perience and every serious mood‑ of mind. One of the most profitable of these is self‑examination. As in the sight of the All‑Seeing Eye, the humble worshiper recounts his thoughts and deeds, confesses his sins, supplicates for pardon for the past and strength for the future, and prays that he may be cleansed even from secret faults. Anothei exercise is religious meditation. At least, every attender can force himself to think on profitable themes by repeating to himself texts of Scripture, or the verses of some suggestive hymn. " Sometimes a light surprises " the humble worshiper; his thoughts are led on and upward by a higher Power; new meanings of texts flash upon his mind, a new illumination is given to the path of duty, and in answer to the prayer breathed forth by his inmost soul he feels conscious of a closer union with God, and strengthened for his future warfare with the world, the flesh, and the devil. And, if some brother or sister is led to offer vocal service, it often happens that the word of exhortation or reproof or comfort, or the earnest petition to the throne of grace, harmonizes with the private exercise of mind which the hearer has passed through, confirming his faith, and invigorating his resolution.
III. Educational Institutions: The educational institutions of higher grade among Friends of England sire,‑Dalton Hall, a hall of residence connected with the University of Manchester, which supplies living and instruction, but grants no degrees, and Woodbrooke Settlement, an institution near Birmingham, where courses of study are given to adults in sociology, Bible history and criticism, and religious movements. Of the secondary grade there are the following: Bootham and Mount Schools at York, one for boys and one for girls, which prepare for London matriculation examinations; Leighton Park School, near Reading, which prepares for the universities; Ackworth School, founded in 1779, of rather lower grade than the others; belonging to the same class, educationally considered, are Sidcot, Saffron‑Walden, Ayton, Sibford, and one or two others. A very strong movement in England of a different character is the adult school system, originated and managed chiefly by Friends, which embraces Bible lessons, educational opportunities, and many beneficial agencies. There are (1906) about 82,000 scholars in these schools and the number is rapidly increasing. It is a movement of great moral and social significance.
In America the Orthodox bodies have Haverford and Bryn Mawr Colleges near Philadelphia, Guilford College in North Carolina, Wilmington College in Ohio, Eaalham College in Indiana, Penn College in Iowa, Pacific College in Oregon, and Whittier College in California. New England, New York and Philadelphia yearly meetings also conduct boarding‑schools and the latter a number of primary and secondary schools. The school founded by William Penn, the William Penn Charter School, is managed by a board of Philadelphia Friends. There are various Friends' academies in the West. Swarthmore College near Philadelphia is under the control of the Hicksite branch, which
also has a, number of flourishing schools in and around New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. While Friends in early days had an excellent system of schools, so that illiterate Quakers ‑unknown, the belief that education was not imperative for ministers led to a neglect of higher training; attempts to rectify this began to be made about 1850, and the colleges mentioned above have sprung up since this date.
IV. Organization and Statistics: The congregations are grouped together to constitute monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings; the monthly meetings send representatives to the quarterly, and the quarterly to the yearly. The yearly meetings are separate in their jurisdiction, each one determining its own course of procedure. They are united with each other in epistolary correspondence, and the Orthodox meetings send representatives to the "Five Years' Meeting," the conclusions of which are simply advisory. The yearly meetings and all subordinate meetings have no presiding officer. There is a clerk appointed yearly whose duty it is to minute the conclusions of the meeting. If necessary he may exercise the office of moderator, but he is distinctly the servant and not the master of the meeting. Votes are not usually taken. After a full discussion the clerk writes his minute and reads it. If this is not satisfactory the meeting may direct a change. If there is division of sentiment, it is his duty to gather the "sense of the meeting," the weight of the speakers as well as their numbers counting in his final estimate. If there is strong opposition to a new proposition it is dropped. A simple majority would not introduce an innovation. In all meetings except the representative meetings, which are in reality executivc bodies, every member of the Society of Friends is entitled to be present and to speak to business. The recent establishment of " The Five Years' Meeting," composed of delegates from each of the yearly meetings, bids fair to become a permanent national organization of great consequence. There are two yearly meetings of the Orthodox in Great Britain and fourteen in America; of the Hicksites, six in America. The total figures are as follows:
Orthodox‑America (1904) 92,285
British Islands (1904) . . 21,890
Hickeite‑America (1900) ................
wilburite‑America (1890) ...............
Foreign Mission Fields ..................
