at will, as distinguished from their fellow workmen in the gilds. The latter were restricted to certain localities and confined to their gilds, while the former went from land to land, and formed a widespread organization under the supervision of the supreme lodge at Strasburg. The institution of the lodge lasted longest in England, receiving a new impetus through the burning of London in 1666. Far different, however, is " symbolic freemasonry," which is a secret organization for the erection of a spiritual temple of humanity in the heart of man. The change from the ancient masonic craft to modern freemasonry began as early as the end of the sixteenth century. After the rebuilding of London and the completion of St. Paul's, the majority of lodges disappeared, but the four which survived formed a grand lodge at London on St. John's Day (June 24), 1717, surrendering manual masonry, and seeking a new sphere in moral and social life. The original organization of medieval masonic fraternity was retained, however, especially the distinction of masters, journeymen, and apprentices, as well as mutual help, the application of a detailed symbolism in words, pictures, and signs, and the solemn obligation to secrecy covering everything pertaining to the lodge. In 1721, one of the founders of this union, James Anderson, an English Presbyterian minister, drafted a " constitution " for this cosmopolitan organization, which bound all " freemasons " to a faithful observance of the moral law, humanity, and patriotism. In religion,, however, they are non‑sectarian, and profess only that faith in which all men of honor agree. Doctrines going beyond that are tolerated as private opinions, but no one is permitted to make propaganda for them. The characteristics of masonry are, therefore, humanistic morals, the cultivation of fraternity, and a deistic belief. It was the outcome of English deism and latitudinarianism, and was soon adopted in Germany in radical religious circles. In those Roman Catholic countries where no Protestantism existed, masonry even obtained the importance of an opposing church, and freemasonry is accordingly regarded as in league with Satan. 3n the encyclical humanum genus on freemasonry, dated Apr. 20, 1884 (2d ed., Treves, 1885), Leo XIII. solemnly condemned it, as other popes had repeatedly done since 1751. '
From England masonry soon spread to the British colonies acid to the continent of Europe. In 1725 it was in Paris; in 1733 in Florence and Boston; and in 1737 in Hamburg. In 1738 the Prussian crown‑prince, afterward Frederick the Great, was solemnly initiated at Brunswick by a deputation from the Hamburg lodge Absalom. As king he energetically labored for the spread of the system, and in 1744 was made grand master of the grand lodge " Zu den drei Weltkugeln" in Berlin. As the tendency of masonry is essentially subjective, many internal dissensions arose. In addition to the Brotherhood of St. John, divisions were formed with a knightly organization and the most varied degrees of fantastic terminology and mysterious ceremonial. Rationalism in Germany helped to introduce masonry among the middle
classes, where it still has a strong hold on account 'of the advantages, especially in social respects, enjoyed by many of its adherents, such as physicians and merchants. Spiritually it has not advanced. For Evangelical churches with their charitable interests, freemasonry is wholly superfluous. The Roman Catholic Church is opposed to the freemasons.
In Europe the number of masons is estimated to be over 300,000, most of them belonging to the grand lodges of Great Britain. In America, in addition to freemasons proper, who number about 750,000, there are similar societies with about 4,650; 000 members, divided into Odd Fellows (820,000), Knights . of Pythias (475,000), Ancient Order of United Workmen (361,000), Maccabees (244,000), Modern Workmen of America (204,000), and about twenty smaller orders, this entire body spending annually about $25,000,000 for benefit money.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Lists of books are furnished by G. Klass, Biblioaek der Fieimaurerei, Frankfort (1846), Supplement by G. Findel, Leipsic, 1866, and W. Gowans, Catalogue of Books on Freemasonry, New York, 1858. Consult, A. G. Mackey, Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Philadelphia, n.d.; idem, Hist. of Freemasonry, 3 parts, New York, 1900; J. O. Halliwell, Early Haul, of Freemasonry an England, London, 1843; C. L. Paton, Freemasonry, its Symbolism, Religious Nature, etc., ib. 1873; L. Hyneman, Hist. of Freemasonry in England, New York, 1878; R. F. Gould, Hist. of Freemasonry, 6 vole., London, 18841887; H. Boos, Gtachichte der Freimaurerei, Aarau, 1894; F. Katch, Entatehung and . . Endzuxck der Preimaurerei. Berlin, 1897; J. 6assenbaeh, Die Freamaurerei, ib. 1897; 0. Kuntsemijller, Die Preimaurerei and ihre Gepner, Hanover, 1897; A. Churchward, Origin and Antiquity of Freemasonry, London, 1898.
