FULBERT, fill"bar', OF CHARTRES: An early French prelate and scholar; b. between 952 and' 962; d. at Chartres Apr. 10, 1028. His birthplace is variously given as Aquitaine, the diocese of Laudun, and the town of Chartres. After studying under Gerbert (later, Pope Sylvester II.) at Reims, he opened a school at Chartres where, in addition to the ordinary studies of the Trivium and Quadrivium, he lectured on medicine and theology. In 1006 he was made bishop of Chartres, in which character he became of importance in the political and theological controversies of the time. He was notable especially for his vindication of the rights of the Church against the encroachments of the turbulent nobility. His writings include letters of the highest interest for the ecclesiastical and political history of France, sermons, poems, and devotional forms. Some of his letters touch on dogmatic questions, and declare with considerable
distinctness for the doctrine of transubstantiation. His significance lies in the services he rendered to the cause of the new thought which in his time was struggling into being. He continued the tradition of Gerbert, and, without evincing any marked creative ability, was eminently successful in handing down that tradition to distinguished pupils, among whom were Hugo of Langres, Adelmann and Berengar of Tours. His school at Chartres was, after Reims, " a second fertile nursery of learning, and not for France alone." He laid greater emphasis on the positive element in Gerbert's doctrine than on his dialectic and critical system, enjoining close adherence to the authority of the Fathers of the Church.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Epistolm are accessible in A. Ducheane, Hiatori,2 Francorum acriptorea, iv. 172‑198, 5 vole., Paris, 1839‑49; in Bouquet. Recueil, x. 443 182, and m MPL, cali., which contains the real of his works. Consult: C. Pfister, De FulLert% . . . vita et oPer%Lwa. Nantes, 1885; Gallia Christians, viii. 1744; Hiato%re Litt6raira de in France, vii. 281‑282, Paris, 1748; Cartula%re de 8. Pyre de Chartres, ed. J. M. Qudrard, ib. 1840; H. Reuter, Geachiclete der religi&aen Aufkdrun9. i. 89‑92, Berlin, 1875; K. Werner, Gerbert von Aurillac, pp. 273‑‑288, Vienna, 1878; wattenbeah, DGQ, iii (1888), 130, 149; ii (1894), 185; Neander, Christian Church, iii, passim (contains selections from his writings); XL, iv. 2092‑93.
FULCHER, f iii"ah6', (FOUCHER) OF CHARTRES
(Fulcherius Carnotensis): A monk, b. at Chartres e.
1059; d. after 1127. He took part in the first cru
xxvii‑xxxvi.; French tranal. in Guizot, Collection,
xxiv. 1‑275, cf. preface, i.‑v.; Eng. tranal. in Pur
I char' Pilgrim). (A. HAUCK.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. von 9ybe1, Geachichte den eraten Xreuzzugea, pp. 48‑53, Leipaic, 1881; T. A. Archer and C. L. KinBaford, The Crusades, pp. 49‑50. 55, 98‑99, 135, 139140, 142, 170, 440; J. M. Ludlow, The Age of the Crusades, pp. 110‑115, New York, 1898.
FULCO (FOULQUES) OF lYEUILLY:French ecclesiastic, preacher of the fourth crusade; b. in the second half of the twelfth century; d. at Neuilly (2 m. w. of Paris), Mar., 1202. While still a young man he was placed in charge of the parish of Neuilly. His youth had been devoted to the pursuit of pleasure, rather than to the preparation for his calling, and he was now reproached by his parishioners for his ignorance and inexperience. In 1192 he reformed, gave up worldly pleasures, and set his people an example of the most rigorous asceticism and devotion to duty. He resumed his studies and walked to Paris every week‑day to learn of Peter, the famous cantor of Notre Dame.. Soon he had won the respect of his parishioners and made himself known far and wide as a fearless preacher. He even warned Richard the Lion‑Hearted to banish from his household the vices of arrogance, cupidity, and luxury. In 1198 be was charged
407 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA
by Innocent III. with the preaching of the fourth crusade in France. He now went from place to place, accompanied by a few Cistercians and Pre‑. monstrants, preaching to enormous crowds. Many of his hearers were attracted by his reputation as a healer and performer of miracles, and his success was great. At the chapter‑general of the Cistercian order in 1201 he reported that under his preaching 200,000 people had taken up the cross. In the midst of this work he retired to Neuilly for a short rest, and was there stricken with fever. At his request he was buried in the parish church at Neuilly. After having been cared for and decorated for centuries his grave was desecrated and destroyed during the French Revolution.
