261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

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FUNK, FRANZ XAVER: German Roman Cath­olic; b. at Abtsgmund, Wurttemberg, Oct. 12, 1840; d. at Tiibingen Feb. 24, 1907. He studied in Tiibingen (Ph.D., 1863) and at Rottenburg, and was ordained to the priesthood in 1864. He then studied for a year in Paris, and was lecturer in the Wilhehnstift at Tiibingen 1866‑70. In 1870 he was appointed professor of church history, patrology, and archeology at Tiibingen. He wrote Zina and Witcher (Tiibingen, 1868); Geachichte des kirchlichen Zinsverbotes (1876); Die Echtheit der ignatianischen Briefe (1882); Lehrbuch der Kirchen­geschichte (Rottenburg, 1886); Dxtrina duodeeim apostolorum (Tiibingen, 1887); Die katholieette Landesuniver8ittit Ellwangen (1889); Die apostoli­schen Konstitutionen (Rottenburg, 1891); Kirchen­geschichtliche Abhandlungen urtd Untersuchungen (3 vols., Paderborn, 1897‑1907); Das Testament unseres Herrn and die venuandten Schriften (Mainz, 1901); and Dddascalia et Constitutionm apostolorum (2 vole., 1905).

FUNK, ISAAC KAUFMANN: Lutheran; b at Clifton, O., Sept. 10, 1839. He was graduated at Wittenberg College in 1860 and was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in 1861. He was pastor at Carey, 0.,1862‑64 and of St. Matthew's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Brooklyn, 1865‑72. He then resigned from the ministry, and after a tour of Europe, Egypt, and Palestine was associate editor of The Christian Radical (Pittsburg, Pa.) 1872‑73 and of The Union Advocate (New York) 1873‑75. In 1876 he founded The Metropolitan Pulpit and in the following year The Complete Preacher, merging the two in 1878 into The Homiletic Monthly, which has been called The Homiletic Review, since 1885. He established The Voice, a total‑abstinence paper, in 1880, The Missionary Review in 1888, and The Literary Digest in 1889. In 1878 he entered into partnership with Adam Willis Wagnalls, founding the publishing firm which was incorporated in 1890 as the Funk & Wagnalls Company. He has thus been instrumental in publishing a large num­ber of theological works, among which mention may be made of The Jewish Encyclopedia, the Schaf‑Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, and The Standard Bible Dictionary. He is editor­in‑chief of A Standard Dictionary of the English Language, and has edited G. Croly's Salathiel under the title Tarry Thou Till 1 Come (New York, 1901), and has written The Next Step in Evolution (New York, 1902); The Widow's Mile and Other Psychic Phenomena (1904); and The Psychic Riddle (1907).

FUNSTEN, JAMES ' BOWEft : Protestant Epis­copaI missionary bishop of Idaho; b. at The Highlands, Clarke Co., Va., July 23, 1856. He studied at the Virginia Military Institute, Lexing­ton (C.E., 1875), and the University of Virginia (LL.B., 1878), and after practising law for a short time; entered the Theological Seminary at Alexan‑


Future Punishment


dria, from which he was graduated in 1882. He was ordered deacon in the same year, and was ad­vanced to the priesthood in 1883. From 1882 to 1884 he was a missionary at Bristol, Tenn., and at Marion, Va., and after traveling in Europe in 1884, was a missionary attached to the staff of Christ Church, Richmond, Va., 1884‑90 and a general missionary in Virginia 1890‑92. From 1892 to 1899 he was rector of Trinity Church, Portsmouth, Va., and in 1899 was consecrated missionary bishop of Bois6, his diocese comprising portions of the States of Idaho and Wyoming. In theology he is Evangelical, and, besides having been editor of The Southern Churchman 1885‑86, has written Christ or the World (New York, 1890) and A Study o f Confirmation (1895).

FURNESS, WILLIAM HENRY: Unitarian; b. in Boston, Mass., Apr. 20, 1802; d. in Philadelphia Jan. 30, 1896. He studied at Harvard (B.A., 1820), and after completing his theological training at Cambridge was ordained pastor of the First Uni­tarian Congregational Church, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1825, and held the office until his retirement in 1875. He was a leading abolitionist, and was author of Remarks on the Four Gospels (Philadelphia, 1835); Jesus and his Biographers (1838); A History of Jesus (1850); Thoughts on the Life and Character of Jesus o f Nazareth (Boston, 1859); The Unconscious Truth of the Four Gospels (Philadelphia, 1868); Jesus (1871); The Power of Spirit Manifest in Jesus of Nazareth (1877); The Story of the Resurrection Told Once More (1885); Verses: Translations from the German and Hymns (Boston, 1886); and Pastoral Offices (1894). He also translated D. Schenkel's Das Charakterbild Jesu (Wiesbaden, 1864) under the title Character of Jesus Portrayed (2 vols., Boston, 1866).

