261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

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6. The Hebrew Text: The foregoing study of the versions gives as a result the greater value of the Hebrew and Aramaic, though the errors ass numer‑


ous. For errors and omissions in the text the pseudo‑Ezra is sometimes serviceable (Ezra v. 15). Many of the lacunte in the text are evident, and occasionally the evident completion of the sense may be gathered from the context (Ezra iii. 12‑13). It is quite likely that the lacuna between Ezra iv. 23 and 24 is not to be laid to the charge of the author, but to carelessness or to arbitrariness on the part of copyists. That changes have taken place in the person of the verb, particularly from the first to the third, is one of the matters of which note must be taken in a critical discussion of the text.

II. Composition of the Books: This is understood both by the arrangement of the material and by its nature. The one book Ezra‑Nehemiah is the second half of a large work, of which I and II Chronicles are the first half. The divisions of Ezra‑Nehemiah are Ezra i.‑vi., vii.‑x., Nehemiah i.‑xiii. These three parts are constructed on the

1. Analysis same plan, each narrating the story of the of a return of the Jews under special Books. authority and with grants from the Persian kings under Zerubbabel and Joshua, Ezra and Nehemiah, and telling the weighty consequences for the temple community in the Holy Land. There resulted the completion of the temple, the restoration of the public service, the binding to­gether of the community by prohibition of foreign marriages, the securing of political independence of the neighboring peoples through completion of the wall of the repeopled capital, and adoption by the community of the law‑book of Moses (Ezra vi., x.; Neh. iii. sqq., viii.).

These results are interwoven into the history of the times. The first step was taken under Cyrus and continued under Darius, the second in the seventh year of Artaxerxes, the third in the twen­tieth and thirty‑second year of the same Artaxerxes. The Persian succession was well known to the author, who in Ezra iv. rr7 names successively Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes. During that period fell the decrees which were the legal basis of the Jewish community and the contests the success­ful issue of which consolidated that community and impressed upon it a distinctive character. The seventh year of the Artaxerxes of Ezra vii.

can not be regarded as the seventh

2. The year of an Artaxerxes who lived some

Sources sixty

Employed. years later under whom the

events of Neh. i.‑xiii. happened.

Nor may it be held that the author dealt with fic­

titious dates and decrees. Such suspicions are ex­

cluded by the quality of the material, which the

writer has brought together and made to serve his

purpose. The books are a mosaic. The author

doubtless obtained the list of the returning exiles

from the Books of the Kings of Israel and Judah.

He also employed the " Memoirs " of Ezra, those of

Nehemiah, and a reputed report of Tabeel and his com­

panions (Ezra iv. 7) directed to Artaxerxes. Here the

Masoretic text is the result of a complete misunder­

standing. The author of it made out of the original

"with the permission of Mithredath "the series" Bish­

lam, Mithredath," producing a triple authorship for

a document which is only referred to and not given,

since the document in Ezra iv. 11‑16 is specifically

stated to be by others (verses 8‑9). It is to be noted also that iv. 12 refers to the building of the city and iv. 24 to the building of the temple, and that if the traditional theory were correct, the author would have confused entirely different events and blended the accounts as though they referred to one and the same thing. Similarly out of the reports of Nehemiah, narrated in the first person, the writer built up a story in which seven successive steps in the progress of the work of re­building the wall appear, which is a reconstruction by the Chronicler of the order of events as they probably lay in the original documents. Into this is woven an account of the introduction of the law­book, explained by the union of efforts by Ezra and Nehemiah for that purpose. This part is probably taken as an excerpt from ,ths memoirs of Ezra.

In defense of the author's stylistic method it must be remembered that he was writing for his contem­poraries, probably using documents stored in the Jewish archives; that he was not concerned with historical matters of detail the interest in which is

8. The great to modems; and that he had Author's a comprehensive view of the whole

pose. work of restoration of the Jewish

commonwealth, which he put for­

ward in the shape of a mosaic the joining of which

is not always close and the parts of which are not

well coordinated. It was his idea to set forth that

as the Samaritans of the time of Zerubbabel

hindered the work commanded by Cyrus, so they

continued their attempts at hindrance in the days

of Artaxerxes. He desired in his notes of time

(Ezra vii. 1; Neh. i. 1, ii. 1, viii.‑xiii.) to indicate

the cooperation of Ezra and Nehemiah in the work.

