261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction



Download 6.59 Mb.
Page40/65
Date08.11.2016
Size6.59 Mb.
1   ...   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   ...   65

408 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Froment

Fruit‑Treee


FROUDE, frud, RICHARD HURRELL: The

English theologian remembered chiefly for his

connection with the beginning of the Oxford Move­

ment, and brother of James Anthony Froude, the

historian; b. at Dartington (2 m. n. of Totnes),

Devonshire, Mar. 25, 1803; d. there Feb. 28, 1836.

He was educated at Eton and at Oxford (B.A.,

1824; M.‑A., 1827). In 1826 he won a fellowship

at Oriel, of which he was also tutor from 1827 to

1830. He took deacon's orders in 1828 and priest's

in 1829; but symptoms of consumption soon ap­

peared, and he was obliged to pass a large part of

the few years that remained to him in the south of

Europe and the West Indies. Though he died at

such an early age, his force of intellect and character

made a deep impression on all who knew him. and

contributed not a little to influence the course of

the Oxford Movement. Thomas Mozley, who was

intimately associated with the whole group of men,

says of these early days (Reminiscences, i., London,

1882, p. 225) that " if there could ever be any

question as to the master spirit of this movement

. it lies between John Henry Newman and

Richard Hurrell Froude." He wrote three of the



Tracts for the Times, and contributed to the Lyra

Apostolica the charming verses signed p. Two

volumes of his Remains were published in 1837,

with a preface by Newman. See TftAcrARIANISM.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult, besides the Life prefixed to the

Remains: J. H. Newman, Apologia, pp. 75, 77, 84‑87, 95,

109‑110, et passim, London, 1864; T. Mosley, Reminis­

cences, i. 224‑228, 291‑305, ib. 1882; J. B. Mosley's Let­

ters, pp. 75, 102, ib. 1884; DNB, xx. 290‑291.

FRUCTUOSUS OF BRAGA: Archbishop of

Braga and apostle to the Suevi and Lusitani; d.

about 665. He was of royal stock, but retired

to monastic life at an early age. After completing

his education at a school founded by the bishop

of Palencia, he sold his estates and devoted the

proceeds partly to the poor and partly to the

establishment of cloisters. By 647 he had founded

seven monasteries in Lusitania, Asturia, Galicia,

and the island of Gades, but, instead of as­

suming the direction he retired to solitude, where

his scholars from Complutum (not the well‑known

town of that name, the modern Alcala, but

a place apparently in northwestern Leon, or,

according to others, in Asturia), sought him

out and induced him to take charge of their

monastery. Such was the growth of the cloister

that the king forbade any except women to join

it, fearing that the number of men available for

military service would be depleted, whereupon

Fructuosus built a nunnery for about eighty virgins

who chose him for their spiritual head. He is best

known, however, through the two rules which he

drew up for his monks. The first of these, based

in part on the Benedictine rule and designed for

the cloister of Complutum (whence it is known as

the Regula Complutensis), is divided into twenty­

five sections and inculcates the most implicit and

detailed obedience on the part of the monks. In

the second rule (Regula communis) the problem

of double monastic life is considered, so that

husbands might live with their wives and children

in monastic purity. Here again absolute sub‑


mission to the abbot was required, family ties were completely dissolved, and the sexes were rigidly separated, although a few aged monks of proved morality were permitted to reside in nunneries at a distance from the cells of the sisters, to exercise supervision over them. No one was permitted to enter a monastery, moreover, unless he first re­nounced all his wealth in favor of the poor.

Despite the asceticism of Fructuosus, he was

obliged to enter upon high ecclesiastical office. He

was planning to make a pilgrimage to the East when

he was consecrated bishop of Dumio in Galicia, and

in 656 the Synod of Toledo elevated him to the

archbishopric of Braccara (Brags). Throughout

his life he was unwearied in the erection of monas­

teries and churches, and after his death many

miracles were ascribed to his body, which was

buried at Santiago de Compostella. He is still

honored as the patron saint of many churches,

especially in Spain. (O. Z6CKLl;xt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Vita, by a contemporary, is in ASH, Apr., ii. 431‑436, and ASM, ii. 581‑590. Consult C. F. de T. Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, ii. 221‑226, 5 vole„ Paris, 1860‑77, Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 1861‑79; P. D. Gams, Kirchengeschichte Spaniens, ii. 2, pp. 152‑158, 3 vols., Regensburg, 1862‑79; O. ZSckler, Askew and Mtinehtum, pp. 378‑381, Frankfort, 1897; Helyot, a'dz'es monasliquea, v. 30‑34.