(F. W. DIBELIUs.)
BIBLIOGBAr'87: Jacobus de Vitriaw, Hiat. orientalia, ed. F. Moschus, pp. 275 sqq., Donal, 1597; Geoffroy de Villehardouin, La Conquhte de Constantinople, ed. N. de Wailly; pp. 1 eqq., Paris, 1872; Otto of San Blas, Chronimn, xlvii., in MGR, Script., xx (1888), 304 eqq. Consult: Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. Ix.; J. I. Mombert, Short Hist. of As Crusades, p. 184, New York 1894; T. A. Archer and C. L. Kingsford, The Crusades, pp. 180, 370371, ib. 1895.
FULDA, ABBEY OF: A famous German abbey, founded in 744 by Sturm, a disciple of Boniface, in the district of Grabfeld on the banks of the River Fulda' on land given by Duke Carloman. The modern town, which grew up about the abbey,' is in the territory of Hesse‑Nassau, 54 m. s.e. of Cassel. Three years after the foundation the church and other buildings were complete, and a large tract of land was under cultivation. Before the constitution was drawn up, the brothers visited older monasteries, Sturm himself traveling through Italy and studying especially the life at Monte Cassino (q.v.). On his return he established his monks under the rule of St. Benedict. Boniface bore a special love to the foundation, and for its greater security obtained from Pope Zacharias a bull placing it under the immediate jurisdiction of Rome. Pepin confirmed the exemption in 753 and promised the special protection of the monarchy as well. Boniface continued his relations with Fulda, and directed that his body should be buried there; it rests in a stone sarcophagus at the present main entrance to the church. Sturm died in 779. The number of the monks and the extent of their possessions steadily increased, and their wealth was admirably employed. The abbey was one of the earliest centers of German ecclesiastical art; numerous churches were built in the surrounding country and enriched with paintings, mosaics, and beautiful vessels and manuscripts. Learning was not less encouraged. The school which was founded, probably almost as soon as the abbey, was the earliest home of theological learning in Germany. It flourished especially under the rule of Rabanus Maurus (q.v.), himself educated at Fulda and abbot from 822 to 842. The education imparted, to boys looking forward to a secular career as well as to future ecclesiastics, included the " liberal arts," grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, physics, astronomy, theology, and the German tongue. Among those who profited by it were Walafried Strabo (q.v.), afterward abbot of Reiche‑
nau, Servatus Lupus, Otfried, author of the Krist, and Bernard the grandson of Charlemagne, afterward king of Italy. Charlemagne laid the foundation of a library very considerable for that age, and Rabanus largely increased it. A decline began after his time; later abbots still had a care for learning, but no more great scholars or important works are found issuing thence. The most important author of these later days was Williram (q.v.). After the restoration of the abbey church by Hadama,r (installed 948), artistic activity seems also to have fallen off. Meantime discipline was decaying; the reform of 1013 made no lasting improvement. The vigorous rule of Abbot Markward (1150‑65) effected a change for the better; but later abbots were largely interested in protecting the property of the community from ppoliation by the nobility. In 1513 the neighboring abbey of Hersfeld, where Sturm had made his first settlement, was united with Fulda. The Reformation had no little influence within .t le jurisdiction of the abbey, and in 1542 a reforming ordinance was wrung from Abbot PhiAp Schenk which contained some distinctively Protestant elements and permitted the further extension of Evangelical teaching. The Counterreformation was begun in 1573 by Abbot Balthazar, and during the Thirty Years' War the Protestants in the territory came near getting the upper hand several times. The treaty concluded in 1631 between William V. of Hesse and Gustavus Adolphus gave the territory of Fulda to the former as a vassal of Sweden, and he did his best to forward the Protestant cause there; but after the defeat at NSrdlingen he was forced to resign his claims to Fulda, and Roman Catholic abbots once more, took possession. The settlement of 1803 gave the territory as a secular principality to the Prince of Orange. In 1809 it was incorporated by Napoleon with the grand duchy of Frankfort, occupied by Prussia in 1815 and assigned to the electorate of Hesse‑Cassel, with which it became part of Prussia in 1866.
