suming the direction he retired to solitude, where
his scholars from Complutum (not the well‑known
town of that name, the modern Alcala, but
a place apparently in northwestern Leon, or,
according to others, in Asturia), sought him
out and induced him to take charge of their
monastery. Such was the growth of the cloister
that the king forbade any except women to join
it, fearing that the number of men available for
military service would be depleted, whereupon
Fructuosus built a nunnery for about eighty virgins
who chose him for their spiritual head. He is best
known, however, through the two rules which he
drew up for his monks. The first of these, based
in part on the Benedictine rule and designed for
the cloister of Complutum (whence it is known as
the Regula Complutensis), is divided into twenty
five sections and inculcates the most implicit and
detailed obedience on the part of the monks. In
the second rule (Regula communis) the problem
of double monastic life is considered, so that
husbands might live with their wives and children
in monastic purity. Here again absolute sub‑
mission to the abbot was required, family ties were completely dissolved, and the sexes were rigidly separated, although a few aged monks of proved morality were permitted to reside in nunneries at a distance from the cells of the sisters, to exercise supervision over them. No one was permitted to enter a monastery, moreover, unless he first renounced all his wealth in favor of the poor.
Despite the asceticism of Fructuosus, he was
obliged to enter upon high ecclesiastical office. He
was planning to make a pilgrimage to the East when
he was consecrated bishop of Dumio in Galicia, and
his life he was unwearied in the erection of monas
teries and churches, and after his death many
miracles were ascribed to his body, which was
buried at Santiago de Compostella. He is still
honored as the patron saint of many churches,
especially in Spain. (O. Z6CKLl;xt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita, by a contemporary, is in ASH, Apr., ii. 431‑436, and ASM, ii. 581‑590. Consult C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, ii. 221‑226, 5 vole„ Paris, 1860‑77, Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1861‑79; P. D. Gams, Kirchengeschichte Spaniens, ii. 2, pp. 152‑158, 3 vols., Regensburg, 1862‑79; O. ZSckler, Askew and Mtinehtum, pp. 378‑381, Frankfort, 1897; Helyot, a'dz'es monasliquea, v. 30‑34.
FRUCTUOSUS OF TARRAGONA: Bishop of Tarragona and martyr; d. about 259. Little is known concerning his life, except the events connected with his martyrdom, which is said to have taken place in 259, during the reign of Valerian and Gallienus. At the command of Amilianus, the presiding judge, Fructuosus, with his two deacons, Augurius and Eulogius; was taken from prison to the amphitheater, where all three were burned to death. The festival of Fructuosus is celebrated by the Roman Church on Jan. 21, St. Agnes' Day.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: ASH, Jan., ii. 239‑240; Prudentiue, Peristephanon, hymn 6; F. Htibner, Inscriptionea Hispanim Christian2, nos. 57‑58, Berlin, 1871.
Consult: Tillemont, MEmoires, iv. 198, 645; P. D. Gams.
Kirc*engeschiehte Spaniens, i. 265 sqq., Regensburg, 1862;
DCB, ii. 571‑572; KL, iv. 2066‑2067.
FRUIT‑TREES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.
The Cultivated Olive (§ 1). The Mulberry, Almond, and
region. Its habitat is south hither Asia, where it
was early improved and made to yield
z. The paying crops. It requires calcareous
Cultivated soil and a mean temperature of
Olive. 15° C. (60° F.), and must be protected
against strong winds and excessive
heat. In the earliest times the olive was cultivated
throughout Palestine (Deut. xxviii. 48); and olive
oil has always been one of the chief products of
the country (Deut. viii. 8; Joel i. 10; Amos iv. 9,
etc.). The regions particularly rich in olives were
the low plains of the coast, where the royal gardens were located (I Chron. xxvii. 28), the region of the bay of Akko (Deut. xxxiii. 24), and the shore of the Sea of Galilee (Josephus, War, II., xxi. 2). The export, especially to Egypt, was considerable (Hoses, xii. 1), likewise to Phenicia (Ezek. xxvii. 17; cf. I Kings v. 11). Olive orchards are planted with seedlings, which are then improved. The tree does not bear for ten years, and only after thirty years does it yield a full crop. On an average, there is a full yield every second year, and with good care, a half‑crop in the intermediate years. The tree, according to Pliny (Hilt. nat., XVI., xliv. 90, XVII., xxX. ), may live 200 years; and very old olive‑trees may be seen in Palestine to‑day. An old stump will continue to send up new stems, as if its vitality were indestructible. The oil is found not in the kernel of the atone but in the juicy flesh of the fruit, which ripens in September and October. The fruit is gathered when purple, before it gets black and overripe, as the oil has a much finer flavor then. Olives were eaten everywhere, either raw or pickled, after the bitter taste had been removed by allowing them to lie in brine. The finest oil was obtained by placing the bruised ripe olives in a basket and allowing them to drip without being pressed (Ex. xxix. 40, etc.). Such oil was used for the golden candlesticks 'and in the preparation of the holy anointing oil. Most of the olives were trodden and mashed in stone presses, just as were grapes (Mic. vi. 15; Joel ii. 24). Many such oilpresses are still seen in Palestine.