FURRER, HANS KONRAD: Swiss Protestant; b. at Fluntern, near Zurich, Nov. 5,1838; d. at Zurich Apr.14,1908. He studied in Zurich (1857‑62) and was ordained to the ministry in 1862. In 1863 he made a tour of Palestine, and in 1869 became privat­docent for Biblical archeology in the University of Zurich. He held various pastorates in the can­ton from his ordination until 1876, when he became pastor of St. Peter's, Zurich. He began to lecture continuously at the university in 1885, and in 1888 was appointed professor of the general history of religion. In theology he was a liberal conserva­tive. He wrote Wanderungen durch das heilige Land (Zurich, 1865); Yortrtige iiber religi6se Tages­fragen (1895); Katholizismus and Protestantismus (1899); and Vortrdge caber das Leben Jesu Christi (1902).

FURSA (FURSEY, Lat. Furseus), SAINT: Irish monk and missionary; b. of noble family probably in Connaught; d. at Macerie (Mazeroeles, on the Authie), in Ponthieu (northern France), Jan. 16, probably 650. He was brought up in Munster under monastic discipline and lived the usual life of an Irish monk, founding a monastery at Rathmat, probably in the northwest of County Clare. For ten years he went up and down in Ireland preaching repentance and judgment. Then with his two brothers and two monks he


traveled eastward, and in 637 (7) was received by King Sigbert of East Anglia and assisted him and Bishop Felix (see FELIx, SAINT) in establish­ing Christianity among the only half‑converted peo­plc. He built a monastery at Cnoberesburg (Burgh­castle, 5 m. from Yarmouth), then, with a single companion, retired to a hermitage. After a year the menace from Penda, the heathen king of Mercia, drove him away, and he went to France. He found refuge at the court of the young Clovis II., king of Neustria. Erchinoald, mayor of the palace, gave him land at Latiniacum (Lagny‑sur‑Marne, 18 m. e. of Paris), where he built a monastery in 644. He was buried at P6ronne (75 m. n.n.e. of Paris) and was long honored there. Miracles were attributed to him even in his lifetime.

Fursa was noteworthy chiefly for his visions, which

were probably due to cataleptic attacks. He saw and

conversed with angels, was attacked by demons, and

beheld the awful torments of the wicked; impend­

ing calamities were foretold to him. He would

relate what he had seen, says Bede, only to those

who wished to hear " from holy zeal and desire of

information." Similar visions were not uncommon

experiences of the monks. The narratives of them

were highly popular and constitute a distinct class

of medieval literature (of. Plummer's Bede, ii.

294‑295, Oxford, 1896, and, for Fursa's visions,

Olden's Church o f Ireland, pp. 87‑90, London, 1895).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Three lives of Fursa in ASB, Jan., ii. 36­

55, of which the first and best, by an anonymous writer,

is also in J. Colgan, Acts Sanctorum, i. 75‑98, Louvain,

1645, ASM, ii. 300‑315, and De Smedt and De Backer,

Actor aanctorum Hibernia, pp. 77 sqq., Edinburgh, 1888.

Consult: Bede, Hiat. eccl., iii. 19; J. Lanigan, Eccl. Hiat.,

ii. 448‑464, 4 vols., Dublin, 1829; J. O'Hanlon, Lives of

the Irish Saints, i. 222‑286; Hist. litt&aire de la France,

iii. 613‑615; J. Corblet, Hagiographic du dioc"e d'Amiena,

vol. ii., Paris, 1870; G. Grat$macher, in ZKG, six. 2

(1898), pp. 190‑196.
FUTURE PUNISHMENT. New Testament Doctrine (§ 1). Historical Christian Belief (§ 2). Tendencies of Recent Discussions (§ 3). Two Leading Views (§ 4). Endlessness (§ 5).

This presentation is limited to punishment after

death; all reference to earthly punishment is not

excluded, but this is considered only so far as its

nature and aim have a bearing on the future state.