FREE METHODISTS.See METHODISTS, IV., 5.
FREE RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATION: An association established in Boston May 30, 1867, aiming at the emancipation of religion from sectarian limitations, the reconciliation of faiths, and the ap= plication of scientific methods to the study of religion, and emphasizing practical morality. Octavius Brooks Frothingham was the first president, and for many years Ralph Waldo Emerson was one of the vice‑presidents. Members axe allowed the utmost liberty of opinion. The elastic nature of the organization‑" any person desiring to cooperate" is "considered a member"‑renders exact statistics impossible. The association has not attempted to , organize local societies, but has contented itself with holding conventions and distributing publications. An annual report is usually issued in pamphlet form.
EDWIN D. MEAD.
FREE SPIRIT, BRETHREN OF THE.
Meaning and Origin (¢ 1). Mystic Pantheism Wide‑spread (§ 2). Various Groups (§ 3).
Brethren of the Free Spirit is a name under which the heresiologists of the Middle Ages classed,.various extreme developments of quietistic and pantheistic mysticism. Modern scholars also have accepted the existence of a pantheistic sect, sharply marked off from the fellowship of the Church, usually recruited from the laity, and handing down
381 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Pr°emm°°n°
its doctrines practically unaltered from the thir
teenth to the sixteenth century. It is possible to
show, however, that the phenomena classed under
this title have points of such radical difference
as to destroy the conception of one single pan
theistic tradition reproducing itself
i. Meaning through more than one century by
and means of an actual sect; and that the
Origin. origin of this pantheistic quietistic mys
ticism is found not among the ordi
nary laity but in the monasteries and among the
Beghards and Beguines, who came so strongly
under monastic influence; also that in the follow
ing centuries the boundaries between monastic
mysticism and sectarian pantheism were never
very stable. There is no adequate ground for be
lieving that the teachings of Amalric of Bena (q.v.)
found acceptance among a section of the French
Waldenses, and then about 1215 spread from east
ern France into western and southern Germany.
The earliest authentic information about the ap
pearance of this sort of mysticism on German soil
shows certain Swabian heretics about 1250 teach
ing a radical pantheism and determinism. Start
ing from the belief in the divine essence of the soul
and of all earthly things, they considered the as
cension of the soul to God the goal of all religion.
This was to be attained by abstraction from all
earthly activity and also from moral and religious
commandments which distracted the soul from its
purpose of union with the Godhead. The " per
fect man " who has reached this goal is sinless;
his will is God's will; the Church's laws and means
of grace are without significance for him. All
value was taken both from moral effort and from
ecclesiastical ordinances by the belief that every
human act had been predestined from eternity.
All this points to these doctrines being'a straggling
offshoot of the monastic mysticism of the school of
Saint‑Victor, as drawn by its adherents from Dio
nysius the Areopagite. When Richard of Saint
Victor (q.v.) says of the soul united with God (De
prepar. dnimi ad contempl., ii. 13) " Here first the
s. Mystic theistic doctrines, and. to consider the
Pantheism characteristics of the orthodox Beg
Wide‑spread. uines and . Beghards, e.g., their es
teem for poverty and mendicancy, as
distinguishing the heretical mystics. The fact is,
however, that it is (difficult to draw a sharp line of
demarcation between orthodox and heretical mys
ticism. How true this is. may be seen not only
from the complaint of David of Augsburg that the
friends of mysticism were persecuted on no other ground than as heretics or as possessed by demons, but also from the accusations of spreading alleged heresies which were brought against Tauler, Suso, and Ruysbroeck, to say nothing of Eckhart. Among the cloistered women of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the line of demarcation was even more fluctuating. The ecstatic‑mystical life and the visionary condition of many of them produces frequent expressions from which to pantheism is but a short step. It can scarcely be denied that this pantheism won many adherents through the influence of the great German mystics of the fourteenth century. The theory that close personal relations existed between Eckhart and the " Free Spirit " heretics at Strasburg and Cologne is unproved and unlikely; but the sectarian pantheistic mysticism was unquestionably aided and influenced by his speculations. In a well known passage of Suso's Biichlein der Wahrheit (ch. vi.), in which he is arguing with the leaders of the pantheistic mystics, the latter quote Eckhart as a high authority. This attempt to show him as on their side, however unjustifiable, throws light on the close correspondence between the propositions condemned as his by John XXII. in 1329 and the extracts given by Mosheim from a lost sectarian book De novem rupt7bua; apparently the papal censure was based not upon Eckhart's authentic writings but upon this pantheistic treatise which was given out as his.