FRUCTUOSUS OF TARRAGONA: Bishop of Tarragona and martyr; d. about 259. Little is known concerning his life, except the events con­nected with his martyrdom, which is said to have taken place in 259, during the reign of Valerian and Gallienus. At the command of Amilianus, the presiding judge, Fructuosus, with his two deacons, Augurius and Eulogius; was taken from prison to the amphitheater, where all three were burned to death. The festival of Fructuosus is celebrated by the Roman Church on Jan. 21, St. Agnes' Day.

(O. Z6CKLESt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: ASH, Jan., ii. 239‑240; Pru­dentiue, Peristephanon, hymn 6; F. Htibner, Inscrip­tionea Hispanim Christian2, nos. 57‑58, Berlin, 1871.

Consult: Tillemont, MEmoires, iv. 198, 645; P. D. Gams.



Kirc*engeschiehte Spaniens, i. 265 sqq., Regensburg, 1862;

DCB, ii. 571‑572; KL, iv. 2066‑2067.

FRUIT‑TREES IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

The Cultivated Olive (§ 1). The Mulberry, Almond, and

The Wild Olive (§ 2). Pomegranate (§ 5).

The Fig (§ 3). The Apple (§ 6).

The Sycamore (§ 4). The Date‑palm (§ 7).

Olive‑ and fig‑trees and grape‑vines were culti­

vated in Palestine by the Canaanites long before

the advent of the Israelites. In the old parable

of Jotham (Judges ix. 7‑15) these appear as the

characteristic plants of the land. The olive‑tree

belongs to the cultivated plants of the Mediterranean

region. Its habitat is south hither Asia, where it

was early improved and made to yield

z. The paying crops. It requires calcareous

Cultivated soil and a mean temperature of

Olive. 15° C. (60° F.), and must be protected

against strong winds and excessive

heat. In the earliest times the olive was cultivated

throughout Palestine (Deut. xxviii. 48); and olive­

oil has always been one of the chief products of

the country (Deut. viii. 8; Joel i. 10; Amos iv. 9,

etc.). The regions particularly rich in olives were








Fruit‑Tree

Fry


the low plains of the coast, where the royal gardens were located (I Chron. xxvii. 28), the region of the bay of Akko (Deut. xxxiii. 24), and the shore of the Sea of Galilee (Josephus, War, II., xxi. 2). The export, especially to Egypt, was considerable (Hoses, xii. 1), likewise to Phenicia (Ezek. xxvii. 17; cf. I Kings v. 11). Olive orchards are planted with seedlings, which are then improved. The tree does not bear for ten years, and only after thirty years does it yield a full crop. On an average, there is a full yield every second year, and with good care, a half‑crop in the intermediate years. The tree, according to Pliny (Hilt. nat., XVI., xliv. 90, XVII., xxX. ), may live 200 years; and very old olive‑trees may be seen in Palestine to‑day. An old stump will continue to send up new stems, as if its vitality were indestructible. The oil is found not in the kernel of the atone but in the juicy flesh of the fruit, which ripens in September and October. The fruit is gathered when purple, before it gets black and overripe, as the oil has a much finer flavor then. Olives were eaten everywhere, either raw or pickled, after the bitter taste had been re­moved by allowing them to lie in brine. The finest oil was obtained by placing the bruised ripe olives in a basket and allowing them to drip without being pressed (Ex. xxix. 40, etc.). Such oil was used for the golden candlesticks 'and in the preparation of the holy anointing oil. Most of the olives were trodden and mashed in stone presses, just as were grapes (Mic. vi. 15; Joel ii. 24). Many such oil­presses are still seen in Palestine.

The wild olive, or oleaster (Rom. xi. 17 eqq.), which is also referred to in the Old Testament, but by a different name (I Kings vi. 23, 31, 33; Neh. viii. 15), must not be confused with the cultivated olive. This had short, broad leaves and thorny

branches, and yielded an inferior Z. The quality of oil used only in the prepara­Wild tion of ointment. The wood, on the Olive. other hand, furnished, good timber.

The olive‑tree, perennially green and always rejuvenating itself, was a favorite symbol of prosperity (Pa. Iii. 8, exxviii. 3; Jer. xi. 16); and the falling off of the leaves after a frost was typical of the early destruction of the wicked (Job xv. 33). In case the tree lost its branches, wild olive branches were grafted on the cultivated stock (Rom. xi. 17.) For the Orientals olives and olive‑oil are necessities, and the failure of the olive crop is a national calamity (Amos. iv. 9; Hab. iii. 17; cf. II Kings iv. 2 sqq.).