The wild olive, or oleaster (Rom. xi. 17 eqq.), which is also referred to in the Old Testament, but by a different name (I Kings vi. 23, 31, 33; Neh. viii. 15), must not be confused with the cultivated olive. This had short, broad leaves and thorny
branches, and yielded an inferior Z. The quality of oil used only in the preparaWild tion of ointment. The wood, on the Olive. other hand, furnished, good timber.
The olive‑tree, perennially green and always rejuvenating itself, was a favorite symbol of prosperity (Pa. Iii. 8, exxviii. 3; Jer. xi. 16); and the falling off of the leaves after a frost was typical of the early destruction of the wicked (Job xv. 33). In case the tree lost its branches, wild olive branches were grafted on the cultivated stock (Rom. xi. 17.) For the Orientals olives and olive‑oil are necessities, and the failure of the olive crop is a national calamity (Amos. iv. 9; Hab. iii. 17; cf. II Kings iv. 2 sqq.).
The home of the fig‑tree is likewise in hither Asia, and in ancient times it was planted throughout Palestine (Num. xiii. 23; Deut. viii. 8, etc.). It has a smooth trunk, gray bark, attains a height of fifteen to eighteen feet, and its dense foliage affords a splendid shade (I Kings iv. 25; II Kings xviii. 31; Micah iv. 4). It is noted for its vitality
and its ability to thrive on any soil;
3. The Fig., though in Palestine its fruit is not
particularly large. In the Old Testament three varieties of figs are distinguished: (1) Bikktarfm, early figs that ripen in June; (2) te'enim, late figs, which begin to ripen in August, growing on branches that were foroed in January;
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
(3) plucggim, late figs, which, still green in the autumn, hang on the tree all winter and ripen in the spring, when the sap rises. It was such winter figs that Jesus expected to find on the leafy figtree as early as the Passover . (Matt. xxi. 19). Figs are very nutritious, and are eaten both fresh and dried, in the latter case pressed into cakes (I Sam. sxv. 18; II Kings xx. 7). In antiquity the healing power of figs was generally known and prized (Puny, Hist. nat., XXIIL, lxiii.; II Kings xx. 7).
The sycamore (Ficus Sycomories), mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, is one of the commonest trees of ancient and modern Egypt, which was considered its habitat, hence Pliny speaks of it as Ficus Egyptia (Hiat. nat., XIII., xiv;
¢. The cf. Diodorus, i. 34; Ps. lxxviii. 47).
Sycamore. It is common in Palestine and Syria
(II Chron. i. 15), e.g., at Gaza, Jaffa,
Ramleh and Beirut; and the present Haifa used to
be called " the City of Sycamores " (Strabo, xvi. 758,
etc.). It grows best on low ground, and was found,
Jordan, on the plains of lower Galilee, aid in the
Shephelah (I Kings x. 27; I Chron. xxvii. 28;
Isa. ix. 10). It attains considerable size and height,
and its wide‑spreading branches, covered with beau
tiful green leaves, make a magnificent shade. The
fruit is yellow, resembling the fig in appearance
and odor, and has a sweetish, insipid taste (Strabo,
xvii. 823). It was eaten by poor people; but, to
be made edible, just before ripening the fruit had
to be pierced so that a part of the juice could escape
(Amos vii. 14; Theophrastus, Hist. plantarum, iv.
2). The wood is very durable, particularly in
water, and serves chiefly for building purposes (Isa.
ix. 10). 1n Egypt it was used for mummy cams.
The mulberry‑tree is mentioned only in I Mace. vi. 34, unless Luke:xvii. 6 refers to it. The white mulberry (Mores albs), now planted extensively on Mount Lebanon for, silk‑worms, 5. The Mul‑ was introduced into Palestine compara‑
berry, Al‑ lively late. Before its advent, the
mond, black mulberry (Mores nigra) was and Pome‑ cultivated, from the fruit of which an
granate. intoxicating drink was, and is still,
made. The almond‑tree (Amygdalus
communis).growa wild in Afghanistan, Kurdistan,
and Mesopotamia, but in hither Asia and Palestine
it has been cultivated from remotest times (Gen.
xuii. 11; Num. avii. 8; Jer. i. 11; Eccles. xii. 5).