114,155 21,358 4,561
BIBmooaAP8Y: For lists of early books by, on, and against Quakers consult: J. Smith, Descriptive Catty lopue of Friends' Books privately printed, 1887 ; idem, Bibtioaeca Anti.Quakeraana, ib. 1873; idem, Supplement, London, 1893. Consult: George Fox, Journal, London, 1894, ed. R. M. Jones, Philadelphia, 1904; I. Penington, Works, London, 1681; W. Sewel, Hut. of the People called Quakers, London, 1722, Philadelphia, 1855; R. Claridge, Life and Posthumous Works, Collected by J. Besse, London, 1726; J. Besse, Sufferings of the People called Quakers, ib. 1738; William Penn, Seled Works, ib. 1771; J. Woolman, Journal of Life, Gospel Labours, and Christian Experience. Dublin, 1776, edited
897 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Primde, Ocelot, of
Friends of the emple
with Introduction by J. G. Whittier, Boston, 1871; J.
Gough, Hist. of the People called Quakers, 4 vols., Dub
lin, 1789‑90 (comes down to 1784); Miss Hicks, Sd
mone, Philadelphia, 1825; idem, Journal, New York,
1832; J. Comly, Friends' Miscellany, 12 vols., 1831
1839; H. Christmas, Concies Hist. of go Hampden Con
troversy, London, 1848; J. Bowden, Hist. of Friends in
America, ib. 1850; J. Barclay, Diary of Alexander Jaf
fray, and Memoirs of the Quakers in asNorth of Scotland,
Edinburgh, 1858; E. Dfichener, Portraiture of Early
Quakerism, Philadelphia, 1860; W. Hodgson, Select His
torical Memoirs of the Society of Friends . . . 17th and
181h Centuries, Philadelphia, 1887; idem, Society of
Friends in 19th, Century, ib. 1878; J. Cunningham, The
Quakers, Edinburgh, 1888; C. Evans, Friends in the 17th
Century, Philadelphia, 1875; Frances Anne Budge, An
nals of the Early Friends, London, 1877; 8. M. Janney,
Hist. of Friends, 4 vole., Philadelphia, 1859‑87; idem,
Memoirs, ib. 1881; idem, Life of William Penn, ib.
1882; R. Barclay, The Inner Life of the Religious
Societies of the Commonwealth, Sd ad., London, 1879;
A. C. Applegarth, Quakers in Pennsylvania, in Johns
Hopkins University Studies, ser. 10, roe. 8, 9, Baltimore,
1892; I. Sharpless, A Quaker Experiment in Government,
Philadelphia, . 1902; idem, Quakerism and Politics, ib.
1905; J. Bellows, Letters and Memoirs, London, 1904;
T. E. Harvey, Rise of the Quakers; ib. 1905; A. C. and
It. H. Thomas, Hist. of Friends in America, Philadelphig'
1905; J. Rowntree, Essays and Addresses, London, 1908.
On the Doctrines of the Friends consult: Robert. Bar
writings of P. M. Hahn (q.v.); and his marriage to
Hahn's granddaughter brought him into conneo
tion with the Paulus brothers, in whose educational
work he assisted until 1853. He tame out against
the conventional Christianity of his time in his
,dl Sdtze gegert GottesleWner (Ludwigsburg, 1844)
and other writings of the kind; and he car
ried his campaign further in the periodical pub
lished by him in conjunction with Paulus, the
Saiddmtsche Warte (called after 1877 Warte den
Tempels). In the eventful year 1848 he was elected
for the Ludwigaburg district to the Frankfort As
sembly, in which he voted with the Left for the
complete separation of Church and State; but, dissatisfied with the way things were going, he resigned his seat the neat year, giving utterance to his views in Stimmen der Weissagung uber Babel and das Volk Gotten (1849). If the Church was to fulfil its mission of renewing the national life, it must itself be revivified; and this was the purpose of the Evangelischer Verein, founded in 1848 and composed of about 450 local branches, and of a school of evangelists under Hoffmann's direction, the lay preachers trained in which were to put new life into Pietism. It was not long before his peculiar ideas began to come out strongly‑,social regeneration through the " assembling of God's people " with a central point, the Temple, conceived partly in a spiritual sense, and partly in a realistic as involving the restoration of the Temple and the theocracy at Jerusalem. With these views, it was natural that Hoffmann should stand apart from the Inner Mission, which arose at the same time, and ultimately from the Church. With his followers he left the Evangelischer Verein, and at the same time turned his back on Pietism, whose leaders, in their predominantly eschatological conception of the kingdom of God, declared decidedly against his views and forbade their members to read the Warte. He gained a vigorous ally, however, in Georg David Hardegg of Ludwigsburg, who aided him to assemble there (Aug. 24, 1854) a gathering of the " Friends of Jerusalem." This body sent a petition to the Frankfort Assembly with 500 signatures, requesting it to bring pressure to bear on the sultan for the sanction of a settlement in Palestine. Since nothing came of this and similar efforts, Hoffmann undertook to build up the Temple in Germany. He wrote a projected constitution for the people of God, an appeal to Christians and Jews alike to support his project, and a book intended as a contribution to the social question, Geschiehte den Volkes Gotten (Stuttgart, 1855). The first practical step was the purchase of a place near Marbach in 1856, which was intended to be a preliminary settlement on the road to Jerusalem. While his sympathizers settled there under regulations based on the Law and the Prophets, Hoffmann went, with Hardegg and Bubeck, to Palestine, and after a thorough investigation came to the conclusion that there was no use attempting the erection of the Temple until after much preliminary work.