The home of the fig‑tree is likewise in hither Asia, and in ancient times it was planted throughout Palestine (Num. xiii. 23; Deut. viii. 8, etc.). It has a smooth trunk, gray bark, attains a height of fifteen to eighteen feet, and its dense foliage affords a splendid shade (I Kings iv. 25; II Kings xviii. 31; Micah iv. 4). It is noted for its vitality

and its ability to thrive on any soil;

3. The Fig., though in Palestine its fruit is not

particularly large. In the Old Testa­ment three varieties of figs are distinguished: (1) Bikktarfm, early figs that ripen in June; (2) te'enim, late figs, which begin to ripen in August, growing on branches that were foroed in January;




THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG


404


(3) plucggim, late figs, which, still green in the autumn, hang on the tree all winter and ripen in the spring, when the sap rises. It was such winter figs that Jesus expected to find on the leafy fig­tree as early as the Passover . (Matt. xxi. 19). Figs are very nutritious, and are eaten both fresh and dried, in the latter case pressed into cakes (I Sam. sxv. 18; II Kings xx. 7). In antiquity the healing power of figs was generally known and prized (Puny, Hist. nat., XXIIL, lxiii.; II Kings xx. 7).

The sycamore (Ficus Sycomories), mentioned frequently in the Old Testament, is one of the com­monest trees of ancient and modern Egypt, which was considered its habitat, hence Pliny speaks of it as Ficus Egyptia (Hiat. nat., XIII., xiv;

¢. The cf. Diodorus, i. 34; Ps. lxxviii. 47).

Sycamore. It is common in Palestine and Syria

(II Chron. i. 15), e.g., at Gaza, Jaffa,

Ramleh and Beirut; and the present Haifa used to

be called " the City of Sycamores " (Strabo, xvi. 758,

etc.). It grows best on low ground, and was found,

therefore, chiefly near the coast, in the valley of the

Jordan, on the plains of lower Galilee, aid in the

Shephelah (I Kings x. 27; I Chron. xxvii. 28;

Isa. ix. 10). It attains considerable size and height,

and its wide‑spreading branches, covered with beau­

tiful green leaves, make a magnificent shade. The

fruit is yellow, resembling the fig in appearance

and odor, and has a sweetish, insipid taste (Strabo,

xvii. 823). It was eaten by poor people; but, to

be made edible, just before ripening the fruit had

to be pierced so that a part of the juice could escape

(Amos vii. 14; Theophrastus, Hist. plantarum, iv.

2). The wood is very durable, particularly in

water, and serves chiefly for building purposes (Isa.

ix. 10). 1n Egypt it was used for mummy cams.

The mulberry‑tree is mentioned only in I Mace. vi. 34, unless Luke:xvii. 6 refers to it. The white mulberry (Mores albs), now planted extensively on Mount Lebanon for, silk‑worms, 5. The Mul‑ was introduced into Palestine compara‑

berry, Al‑ lively late. Before its advent, the

mond, black mulberry (Mores nigra) was and Pome‑ cultivated, from the fruit of which an

granate. intoxicating drink was, and is still,

made. The almond‑tree (Amygdalus

communis).growa wild in Afghanistan, Kurdistan,

and Mesopotamia, but in hither Asia and Palestine

it has been cultivated from remotest times (Gen.

xuii. 11; Num. avii. 8; Jer. i. 11; Eccles. xii. 5).

It puts out its leaves as early as the end of January,

before any of the other fruit‑trees, and hence, per­

haps, the Hebrew name shdkedh, " the waking one."

The pomegranate‑tree (P~xiica Crranatum) is in­

digenous, to hither Asia; it ' was common, both

wild and cultivated, in Egypt (Num. xx. 5), Arabia,

Syria, and Palestine (Num. xiii. 23; Deut. viii. 8;

I Sam. xiv. 2), and the frequent lice of the name

Rimmon as a place‑name shows the prevalence

of the tree in Canaan (Josh. xv. 32, xix. 13; Judges

xx. 45). Pliny mentions eight varieties. In size

and shape the pomegranate resembles an orange; it

has a bright red color shining out from a yellow and

white background, and is juicy and refreshing.

From the juice. a sort of fruit‑wine. is prepared

(Cant‑viii. 2; Pliny, Hiet.nat.,XIV.,xix.). Withits



405 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Fruit‑Trees

Pry


numerous cavities, each containing a kernel, it

became the symbol of fruitfulness in ancient relig­

ious imagery. Hence its use in the Hebrew cult

on the columns of the temples (I Kings vii. 20 aqq.;

Jer. Iii. 22‑23) and on the robe of the priest (Ex.

xxviii. 33).