It puts out its leaves as early as the end of January,
before any of the other fruit‑trees, and hence, per
haps, the Hebrew name shdkedh, " the waking one."
The pomegranate‑tree (P~xiica Crranatum) is in
digenous, to hither Asia; it ' was common, both
wild and cultivated, in Egypt (Num. xx. 5), Arabia,
Syria, and Palestine (Num. xiii. 23; Deut. viii. 8;
became the symbol of fruitfulness in ancient relig
ious imagery. Hence its use in the Hebrew cult
on the columns of the temples (I Kings vii. 20 aqq.;
Jer. Iii. 22‑23) and on the robe of the priest (Ex.
It is fairly probable that the Hebrew word tap
puah refers to the apple (Prow. xxv. 11; Cant. ii. 3,
vii. 8, viii. 5; Joel 1. 12). Names o
6. The cities compounded with tappuak show
Apple. that the fruit was frequently cultivated
in Palestine. The pleasant odor re
ceives special mention (Cant. vii. 8). However,
it has often been denied that there were any apple
trees in Palestine in olden times, and the word
has been interpreted as " quince " (of. PSBA,
XII., i. 4, 2 sqq.), or as " citron " (cf. Delitzsch, on
Prov. xxv. 6), or as " apricot " (cf. H. B. Tristram,
Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 294, London, 1884).
The date‑tree (Phwnix dactylifera) belongs to
subtropical vegetation. It requires sandy soil and
a mean annual temperature of 21° to 23° C (70° F.).
It thrives on the scorching breath of the desert;
but at the same time its thirsty roots
7. The must have water. It grows slowly,
Date‑palm. reaching its maximum height of about
fifty feet in about 100 years, and lives
to the age of about 200 years. The fruit is eaten
fresh, or it is pressed into a cake and then dried,
as are apricots. In Jericho a kind of sirup was also
made of dates (Josephus, War, IV., viii. 3; Pliny,
Hist.nat., XIII., ix.). Its cultivation in Palestine as
a fruit‑tree was restricted to the plains by the Sea
of Galilee, the valley of the Jordan, and the region
of the Dead Sea, where it thrived, as these were the
localities offering the proper conditions. Jericho
bore the name, " City of Palm‑trees " (Dent. xx.,
xiv. 3; II Chron. xxviii. 15). In other parts of the
country the tree was cultivated as an ornament,
and in the temple pictures of palm‑trees were em
ployed extensively as decoration (I Kings vi. 29
sqq.; Ezek. xl. 17 sqq., xli. 18 sqq.).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. E. Post, The Flora of Syria, Palestine,
and Sinai, obtainable of the PEF, is the best single work.
Consult: H. B. Tristram, Fauna and Flora of Palestine,
London, 1884; Maria Calloott, Scripture Herbal, ib. 1842;
H. S. Osborn, Plants of the Holy Land; with their Fruits
and Flowers, Philadelphia, 1860; Auderlind, Fruchtbdurne
in Syrien, in Zeitachrift des deutecken PaMStina Vereine,
xi (1888), 69 sqq.; V. Hehn, Hulturpflanaen and Haustiere,
FRUMENTIUS. See ABYSSINIA AND THE ABY6
BINIAN CHURCH, § 2.
FRY, ELIZABETH: English philanthropist, be
longing to the Society of Friends; b. at Earlham
(3 m. w. of Norwich), Norfolk, May 21, 1780; d.
at Ramsgate (on the coast, 67 m. e.s.e. of London)
Oct., 12, 1845. She was the third daughter of
John Gurney, a banker of Norwich, and at the age
of twenty was married to Joseph Fry, a wealthy
London merchant. At the death of her father, in
1809, she spoke for the first time in public, and was
soon recognized as a minister among the Friends.
Her attention being drawn in 1813, by a report of
Friends, to the wretched condition of criminals
in the jails, she visited the prison at Newgate, and found nearly 300 women with their children crowded together in two wards and two cells, all sleeping on the bare floor. She at once instituted measures for the amelioration of prison morals and life, daily visiting the prison, reading to the prisoners the Scriptures, and teaching them to sew. A committee of women was organized in 1817 to carry on the work on a larger scale. These labors effected a great change in the condition of the criminals, and many profligate characters went out. of the prison renewed.