Fulda has a somewhat peculiar history as an episcopal see. In a sense it was a diocese as early as 751, when quasiepiscopal jurisdiction over his territory was granted to the abbot by Pope Zacharias and confirmed by Pepin. The claim was often contested and stoutly upheld during the next thousand years, until Benedict XIV. placed it beyond doubt by formally raising the abbot to the dignity of a prince‑bishop in 1752. After the Revolution, the bishopric was restored in 1827, as a suffragan see of the province of the Upper Rhine, though with slightly altered boundaries in consequence of the political changes; and other changes were made by Pius IX. in 1857 and 1871, giving the diocese a Roman Catholic population of about 150,000.
BIIswoa8APHy: Sources are: C. Brower, AntiquiWum Fuldensium libri quattuor, Antwerp, 1812; Codex diplossaticus Fuldensia, ed. E. F. J. Dronke, Camel, 1850; Traditi~a et antiquidatm Puidensea, ed. E. F. J. Dronke, ib. 1844; Eigil, Vita Sturmi, ed. G. H. Perte in MGM, Script., ii (1829), 365‑367; Bruno Candidus, Vita E%qibia, ib. xv (1887), 221; lists of the abbots are given, ib. xdii(1881), 272 sqq., 340 sqq., and pp. 161‑218 contain the Annales neerolopiei Puldensm, 779‑1066; Theotroehus, Eyfsl. de ritu Puldensi mime celtbranda, in NA, iv. 409. Consult:
J. GBsemann, Beitrdpe sur. Gewhidte des P9rstenfhume Fulda, Fulda, 1857; K. Arnd, Gesrhiehte do Hochstifts Pulda,Frsnkfort, 1862; J. Gegenbaur. Das Kloster Pulda sm RarolingeP Zeitalter, 2 parts, Fulds,1871‑73; A.Hartmann, ZeitpdrAishte von Pulda, ib. 1895; E. Heydenreieh, Dae alteste Puldaer' Cartular in Staatsarchive au Marburg. Leipsic, 1899; Die ersten Anfange der Bau‑ and %uns6 thatipksit des Klosters Pulda, Fulda, 1900; G. Rioter, Quellen and Abhandlunpen our Geschichtc der Abtei Pulda, Fulda, 1904; %L, iv. 2100‑13; Rettberg, %D, vol. i.; Hauck, AD, i. 564 aqq.; and the literature under BAIr TBALAR oh DEBNBACB.
FULGENTIUS FERRANDUS: Deacon at Car
thage; d. there before 547. He suffered ban
ishment from Africa under the Vandal King
Thrasamund and accompanied his friend and
teacher, Fulgentius of Ruspe (q.v.), into exile to
Sardinia, but returned to Africa in 523 and became
deacon at Carthage. Nothing is known of his later
life. Apart from an anonymously transmitted bi
ography of Fulgentius of Ruspe (MPL, lxv. 117
150), he left behind him several letters and circulars
on dogmatic and ethical questions (MPL, lxvii. 887
948). Best known, and of greatest interest as
regards church history, is the circular addressed
in 546 to the Roman deacons Pelagius and Anato
lius on the occasion of the Three Chapter Contro
versy (q.v.). The title is, Pro epistula Ibce episcopi
Edesseni adeoque de tribus capitulia eoncilii Chalce
succeeded in confirming the African bishops in their
opposition. There may still be mentioned, as of
moment for the history of canon law, his Breviatio car
nonum (MPL, Ixvii. 949‑962), a compilation of the
church regulations at that time operative in North
Africa. G. KBtlGEH.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Letters of Fulgentius are collected in A. Mai, Scriptorum veterum nova collsdio, iii. 2, pp. 169184, 10 vole., Rome, 1825‑38; A. Reifferscheid, Aneodota Casineneia, pp. 5‑7, Wratislaw, 1871‑72; O. Bardenhewer, Patrolopie, p. 544, Freiburg, 1901; DCB, ii. 583‑584.