In the New Testament punishment is

r. New Tes‑ part of the eschatological program

tament which follows upon the judgment (q.v.).

Doctrine. The wicked are sent into Gehenna (q.v.),

or into a condition designated vari­

ously as unquenchable fire, the undying worm, outer

darkness, weeping and gnashing of teeth, eternal

destruction, and the second death (Mark ix. 43, 48;

Matt. xxv. 30; II Thess. i. 9; Rev. xx. 14; cf. II

Pet. iii. 7, and Jesus' parables of judgment‑the

tares, the drag‑net, the wedding guest, the virgins,

and the talents). Punishment is described as posi­

tive (as above), as natural (Gal. vi. 8; Col. iii. 25),

and according to degree of guilt. The finality of

punishment is supported by contemporary Jewish

belief, by the term Gehenna and destruction (Gk.

olethros, apbleia), by the parables of Jesus in which

finality is implied (Matt. xiu. 39‑43, 47‑50), by the


period at which judgment is consummated, and by the contrast of the state of the wicked with that of the blessed (Matt. xxv. 46). Yet, since the New Testament teaching is practical rather than theo­retical, other intimations have been found there, concerning its nature, aim, duration, and outcome (see ANxIHILATIONism, and UNIVERSALISM).

Historical Christian belief concerning the nature of future punishment has been determined in part by the doctrine of the resurrection of the same bodies that died (see RESURRECTION), of hell as a place

and its fire as real (E. D. Grin, Ser­a: Historical mons not before Published, etc., " Hell

Christian Composed of Material Fire," pp. 46­Belief. 53, New York, 1844). In particular,

Christian mystics have been fond of dwelling on the physical condition of the lost, with every refinement of imaginative ingenuity, invent­ing tortures which reflected the most terrible and revolting forms of human suffering (Dante, Inferno; H. Suso, Der ewigen Weywheit Buchlein, chap. ix., Dillingen, 1567; Jonathan Edwards, Works, vii., pp. 387‑388, New York, 1829). Punishment has also been conceived of as separation from God, as re­morse, as penitence which could not issue in repent­ance, the sense of one's own vileness, and the like. The aim of punishment has been regarded as vin­dictive or vindicatory, as disciplinary and deterrent. Its duration has been most commonly taught as endless, based on such considerations as the contin­uance of penalty commensurate with that bf blessed­ness, the limitation of redemption to the present life, the total absence of even common grace in the world of the lost, and the inability of the sinful soul to change itself. From early times here and there voices have been raised in advocacy of a limit to this condition, either through annihilation or res­toration, or a gradual mitigation of the severity of retributive suffering. Yet even when theoretic considerations have inclined toward milder views, the demands of the religious appeal have often en­forced the more rigid interpretation. Christian be­lief has preponderated on the whole in one direction, but it has never been crystallized into a dogmatic formula.

Present day discussions of future punishment direct attention to four principal points‑‑its nature, purpose, degree, and duration. It is no longer con­ceived in terms of material fire, but as spiritual ex­perience, regarded by some as a positive infliction

by God, by others as natural and in

3. Tenden‑ accord with immanent and universal cies of moral order, again as a gradual wasting Recent Dis‑ away of the organic powers of the being

cussions. or as a divine judgment in which the

very personality ceases to exist. Its purpose is either vindicatory or deterrent or disci­plinary. As to duration, it is held to be either irre­versible, whether immediately at death or at the latest after the judgment, or else as continuing for a temporary period only, determined by the force of resistance to God or by the degree of sin, there­after to issue in a final restoration to harmony with God or in an extinction of the being. By reason of the limitation of human experience to the present world, however, man is unable to picture the form of

the punishment; but since the moral order is uni­versal, character and condition are known as insepa­rable, in the moral consciousness are found the principle and law of retribution‑the principle that of accountability, the law that of cause and effect. Moral obligation and penalty originate and are realized in the same relations. Punishment is essen­tially ethical‑how ethical one can understand by comparing Jesus' teaching with that of his own or of a later period. Jesus did indeed speak of outer darkness, fire, the undying worm; but he more commonly represented punishment as taking place in ethical relations, e.g., that of payment in kind. Penalty is often conceived as suffering. This inter­pretation may be traced in part to experience of civil punishment, in part to the stinging pain of a quickened and reproaching conscience, and in part to a literal use of the New Testament. But there is moral stupor as well as anguish; men are " past feeling," " branded as with a hot iron." It is a common belief that the circumstances of the other life will be radically different from the present, and that therefore insensibility will give place to awa­kened and remorseful suffering. But on the one hand it is conjectural whether, from the moral order of the world as known through revelation and ex­perience, there is sufficient reason to believe that at the instant of death the torpid conscience, the unresponsive will, the insensible heart will be quick­ened to preternatural and unending activity; and on the other hand, so long as the moral nature, memory, and vicissitude are real in a moral and spiritual universe, the sinner may waken to fierce and uncontrollable remorse.

