it was again recovered by Hazael (II Kings xii. 18, xiii. 22), and Jeroboam was able to restore the control to Israel, though only for a short time. In 734 B.C. Tiglath‑pileser III. assailed this entire region at the request of Ahaz (II Kings xvi. 7) and carried the inhabitants into exile (II Kings xv. 29). The har­assed condition of the inhabitants is expressed in Isa. iii. 21, ix. 4. The Israelitic period ends with the assimilation of the region to the Assyrian rule.

The Galilee of Israelitic times possessed no large cities. It was not easily accessible, since there were no good roads, and the caravan route passed through its southeastern corner only.. One road passed eastward from Tyre to Abel‑beth‑maacah, and crossed several leading north and south; there




was a path from Tyre to the Sea of Galilee, and one from Acre, more traveled, which branched on the hills northward and southward. Judges xviii. 7‑10

probably represents the condition of

3. Cities. all the places called cities in Galilee.

Josh. xi. 10 names Hazor as the capi­tal, one of Solomon's border fortresses (I Kings ix. 15), while I Macc. xi. 63‑73 locates it south of Ke­desh. Kedesh was one of the oldest possessions of Israel; its modern name is Kades, located north of Bahrat al‑Hulah. Its name indicates that it was an old sanctuary, and Josh. xx. 7, xxi. 32 make it a city of refuge and a Levitical city. North of Ke­desh, on the border of the hill country above the Jordan valley, lay Abel‑Beth‑maacah, the modern Abil al‑Kamh, the refuge of Sheba (II Sam. xx.14). Still farther north lay Ijon, not definitely located, though there is a Marj Ajun between the Litany and the Hasbany. Dan was situated eastward from Abil al‑Kamh, on the west source of the Jordan (Judges xviii., Josh. xix. 47). Its earlier name was Lais or Leshem. Jeroboam made it one of the royal sanc­tuaries, and it stood for the extreme northern boundary of Israel. Achahaph (Josh. xi. 1) is possibly the modern Khirbat Iksaf, southwest of the bend in the Litany. The village Jarun west of Bahrat al‑Hulah perhaps marks the Iron of Josh. xix. 38, Kana, south of this, may be the Kanah of Josh. xix. 28, and Ramiya, still farther south, the Ramah of Josh. xix. 29.

II. The Jewish Period: The boundaries of the Jewish Galilee differed from those under Israel. Josephus makes it begin on the north of Scytho­polis and the Plain of Jezreel, and divides it into Upper and Lower Galilee, with the division at the plain of al‑Ramah, with Beersheba on the line. While the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan were nor­mally the eastern boundary, places farther east were reckoned to it (see GAULANITIB). The

northern and western boundaries are

z. Geo‑ hard to define, though Josephus makes

graphical Kedesh a Tyrian fortress on the bound‑

Limits. ary. The Jewish Galilee included the

territory of Zebulun, which was not in the earlier district. Dr. Hirsch Hildesheimer (Bei­trdge zur Geographic Paldstinas, Berlin, 1886) from indications in the Talmud would place the north­ern line by Tibnin, Marj Ajun and Caesarea Philippi in the time of Alexander Jannaeus. But it is hardly likely that Kedesh had changed its relations between his time and that of Josephus.

Despite the exemplary punishment meted out to the district by Tiglath‑pileser III., the Israelitic inhabitants continued for the most part to hold their position, and it did not suffer the same ad­mixture of foreign population as did Samaria. The narrative in II Chron. xxx. 10‑I1 supports the supposition that there were those in the country about 300 B.C. who were allied in religion with the Jews; and that Jews lived in that country is shown

by I Mace. v. 14‑23, in that Simon the

2. Earlier Maccabee brought numbers of Jews

History. thence to live in Judea. Under John

Hyroanus I. Samaria was subjected and the boundaries thrust farther north to Galilee. Aristobulus I. seems to have conquered and Judaized




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