It is fairly probable that the Hebrew word tap­

puah refers to the apple (Prow. xxv. 11; Cant. ii. 3,

vii. 8, viii. 5; Joel 1. 12). Names o

6. The cities compounded with tappuak show

Apple. that the fruit was frequently cultivated

in Palestine. The pleasant odor re­

ceives special mention (Cant. vii. 8). However,

it has often been denied that there were any apple­

trees in Palestine in olden times, and the word

has been interpreted as " quince " (of. PSBA,

XII., i. 4, 2 sqq.), or as " citron " (cf. Delitzsch, on

Prov. xxv. 6), or as " apricot " (cf. H. B. Tristram,

Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 294, London, 1884).

The date‑tree (Phwnix dactylifera) belongs to

subtropical vegetation. It requires sandy soil and

a mean annual temperature of 21° to 23° C (70° F.).

It thrives on the scorching breath of the desert;

but at the same time its thirsty roots

7. The must have water. It grows slowly,

Date‑palm. reaching its maximum height of about

fifty feet in about 100 years, and lives

to the age of about 200 years. The fruit is eaten

fresh, or it is pressed into a cake and then dried,

as are apricots. In Jericho a kind of sirup was also

made of dates (Josephus, War, IV., viii. 3; Pliny,

Hist.nat., XIII., ix.). Its cultivation in Palestine as

a fruit‑tree was restricted to the plains by the Sea

of Galilee, the valley of the Jordan, and the region

of the Dead Sea, where it thrived, as these were the

localities offering the proper conditions. Jericho

bore the name, " City of Palm‑trees " (Dent. xx.,

xiv. 3; II Chron. xxviii. 15). In other parts of the

country the tree was cultivated as an ornament,

and in the temple pictures of palm‑trees were em­

ployed extensively as decoration (I Kings vi. 29

sqq.; Ezek. xl. 17 sqq., xli. 18 sqq.).

I. BENzINGER.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. E. Post, The Flora of Syria, Palestine,

and Sinai, obtainable of the PEF, is the best single work.

Consult: H. B. Tristram, Fauna and Flora of Palestine,

London, 1884; Maria Calloott, Scripture Herbal, ib. 1842;

H. S. Osborn, Plants of the Holy Land; with their Fruits

and Flowers, Philadelphia, 1860; Auderlind, Fruchtbdurne

in Syrien, in Zeitachrift des deutecken PaMStina Vereine,

xi (1888), 69 sqq.; V. Hehn, Hulturpflanaen and Haustiere,

Berlin, 1894.


FRUMENTIUS. See ABYSSINIA AND THE ABY6­

BINIAN CHURCH, § 2.

FRY, ELIZABETH: English philanthropist, be­

longing to the Society of Friends; b. at Earlham

(3 m. w. of Norwich), Norfolk, May 21, 1780; d.

at Ramsgate (on the coast, 67 m. e.s.e. of London)

Oct., 12, 1845. She was the third daughter of

John Gurney, a banker of Norwich, and at the age

of twenty was married to Joseph Fry, a wealthy

London merchant. At the death of her father, in

1809, she spoke for the first time in public, and was

soon recognized as a minister among the Friends.

Her attention being drawn in 1813, by a report of

Friends, to the wretched condition of criminals


in the jails, she visited the prison at Newgate, and found nearly 300 women with their children crowded together in two wards and two cells, all sleeping on the bare floor. She at once instituted measures for the amelioration of prison morals and life, daily visiting the prison, reading to the prisoners the Scriptures, and teaching them to sew. A committee of women was organized in 1817 to carry on the work on a larger scale. These labors effected a great change in the condition of the criminals, and many profligate characters went out. of the prison renewed.

In 1818, in company with her brother, J. J. Gur­ney, Mrs. Fry visited the prisons of northern England and Scotland, and in 1827 those of Ireland. She also visited Kaiserswerth (see DEACONESS, III., 2, a; FLIEDNER, THEODOR), and was impressed with the advantage of training for nurses. Her efforts led to the formation of societies for the help of female criminals in various parts of Great Britain; and the fame of her labors stimulated the competition of women in foreign lands. In 1839, 1840, and 1841 she visited the Continent, extend­ing her travels as far as Hungary, where many of the criminals slept in stocks, and whipping was universally practised, even to bastinadoing. Her efforts secured remedial legislation, and the organi­zation of prison‑reform societies in Holland, Den­mark, France, Prussia, and other Continental countries. In the mean while her efforts secured the organization of a society (1839) for the care of criminals after their discharge from prison, and for the visitation of the vessels that carried the con­victs to the colonies. See PRISON REFORM.