There are two leading views as to the purpose of punishment‑‑retribution and prevention. As retrib­utive, the evildoer receives back the consequences of his deeds; punishment demonstrates the nullity of his moral rebellion. This may be

4. Two the experience of vengeance, of public

Leading sentiment, or of the deserts of the

Vlews. sinner. As preventive, punishment is

deterrent or reformatory. He who

suffers for his wrong‑doing deters others from a like

course of action; while reformatory punishment

recalls the sinner to himself, to his folly and the in­

efficacy of his action, to his wickedness, so that in

the moral arrest he may become aware of the plead­

ing ideal of his own higher nature and the benign

good‑will of God. Whether the retributive shall be

the only aspect of punishment in the sinner's con­

dition after death must from the analogy of the

earthly life be determined in part by the soul itself.

No final decision on this subject can, however, ignore

the universal Fatherhood of God and his eternal

moral government.

Concerning the endlessness of future punishment, the mind can form no adequate notion (cf. Edwards, Works, vi. 451). Arguments for its endlessness are drawn from many directions. (1)

g. End‑ Words and pictures in the New Testa‑

lessness. went imply finality. (2) Preterition

or reprobation of some here below ren­

ders future salvation for such impossible. (3) The

offers of pardon are restricted to the present world.

(4) The judgment occurs at the close of the redemp‑

Punishment THE NEW SCHAF7‑HERZOG 416


tive era, and hence is final. (5) Every tingle sin

unrepented of deserves endless retribution. (6)

Character tends to final permanence, as seen in the

strengthening of the wrong decision, the consequent

bondage of the will, and the intensifying of the sin­

ful opposition to God in view of punishment ex­

perienced; naturally, final permanence can ba

attained but once. (7) The conscience expects and

demands unending, retribution in another life. (8)

Finally, reference is made to the long history of this

belief, and the eminent supporters of it in every age.

Relief from the painful conclusion here reached is

sought in many ways: appeal to human ignorance; a

probationary period between death and the judg­

ment for those who in this life have not finally

refused God (see PROHAnoN, FUTBRE); the incom­

patibility of the ultimate loss of any soul with the

perfection of the Creator;. the injustice of ever­

lasting punishment for sins committed during the

short span of the earthly life; continuance of pun­

ishment for a time after death, but God will finally

succeed in his purpose of grace, or, on the other

hand, the incorrigible will be eventually worn out

with their punishment. See FscseToroGy.