In 1818, in company with her brother, J. J. Gurney, Mrs. Fry visited the prisons of northern England and Scotland, and in 1827 those of Ireland. She also visited Kaiserswerth (see DEACONESS,III., 2, a; FLIEDNER, THEODOR), and was impressed with the advantage of training for nurses. Her efforts led to the formation of societies for the help of female criminals in various parts of Great Britain; and the fame of her labors stimulated the competition of women in foreign lands. In 1839, 1840, and 1841 she visited the Continent, extending her travels as far as Hungary, where many of the criminals slept in stocks, and whipping was universally practised, even to bastinadoing. Her efforts secured remedial legislation, and the organization of prison‑reform societies in Holland, Denmark, France, Prussia, and other Continental countries. In the mean while her efforts secured the organization of a society (1839) for the care of criminals after their discharge from prison, and for the visitation of the vessels that carried the convicts to the colonies. See PRISON REFORM.
Mrs. Fry did not confine her labors to prison reform. She successfully prosecuted a plan to supply coast vessels and seamen's hospitals with libraries. A governmental grant was supplemented by liberal private donations which enabled her and the society to distribute 52,464 volumes among 620 libraries (report for 1836). She established a " nightly shelter for the homeless " in London, and instituted a society in Brighton to discourage begging and promote industry. In 1828 her husband became bankrupt, and thenceforth she was unable to continue the liberal contributions of money she had been in the habit of making,, but her zeal and personal exertions continued unabated. She was a woman of even temper, great practical skill, tenderness of heart, and deep knowledge of Scripture. Her maxim was " Charity to the soul is the soul of charity."
Mrs. Fry published: Observations on Female
Prisoners (London, 1827); Report by Mrs. Fry
and J. J. Gurney on their Visit to Ireland (1827);
Texts for Every Day in the Year '(1831; trans
lated into French, German, and Italian); and wrote
a preface for John Venn's Sermon. on the Gradual
Progress o f Evil (1827). D. S. SCHAFF.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A list of books by and on Mrs. Fry is in J. Smith, Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books, i. 811813, privately printed, 1867. Consult: R. E. C[resswelll, Memories, London, 1845 (Mrs. Cresswell was a daughter); Memoirs of tae Life of Mre. Fry, by two of her Daughters, ib. 1847. Lives have been written also by Thomas Timpson, ib. 1847; Susanna Corder, ib. 1853; 1. M. Ashby, ib. 1892; E. R, Pitman, 1895. Consult also DNB, xz. 294‑296.
Since 1891 he has been professor of homiletics and
sacred oratory in the Lutheran Theological Sem
inary, Philadelphia. He has written History o f
Trinity Lutheran Church of Reading, Pa. (Reading,
Pa., 1894) and Elemenlar Homiletics (Philadel
FUERST, Mrst, JULIUS: German Jewish scholar and Orientalist; b. at Zerkow (35 m. s.e. of Posen) May 12, 1805; d. at Leipsic Feb. 9, 1873. He studied in Berlin, Breslau, and Halle (Ph.D., 1832), and became privat‑docent in Leipsic. On the twenty‑fifth anniversary of his services in this capacity he was appointed honorary professor by the Saxon government (1864). He was editor of Der Orient, which he founded in 1840, and of the Sabbathblatt, and translated Daniel and Ezra for L. Zunz's German Bible (Berlin, 1838) and wrote Lehrgebdude der aramdischen Idiom, oder Formenlehre der ehaiddischen Grammatik (Leipsie, 1835); 1Hanize Peninim, Perlenschnure aramdiacher Gnomn and Lieder, oder aramdisehe Chrestomalhie (1836); Ozer Leshon ha‑%deah, Concordantia Leibrorum Veteris Testamnti sacrorum (in collaboration with Franz Delitzeeh; 1837‑10); Piro Aboth, Die Sprache der Vdter (1839); Hebraisches and chalddisches Sahulwbrterbuch fiber das Alts Testament (1842); Urkunden zur Geaehichteder Juden, i. (1844); Cultur‑ and Litteraturgeschichte der Juden in Asien, i. (1849); Hebrdisches and chalddisches Harulavorterbueh vber das Alte Testament (2 vols.,1857‑61; Eng. transl. by S. Davidson, London, 1865); Geschiehte des Kardertum (3 vols., Leipsie, 1862‑69); Btbliotheca Judaica (3 vols., 1863); Geschichte der biblisehen Litteratur and den jadisehrhellenistischen Sehrifum (2 vols., 1867‑70); Der Kanon des Alten Testaments naeh den Ueberlieferungen in Talmud and Midraseh (1868); and Illuetrierte Prachtbibel (1874), together with a translation of the Emunoth we‑De'oth of Saadia Fayyumi (1845).