Mrs. Fry did not confine her labors to prison reform. She successfully prosecuted a plan to supply coast vessels and seamen's hospitals with libraries. A governmental grant was supple­mented by liberal private donations which en­abled her and the society to distribute 52,464 volumes among 620 libraries (report for 1836). She established a " nightly shelter for the homeless " in London, and instituted a society in Brighton to discourage begging and promote industry. In 1828 her husband became bankrupt, and thence­forth she was unable to continue the liberal con­tributions of money she had been in the habit of making,, but her zeal and personal exertions con­tinued unabated. She was a woman of even temper, great practical skill, tenderness of heart, and deep knowledge of Scripture. Her maxim was " Charity to the soul is the soul of charity."

Mrs. Fry published: Observations on Female

Prisoners (London, 1827); Report by Mrs. Fry

and J. J. Gurney on their Visit to Ireland (1827);

Texts for Every Day in the Year '(1831; trans­

lated into French, German, and Italian); and wrote

a preface for John Venn's Sermon. on the Gradual

Progress o f Evil (1827). D. S. SCHAFF.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A list of books by and on Mrs. Fry is in J. Smith, Descriptive Catalogue of Friends' Books, i. 811­813, privately printed, 1867. Consult: R. E. C[ress­welll, Memories, London, 1845 (Mrs. Cresswell was a daughter); Memoirs of tae Life of Mre. Fry, by two of her Daughters, ib. 1847. Lives have been written also by Thomas Timpson, ib. 1847; Susanna Corder, ib. 1853; 1. M. Ashby, ib. 1892; E. R, Pitman, 1895. Consult also DNB, xz. 294‑296.



Fulda


THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG


FRY, JACOB: Lutheran; b. at Trappe, Pa.,

Feb. 9, 1834. He was graduated at Union College

in 1851 and the Lutheran Theological Seminary,

Gettysburg, Pa., in 1853. He was pastor of the

Lutheran Church at Carlisle, Pa., 1854‑65, and of

Trinity Lutheran Church, Reading, Pa., 1865‑96.

Since 1891 he has been professor of homiletics and

sacred oratory in the Lutheran Theological Sem­

inary, Philadelphia. He has written History o f

Trinity Lutheran Church of Reading, Pa. (Reading,

Pa., 1894) and Elemenlar Homiletics (Philadel­



phia, 1897).


FUERST, Mrst, JULIUS: German Jewish scholar and Orientalist; b. at Zerkow (35 m. s.e. of Posen) May 12, 1805; d. at Leipsic Feb. 9, 1873. He studied in Berlin, Breslau, and Halle (Ph.D., 1832), and became privat‑docent in Leipsic. On the twenty‑fifth anniversary of his services in this capacity he was appointed honorary professor by the Saxon government (1864). He was editor of Der Orient, which he founded in 1840, and of the Sabbathblatt, and translated Daniel and Ezra for L. Zunz's German Bible (Berlin, 1838) and wrote Lehrgebdude der aramdischen Idiom, oder Formen­lehre der ehaiddischen Grammatik (Leipsie, 1835); 1Hanize Peninim, Perlenschnure aramdiacher Gnomn and Lieder, oder aramdisehe Chrestomalhie (1836); Ozer Leshon ha‑%deah, Concordantia Leibrorum Veteris Testamnti sacrorum (in collaboration with Franz Delitzeeh; 1837‑10); Piro Aboth, Die Sprache der Vdter (1839); Hebraisches and chaldd­isches Sahulwbrterbuch fiber das Alts Testament (1842); Urkunden zur Geaehichteder Juden, i. (1844); Cultur‑ and Litteraturgeschichte der Juden in Asien, i. (1849); Hebrdisches and chalddisches Harulavorter­bueh vber das Alte Testament (2 vols.,1857‑61; Eng. transl. by S. Davidson, London, 1865); Geschiehte des Kardertum (3 vols., Leipsie, 1862‑69); Btblio­theca Judaica (3 vols., 1863); Geschichte der bib­lisehen Litteratur and den jadisehrhellenistischen Sehrifum (2 vols., 1867‑70); Der Kanon des Alten Testaments naeh den Ueberlieferungen in Talmud and Midraseh (1868); and Illuetrierte Prachtbibel (1874), together with a translation of the Emunoth we‑De'oth of Saadia Fayyumi (1845).


Download 6.59 Mb.

Share with your friends:
1   ...   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   ...   65




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2020
send message

    Main page