C. A. BscKwlTn.

Brewoaasra:: The subject is invariably treated as a sec­

tion of systematic theology, and therefore the works cited

under DoorA, DoostaTzce may be consulted. Much of

the literature under the articles on FnceATotOo:; Gs­

wsixA; PaoBArcox, Fvrross; UimasseLzc. and re•

GABLER, gitfbler, JOHANN PHILIPP: German

theologian; b. at Frankfort‑on‑the‑Main June 4,

1753; d. at Jena Feb. 17, 1828. He studied for

ten years at the gymnasium of his native town, and

from 1772 to 1778 was a student at Jena, ‑where

Griesbach and Eichhorn were his teachers in theol­

ogy. After filling minor positions in Frankfort

(1778) and Gottingen (1780), and after officiating as

professor at the gymnasium at Dortmund (1783), he

was called to Altdorf in 1785 as deacon and pro­

fessor of theology. In 1804 he was called to the

University of Jena, and in 1812 he succeeded his

former teacher, Griesbach, as professor of theology

there. As a theological author Gabler is chiefly

known by his edition of‑ Eichhorn's Urgeschichte, to

which he added a preface and notes (2 vols., Alt­

dorf and Nuremberg, 179(1‑83), also by.a number

of Latin and German essays, several of which ap­

peared in his periodicals: Neuestes theologisckes

Journal (1798‑1800), Journal far theolo*chs

Literatur (1801‑04), and Journal fair auaerlesena

theolo0che IRteratur (1805‑11). Some of these

minor works are devoted to church history, and

others to dogmatics, but the greater number con­

sist of expositions and criticisms of narratives and

sayings of the New Testament. In tendency Ga­

bler was naturalistic and rationalistic. A collec­

tion of his essays, lectures, and Latin programs

and speeches was published by his sons, Theodor

August and Johann Gottfried Gabler (2 vols:,

Ulm, 1831), with an autobiographical sketch written

lated topics is pertinent. Consult further: M. Stuart, Future Punishments, in vol. iii. of Philological Tracts, in Biblical Cabinet, 45 vole., Edinburgh, 1838‑44; R. W. Hamilton, Revealed Doctrine of Rewards and Punishments. London, 1853; H. M. Dexter, The Verdict of Reason upon the . . . Future Punishment of . . . As Impenitent, Bos­ton, 1885; f3. C. Bartlett, Future Punishment, ib. 1875; [J. M. W hiton], Is " Eternal " Punishment Endless f ib. 1878; N. Adams, Endless Punishment: Scriptural Argu­ment for . . . future endless Punishment, ib. ‑1878; E. Beecher, Hist. of opinions on the scriptural Doctrine of Retribution, New York, 1878; G. P. Fisher, in his Dis­cussions in Hist. and Theology, ib. 1880; E. M. Goul­burn, Everlasting Punishment, ib. 1880; J. B. Reimen­anyder, Doom Eternal, Philadelphia, 1880; T. J. Sawyer, Endless Punishment, $oeton,4880 (Universalist); F. W. Farrar, Mercy and Judgment, London, 1881; idem, Eternal Hope, ib. 1892; W. Griffith, Evidence of the Evan­gelists and Apostles on Future Punishment, ib. 1882; R. H. Mcli;irn, F~tura Punishment, New York, 1883; V. M. de Lissi, De d~uturn= ymnarum, Naples, 1884; C. A. Row, Future Retribution in the Light of Reason and Rev­elation, New York, 1887; W. G. T. Shedd. The Doctrine of Endless Punishment, ib. 1887 (perhaps the strongest affirmative statement of the doctrine since Edwards); J. Macpherson, The Larger Hope, London, 1890; S. M. Vernon, Probation and Punishment, New York, 1890; Wider Hops, Belays and Strictures upon the Doctrine aril Literature of Future Punishment, with Bibliographical Ap­pendix, London, 1890; R. L. Bellamy, The Harvest of the Soul, kb. 1902; J. Mew, Traditional Aspects of Hell, An­cient and Modern, ib. 1908; J. Bauts, Die Hslie, Mains, 1905; L. B. Hartman, Divine Penology, New York, 1906; J. R. Norris, Bfernal Torment: is it a possible human Destiny f ib. 1905.

FUTQRE STATE. See EscaATouOGy, i¢ 8‑7.

for EiehsWt's Annalea academia Jenensia (Jena,


(E. H>cNa>ct.)

BrerroaaArar: W. 8chr6ter. Erinnerunpen as J. B. taa­blar, Jena, 1827; G. Thomseiue, Do& WiedersruwaAen des evanyelisaAen Lebsns in der nun $irde Bayerns, pp. 21 eq9.. Erlangen, 1887.

GABRIEL SEVERUS: Greek metropolitan and theologian; b. at Monemvasia (45 m. s.e. of Sparta) 1541; d. at Venice Oct. 21, 1616. After comple­ting his education at Padua, he resided in Crete and at Venice, where the Greek colony chose him priest of 1St. George in 1573. Four years later he was made metropolitan of Philadelphia, but continued to live at Venice. He was one of the most learned theologians of the modern Greek Church, whose claims he passionately defended against Roman Catholicism and the unionistic tendencies within his own communion. The first of his three chief works was the collection of three treatises on the honor due the sacred elements of the Eucharist, the " portions " (Gk: mer^ides, pieces of bread set stride at the Eucharist in honor of the Virgin and the saints, and for the spiritual welfare of all orthodox Christians, whether living or dead), and the boiled wheat distributed to the congregation on certain days, generally in memory of the dead. This was first published at Venice in 1604. His second work was the " Treatise on the Holy and Sacred Mys­teries" (1600), of which separate portions have been edited at various times. In its presentation the book is vscholastic and not altogether free from

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