Hoffmann was suspended from the privileges of a Lutheran candidate in 1857 by the Consistory, and then, refusing to give any satisfactory explanation of his attitude, formally ea‑
Organiza‑ pelled from the communion of the nation as tional Church in 1859. The neat step a Sect. was definite organization as a separate religious body, accomplished in 1861 in a gathering of sixty‑four men at Kirschenhardthof, the headquarters. The Temple was to be governed provisionally by Hardegg as secular and Hoffmann as spiritual leader, with an advisory council of twelve elders. A constitutional election was first held in 1867. The movement spread in Franconia and especially in the Black Forest, until the number of adherents was estimated at 3,000.
Frfende of the Temple
Hoffmann was incessantly active in the organization of various departments at Kirsehenhardthof, in lecturing (most frequently at Stuttgart), and most of all in the composition of his book Fortschritt and Rixkschritt, oder Geschichte des Ab/alls vo. Christenthum (3 vole., Stuttgart, 1863‑‑68). From 1861 to 1868, however, the real leadership of the movement was not in his hands but in Har degg's. He was a fanatical dreamer, and Hoffmann was forced into an antagonism to him which gradually became apparent. Hoffmann even thought for a time of resigning the whole chap into his hands and seeking to realize his own views in America.
In 1868 they made an attempt to settle in Palestine, the first settlement being at Haifa near Mount Carmel, where Hardegg remained while Hoffmann
migrated to Jaffa the next year, foundColonization ing there a school and a hospital. in Palestine. The acquisition of a tract of ground
in the plain of Resaim near Jerusalem in 1873 marked an important advance; and smaller settlements arose at Nazareth; Tiberias, Beirut, Ramleh, and other places, including Alexandria. About 1,500 colonists in all took up their abode in these places. In 1874 occurred an open breach between the two leaders. Hardegg went his way, founded an organization of his own (the Temple Union), and died in 1879. Hoffmann now founded an inner brotherhood for the strict carrying out of his principles, and in 1878 transferred his headquarters to Jerusalem. He gradually broke more and more with orthodoxy, contesting many of its fundamental doctrines and leaving the use of the sacraments wholly voluntary. His pen was still busy; Occident and Orient (Stuttgart, 1875) is a noteworthy production of this period. A definite constitution was drawn up in 1875, and replaced by another in 1879. Hoffmann was forced by infirmity to resign his leadership in 1884, and died Dec. 8, 1885. At that time there were 1,300 colonists in the East, and in 1901 1,406. Another new constitution, promulgated in 1890 and since then little modified, placed the rule in the hands of the " Guardian of the Temple " (from 1893 Christoph Hoffmann, Jr., the founder's son), and prescribed very simple rites, requiring unconditional obedience to the governing body. But with Hoffmann's death the movement lost its stimulus. A new colony was founded in Palestine in 1903; there is one community in Wfirttemberg (with a diminishing number of members‑244 in 1905), and a few adherents are found in Saxony, in Russia, and in America [in the United States to 1905, four churches with 340 members]. Among the colonists in Palestine divisions have occurred, which an attempt at reunion in 1897 did not fully reconcile. A number of them have shown a tendency to return to the Lutheran Church and accept its ministrations. The importance of the movement there to‑day is to be found in its economic aspects, which now admittedly predominate, and in its support of German interests in the East. Hoffmann's curious mixture of supernatural and rationalistic, Judaizing and Christian, Pietistic and socialistic elements could never have served as the
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
basis of a permanent structure; and in what he
set out to do he may be said to have definitely
failed. (C. KOLB.)
BIHLIOdaAPH:Y: F. Lange, (ieech4clvts des TemPela, Stuttgart, 1899 (goes only to 1884): C. Palmer, Gemeinechatteri and Sekten, TUbingen, 1877; W4rUemberBieche Kirrhtngeachichte, Stuttgart, 1893; E. Kalb, xirrhen and Sekten der (3epsnwarE, ib. 1907 (the two last‑named contain further literature). Hoffmann issued an autobiography under the title Mein Wep each Jerusalem, 2 vole., Stuttgart. 188184.