The opponents of the teaching of the " Free Spirit," e. g. Tauler, Rulman Merawin, Gerson, Ruysbroeck, and Geert Groote, give the impres‑
the binding force of the moral law for those who were filled with the mystical love of God. With the Flemish poetess and visionary Hadewich Blommaerdine (q.v.), the pantheistic element is not prominent. About the same time in Cologne, a Netherlander, Walther, burned c. 1322, was the center of a wide‑spread pantheistic movement, in the contemporary descriptions of which we meet for the first time with the nocturnal Adamite orgies (see ADAMITEs). In southern Germany Berthold of Rorbach (q.v.), burned 1356 at Speyer, and Hermann Kachener of Nuremberg, who recanted at Wilrzburg in 1342, were the apostles of a similar movement. Another interesting group is that of the "Friends of God" (q.v.), whose leader, Nicholas of Basel was burned at Vienna in 1396. Pantheistic‑antinomian elements are mingled with apocalyptic views of the Joachim type in the " Homines intelligentim " (q.v.). The sources for the history of these heresies in the fifteenth century are so confused that little can be made of them. That pantheistic ideas still had power in the Reformation period is shown by the rise of the Loist sect at Antwerp (15251545), and the Libertine or Spiritual party (see LIBERTINES, 3) which after 1529 spread from the Netherlands through France, western Germany, and Switzerland, as well as by certain developments of the Anabaptist movement.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources are: P. Fredericq, Corpus documentorum inquisitionis Neerlandicle, vole. i.‑ii., Ghent, 1889‑96; Ulanoweki, in Scriptures rerum Polonicarum, xiii. 233‑250, Cracow, 1889. Consult: H. C. Lea, Hist. of Inquisition, vol. ii., passim, New York, 1888; C. U. Hahn, Geschichte der Ketzer, ii. 470, Stuttgart, 1847; J. C. L. Gieseler, Kirchengeachichte, II. ii. 642 sqq., Bonn, 1849, Eng. transl., ed. H. B. Smith, ii. 590 sqq., New York, 1871; W. Moll, Kerkgeschiedenis van Nederland, II., iii. 59 sqq., Utrecht, 1869; W. Preger, Geschichte der deutsehen Mystik, vole. i.‑iii., Leipsic, 1874‑93; H. Haupt, ZKG, v. 478, vii. 503, xii. 35; H. Reuter, Geschichte der religidsen AufklBrunp, ii. 240 sqq., Berlin, 1877; W. Wattenbaeh, in Sibunpsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1887, pp. 517 eqq.; J. J. I. von D811inger, Sektengeschichte, ii. 378 sqq., 702 sqq., Munich, 1890; Neander, Christian Church, iv. 633, v. 393, 401, 408.
FREETHINKER: In general, one who reaches his conclusions by following the demands of reason, rather than those of authority; more particularly, one who rejects the supernatural elements of Christianity. The term was first used toward the close of the seventeenth century, though it does not seem to'have gained general currency till after the publication of Anthony Collins' Discourse of Freethinking (1713, see COLLINS, ANTRoNY). The term then came to be applied specifically to the group of deistic writers formed by Collins, Woolston, Tindal, and others (see DEISM). Although Collins defined freethinking as merely an attempt to judge a proposition according to the weight of evidence, his book was regarded as an attack on the fundamental tenets of Christianity; and from that day to this the term freethinker has carried with it, in the popular understanding, the implication of skeptic, infidel, and even libertine and atheist. The freethinker of to‑day does not reject Christianity; he explains it.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult the literature under ANTrraINITARIANISM; DEISM.
ganized by Boniface in the spring of 739 after his
return from Rome, with the other Bavarian bish
oprics, under the approval of Duke Odilo. It was
of small extent; the boundary joined Augsburg on
thp west, ran to the south along the ridge of the
hills on the north side of the Inn valley, then along
the top of the Mangfall range, and touched the
river at the present Kufstein, following its course
to Gars, where it turned to the north and came
round to meet the Augsburg line again above
Geisenfeld. In charge of it Boniface placed Erim
bert, brother of Corbinian (q.v.). The number of
monasteries it contained was large. The most im
portant of them was that of St. Quirinus on the
Tegernsee,'which goes back probably to the reign
of King Pepin, and asserted its immediate depend
ence on the Empire until the time of Louis the
Bavarian. (A. HAUCg.)