FULGEWTTIUS OF RUSPE: Bishop of Ruspe in the province of Byzacena, North Africa; b. at Telepte, North Africa, 468; d. at Ruspe Jan. 1, 533. He was born of a senatorial family, and on account of his good education and practical ability obtained at an early age the office of fiscal procurator, but, under the influence of Augustine's writings, he soon entered a cloister and subjected himself to the strictest asceticism. The persecutions of catholics under the Vandal King Thrasamund drove him from his home to Sicily and Rome about 500. On his return he became abbot of a small island cloister on the African coast, and in 508 (or 507) bishop of Ruspe. Scarcely had he entered upon his office when with other catholics he was banished from North Africa. With many of his fellow exiles, including his biographer, Fulgentius Ferrandus (q.v.), he settled at Cagliari, Sardinia, where he developed great practical and literary activity and became the recognized leader of the exiles in their efforts to effect their return to Africa. In 515 Thrasamund summoned him to a disputation that he had arranged between catholics and Arians, but Fulgentius, persisting in his conviction, had to return into exile. He was likewise drawn into the disputes of the Eastern Church by request of the bo‑
a1 v~_ ‑ ‑t
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
called Scythian monks (see SEMI‑PELAGLINIBM THEOPABCHrTEB). On the death of Thrasamund in 523 he returned to Ruspe and resumed the administration of his diocese, which he resigned a year before his death.
Fulgentius was one of the most influential champions of orthodoxy against Arianism and Semi‑Pelagisanism, to which he opposed the Augustinian doctrine, though avoiding, as far as possible, its subtleties and austerities. Of his numerous writings the most important are: Contra Arianos; Ad Thrasamundum regent Vandalorum libri iii; De remissions pu;catorum ad Buthymium libri ii; Ad Monimum la7bri iii; De veritate pradestinationis et gratite deb ad Johannem et Venerdum libri iii; De fide sive de regula verse fidet ad Petrum, his best‑known and most valuable writing; and Liber de incarnations et gratin domini nosh Jesu Christi, addressed to the Scythian monks, and also designated as Epist. (xvii.) ad Petrum diaconum. The best edition of the works of Fulgentius is that of L. Mangeant (Paris, 1684; reprinted in MPL,1xv.105‑1018). G. KR$GER.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: O. Bardenhewer, Patrolopie, pp. 544 @lq.. Freiburg, 1901; F. Wbrter, Zur Dopmsnpesrhiehte des Semipeiapianismus. MRneter, 1900; Harnack, Dogma, v. 258 aqq., 293; DCB, ii. 576‑583 (rather detailed); ABB, Jan., i. 32‑45.
FULKE, WILLIAM: English Puritan; b. in
London 1538; d. Aug. 28, 1589. He. was educated
at St. Paul's School, London, and at St. John's
College, Cambridge (B.A., 1558; M.A., 1563; B.D.,
1568; D.D., 1572). After studying law for six
years at Clifford's Inn he returned to Cambridge to
study theology. He was appointed fellow in 1564,
principal lecturer of his college in 1565, and preacher
and Hebrew lecturer in 1567. On his return to
Cambridge he allied himself with Thomas Cart
wright (q.v.), became a zealous champion of Puri
tanism and an opponent of Roman Catholicism.
He took a prominent part in the vestiarian con
troversy, inducing about 300 students, at one time,
to discard the surplice in the chapel of St. John's.
the headship of his college in 1569 he retired from
the university and shortly afterward secured the
livings of Warley in Essex, and Dennington in
Suffolk. In 1572 he accompanied Lord Lincoln
to France and was one of the friends who persuaded
Cartwright to return to England. In 1578 he ob
tained the mastership of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge,
which he held till his death. He was also vice
chancellor of the university in 1581. The same
year he was deputed to hold a public disputation
with Edmund Campion (q.v.) in the Tower of Lon
don, and in 1582 he was one of twenty‑five theolo
gians appointed to hold disputations with Roman
Catholic priests and Jesuits. He was one of the
ablest controversialists of his time. Of his numer
ous polemic writings, directed largely against the
leaders of the Counterreformation in England,
the most important are: T. Stapleton and Martian
(T‑ Popish Heretics) Confuted (London, 1580; ed.
R. Gibbings for the Parker Society, Cambridge,
1848); A Defense of the Sincere and True Trans
lations o f the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue,
t. , ~:_j:.w.
against . . . Gregory Martin (1583; ed. C. N. Hartshorne, for the Parker Society, Cambridge, 1843); and The Text of the New Testament . . . Translated out of the Vulgar Latin by the Papists . . , at Rheims (1589).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: John Strype, Annals of the Reformogon, 4 vols., London, 1709‑31; T. Fuller, Church HisC of Brih aim, v. 79, ib. 1845; C. H. and T. Cooper, Athena Cantabripieneas, ii. 57‑61, ib. 1861; DNB, xx. 305‑308.