FRIENDSHIP: A relation between men for the purpose of mutual support and furtherance, having its root in the natural instinct for association between those of like tastes, aims, and desires. It is to be distinguished from the communion of sexes, and from relations of authority (e.g., that between employer and employed]. As long as the individual was absorbed in the community, the realization of friendship was not possible. Since ancient Greek philosophy was guided by the tendency to secure for the individual his personal value in opposition to the community, without finding the right ethical basis for mutual relations, it naturally esteemed friendship, especially between men of like philosophical training. Owing to their deficient appreciation of the moral value of married life, Greeks like Socrates and Theophrastua even went so far as to give friendship the precedence over every other form of love.
In modern times speculation on friendship has been less prominent, because in Christianity friendships arise everywhere as a matter of course. Christianity prepared an entirely new soil for friendship. While in the Aristotelian conception of philia and in Cicero's amicitid the general ethical sense of communion is confused with the special idea of friendship, in Christianity both are cle8sly separated. The former has been purified and perfected in the love of one's neighbor (yuhdladelphia, II Pet. i. 7); still higher moat be ranked the union of the saved children of God (John xiii. 34, xvii. 21), as being in its spiritual and moral content superior to all conceptions of the pre‑Christian world. While, moreover, the ancient world considered friendship the highest form of communion, because it did not estimate the moral personality of woman and the moral value of married life, Christianity, by placing woman on an equal footing with man in a religious and moral aspect, showed in married life a natural form of communion far superior to every kind of friendship in intimacy, satisfaction of the soul, and permanence. But since Christianity appreciates every just natural instinct, and purifies it ethically, it acknowledges the right of the natural relations of friendship as long as they do not interfere with the moral obligations in family, Church, and State.
The purpose of friendship has been variously stated. According to Socrates and the Stoics, it is profit; according to Aristotle, profit, pleasure, and virtue; according to Epicurus, the propose is profit, the consequence enjoyment. Cicero more correctly put the natural impulse which binds men to men before a conscious striving for profit, although he would have done still better, had he said want and need instead of natural impulse. Friendships
flourish best in the period of youth because then the need for help from outside oneself is strongest. There are sentimental friendships based on like impressions and feelings; esthetic friendships, like that between Goethe and Schiller (cf.theirinterchange of letters); and scientific friendships, between men of like vocation. The highest form of friendship is the religious, in which the Christian's love of his fellow man unites with natural sympathy differing and yet like‑minded individualities, because there is developed here the deepest intimacy, sincerity and truth of spiritual communion in connection with the most devoted sense of sacritice.
BIHLIOGRAPHT: Cioero and R. W. Emerson, Friendship; two Essay#, New York, 1904; H. Black, Friendship, ib. 1904; F. L. Knowles, Value of Friendahip, Boston, 1904; H. D. Thoreau, Essay on Friendship, East Aurora, N. Y., 1904; M. A. Ayer, Joys of Friendship, Boston, 1905; Aristotle, Ethics, good Eng. trawl., ad. J. Burnet, London, 1904.
FRISIANS : A people of Germanic stock dwelling along the coast of the North Sea from the Sinkfal, a tributary'of the Scheldt, to the lower courses of the Weser, with an outlying spur (the North Frisians) on the western coast of Sleswick‑Holstein. Their neighbors to the north and east were the Saxons, and to the south and west the Franks. With the latter they came into close contact, and accordingly as the Frankish influence advanced or receded the influence of Christianity rose or waned among the Frisian tribes, their conversion remaining uncompleted until the final incorporation of their territory by the Frankish empire. Mission work was begun among the Frisians in the early part of the seventh century but was followed by a pagan reaction which wiped out all traces of the new faith. The process of permanent conversion may be dated from the year 678 when Archbishop Wilfrid of York (q.v.), cast away on the Frisian coast, was hospitably received by King Aldgild at whose court he remained during the winter preaching and baptizing. It was, however, a pupil of Wilfrid, Willibrord, who came to Friesland in 690, who deserves the name of apostle of the Frisians (see WILLIBRORD).At the time of his advent the successor of Aldgild was engaged in conflict with the Frankish king Pepin, and Willibrord was compelled to restrict his labors to that part of the region south of the Rhine which was under the Frankish power. There his efforts met with pronounced success and in 695 the Frisian territory as far as the river Fly was organized into an archbishopric of which Willibrord became the first head. Till his death in 739 he was busy in perfecting the organization of the church, interrupted only by a short period when the Frisian King Radbord, in conjunction with the forces of Neustria succeeded in wresting the conquered territory from the Franks (714‑718), only to lose it to Charles Martel. Under the immediate successors of Willibrord the mission failed to make decisive progress in the region beyond the Fly and it was not until 785 that the Frisians were brought entirely under the influence of the Gospel. Politically the western Frisians came under the authority of the counts of Holland and' from them passed to the houses of Burgundy and Hapsburg, while the