The history of the diocese presents few features of more than local interest up to the Reformation, in which period it must be said that the preservation of Bavaria to the Roman Catholic faith is due rather to the zeal of the dukes than to the influence of the bishops. Both, however, were not unwilling to show a reasonable spirit, and the Synod of Salzburg in 1562, including Bishop Maurice von Sandizell of Freising (1559‑66), assented to the laying before the Council of Trent of the concessions desired by Duke Albert V. of Bavaria and the Emperor Ferdinand‑the marriage of the clergy and communion in both kinds. The next bishop, Ernest (1566‑1612), was himself of the ducal family, which gave the see two more bishops, Albert Sigmund (165285) and John Theodore (1727‑63). The title of prince‑bishop was conferred by Ferdinand 11. upon the incumbents of the see. By the secularization of 1802‑03 Freising was incorporated as a principality with the Bavarian Palatinate, except the portions situated in Austria and the Tyrol, which were given to Salzburg. By the concordat of 1817 a combined archbishopric of Munich and Freising took the place of the old bishopric (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS, VI., 2, § 2).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: C. Meichelbeck, Hist. Frisinpeneia, 2 vole., Augsburg, 1724‑29; Graf Hundt, in AMA, vole. xii.xiii.; K. Roth, Kozrohe Renner, Munich, 1854; idem, Verzeichnis der Freiainger Urkunden, ib. 1855; idem, Oertlichkeiten des Bisthums Freising, ib. 1856; S. Riezler, Geschichte Bayerns, Gotha, 1880; H. G. Gengier, Beid~w,6pe zur Rechtsgesehichte Bayerns, i. 58, 185 sqq., Leipaie, 1889; Rettberg, KD, i7. 257; Hauck, KD, i. 491.
FRELINGHUYSEN,fri'ling‑hai"zen, THEODORE: Dutch Reformed educator; b. at Millstone, N. J., Mar. 28, 1787; d. at New Brunswick, N. J., Apr. 12, 1862. After his graduation (1804) from the College of New Jersey (Princeton) he studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1808, when he removed to Newark. He was attorney‑general of New Jersey 1817‑29, United States senator 1829‑45, mayor of Newark 1837‑38, chancellor of New York University 1839‑50, and president of Rutgers College 1850‑62. In 1844 he was the Whig candidate for the vice‑presidency, on the ticket with Henry Clay. In the senate he won for
383 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Freethinker
himself the title of " Christian statesman." It is
said that no other American layman was ever as
sociated with so many great religious and char
itable enterprises. He was president of the Ameri
can Bible Society 1846‑62, of the American Tract
Society 1842‑48, and for sixteen years president of
the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions. He was vice‑president of the American
Sunday‑school Union 1826‑61, and for many years
was vice‑president of the American Colonization
BIBLIOGRAPHY: T. W. Chambers, Memoir of Theodore Fre
linphuysen, New York, 1883.
FREMANTLE,WILLIAX HENRY: Dean of Ripon;
b. at Swanbourne (17 m. n.e. of Oxford), Bucking
hamshire, Dec. 12, 1831. He studied at Balliol Col
lege, Oxford (B.A., 1853), and was ordered deacon
in 1855 and ordained priest in 1856. He was fel
low of All Souls, Oxford, 1854‑63 and fellow of
Balliol and tutor 1883‑94. He was curate of
Middle Claydon, 1855‑57, vicar of Lewknor, Ox
fordshire, 1857‑65, rector of St. Mary's, Bryan
ston Square, London, 1865‑‑83, and canon of Can
terbury 1882‑95. Since 1895 he has been dean of
Ripon. He was chaplain to Bishop and Archbishop
Tait 1861‑82, select preacher to the University of
Oxford in 1879‑80, Bampton Lecturer in 1883. and
William Belden Noble Lecturer at Harvard Uni
versity in 1900. He has written The Influence of
Commerce on Christianity (London, 1854); Lay
Power in Parishes (1869); The Ecclesiastical Judg
ments of the Privy Council (in collaboration with
G. C. Brodriek; 1865); Reconciliation to God
through Jesus Christ (1870); The Gospel of the Secu