FULLER, ANDREW: English ‑Baptist preacher and author; b. at Wicken (12 m. n.e. of Cambridge), Cambridgeshire, Feb. 6, 1754; d. at Kettering (13 m. n.n.e. of Northampton), Northamptonshire, May 2, 1815. He was of humble rural parentage. About Nov., 1769, he experienced conversion and in Apr., 1770, he was baptized into the fellowship of a hyper‑Calvinistic Baptist church, of antinomian tendencies, at Soham. The pastor of the church was shortly afterward compelled to resign for teaching that men have the power to follow or resist God's will, the majority denying absolutely any freedom on man's part and regarding as impertinent and heretical any human effort for the salvation of sinners. Fuller, who had received only a moderate education, became greatly interested in the theological questions that were being discussed, and from 1771 onward read whatever pertinent literature was accessible. He early became familiar with the hyper‑Calvinistic works of John Gill and John Brine (Baptists) and was profoundly influenced by the writings of John Owen, the Puritan, and of Jonathan Edwards, the American divine. In 1772 he was invited to preach in the Soham church and in 1774 became its pastor, sound Evangelical sentiments having by this time gained ground in the community. The influence of the Evangelical revival in England and America (led by the Wesleys, Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, and others) soon gained the mastery over Fuller, and he became the protagonist of the Evangelical and missionary movement among British Baptists. Such was his industry and strength of mind that, without academic training, he became a master in theological thinking and writing and acquired a working knowledge of the Greek and Hebrew languages. His tract entitled The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation (Northampton, 1784) was widely. circulated among dissenters and Evangelical churchmen and produced a profound impression. His moderate, sane, Evangelical Calvinism was embodied in effective form in The Calvinistic and Socinian Systems Examined and Compared as to Their Moral Tendency, London, 1794. His writings on Sandemanianism were occasioned by his coming in contact with this type of religious thought during his Scottish tours on behalf of foreign qlissions. He was one of the founders of the Baptist Foreign Missionary Society formed for the support of Carey and his coadjutors in India, and by far the most influential home promoter of its objects. His activity in visiting the churches throughout Great Britain in this cause diffused widely his interest in missions and his sane Evangelical and Baptist views. His influence on American Baptists has been incalculable.
ALBERT H. NEwMAN.
409 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ~'uA
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Works have appeared in many editions,
‑London, 1838, 1840, 1853; ed. by his son, A. G. Fuller, with a memoir, for Bohn's Standard Library, 1852; ed. J. Belcher, 3 vole., Philadelphia, 1833. For his life consult: J. Ryland, Life and Death of Rev. Andrew Fuller, London, 1816; J. W. Morris, Memoir of the Life and WrsDings of Rev. Andrew Puller, ib. 1816; T. E. Fuller, Memoir of Andrew Fuller, ib. 1863; DNB, xx. 309‑310.
FULLER, RICHARD: American Baptist preacher; b. at Beaufort, S. C., Apr. 22, 1804; d. in Baltimore Oct. 20, 1876. He was the son of a prosperous South Caroilna cotton‑planter, and was brought up as an Episcopalian. In 1820 he entered Harvard, where he took high rank as scholar and debater. Though he was obliged on account of ill health to abandon his studies before the completion of his course, he received his degree in 1824. Returning to South Carojina he studied law, was admitted to the bar, and by 1831 had gained a high reputation in his chosen profession. In Oct., 1831, he was converted under the ministry of Daniel Baker, a Baptist evangelist, and soon after began to preach with remarkable eloquence. As pastor in Beaufort, his home town, he was eminently successful and soon gained a national reputation as preacher and denominational leader. He was one of the most eminent of the Southern representatiies in the Triennial Convention at the time of the rupture of the Northern and Southern Baptists on the slavery question, and with Francis Wayland as his chief opponent ably defended, in a literary way, the Southern view of slavery. As pastor of the Eutaw Place Church, Baltimore (1846‑76), he came to be recognized as the foremost pulpit orator of the American Baptists, and as a denominational leader he was prominent in the great denominational gatherings. In figure and feature he was impressive and attractive.
His Sermons, in three volumes, were published posthumously (Baltimore, 1877).
ALBERT H. NEwMAN.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. H. Cuthbert, Life of Richard Fuller, New