The question has been raised whether the narrative

as it stands is the result of wilful perversion of the

sources, or of misunderstanding, or whether it

conforms to the facts. Nehemiah reports that to

him had come sad accounts of the ruinous state of

the walls and city of Jerusalem; the apology of

Tabeel narrates that the work of reconstruction

had been prohibited and forcibly prevented through

a denunciation to the Artaxerxes who sent Jews

back to Jerusalem. But who could be so influen­

tial and so secure in bringing about the restoration

of Jerusalem as those who had come with letters

missive from the king directed to the accomplish­

ment of this task of restoration? The general out­

line of history as made out by the author agrees

with the facts as presented by his sources.


131BLIOGRAPHY: Texts are issued by $. Baer in the Baer and Delitsech series, Leipsic, 1882; in the Polychrome Bible. by H. Guthe, New York, 1901; and a new text is by M. L&hr in the new Biblia Rebraica begun by R. Kittel, Leipsic, 1905. The best commentaries are by J. D. Michaelis, Frankfort, 1720; C. F. Keil, Leipeic, 1870, Eng. tranal., Edinburgh, 1873; G. Rawlinson and others in Pulpit Commentary, 1880; E. Berthesu and V. Ryssel, Leipsie, 1887; H. E. Ry:a, in Cambridge Bible, 1893. Dis­cussions on special topics are: R, smend, Die Listen den Biixher Ears and Nehemiah, Basel, 1881; A. van Hoo­nacker, N&tsnie et EBdras, nouvelle hypothdse Bur la chrono­lopie, Gand, 1890; idem, Nekemie en t'an .80 d'Artaxerxes 1. et EBdras en Van 7 d'Artaxerxes ll., ib. 1892; idem, Zoro­babel el Is second temple, ib. 1892; idem, Nouvelle itudessur la reetauration juive, Paris, 1896 (a reply to Hostere, be‑


low); p. H. Hunter, After the Bsiie• nbur~h. 18~: G. 13awlineon, in Men of the Bible Series, London, 1891; W. H. Koctere. Het Herstel van Israel, Leyden, 1893: A. H. Sayse. ltrod.Mon to . . . Esro. Nehemiah a"l Either, London, 1893; idem, Higher Uria^d the Monuments, ib. 1894; E. Meyer, BntatehurW des J~S^' fume, Halle, 1898 (cf. J. Wellhausen in OGA, 1897• ii. 89 eqq.); C. C. Torrey, COftipositi°n and Historic Valr•‑ ^f Ezra and Nehemiah. in ZATW. Giessen, 1898; T.

C Jewish RsisPious life after the Exile, New York,


lggg; p. W. H. Kettlewell, Books of Esra a~ Nelwmiah, London, 1901; E. Schrader, in TSK, 1867, pp. 4~"b04; idem, KAT, i. 294‑297: DB i. 821‑824; BB, ii. 1478­14g8, Consult also the works on the history of Israel and on introduction to the Old Testament, especially Driver, Introduction, pp. 507 eqq.



FABER, fd'ber, BASILIUS: Teacher and writer;

b. at Sorau (56 m. s.s.e. of Frankfort), Lower

Lusatia, c. 1520; d. at Erfurt 1575 or 1576. He

studied at Wittenberg after 1538; was private

tutor in the house of Johannes SpanBenberg>

preacher in Nordhausen; then rector of the Latin

school in that place; and later held 9, similar posi­

tion at Frankfort, and from 1557 to 1560 at Magde­

burg. For the next ten years he directed the abbey

school at Quedlinburg. On account of his refusal

to subacribethe Corpus doctrince Philippicum, he was

dismissed on Dec. 5, 1570; and the following year

he was called to the new Latin school at Erfurt,

where he remained as head of the Alumnat, until

his death. t both through his

Faber s influence was grey ,

pupils (among whom were men like Cynacus Span­

genberg and Johannes Caeelius, qq.v.) and as author.

His grammatical works enjoyed great acceptance;

likewise his Libellua de diaciplina aciwlastica (Leip­

aic, 1572, 1579); but above all the Thesaurus

eruditionia sc)tolasticce (1571 and often), which was

intended to be more than a mere dictionary,­

veritable treasury of helps to a knowledge of the

Latin tongue and the interpretation of the Latin

writers. It was repeatedly revised and was used

even into the eighteenth century. As theologian,

Faber was a devoted supporter of Luther and his

doctrine; he translated into German Luther's

commentary on Genesis, chaps. i: xxv.; was col­

laborator in the first four " Magdeburg Centuries "

(q.v.); and wrote certain edifying, in part eschato­

logical works. He also issued in 1583 a German edi­

tion of Saxania, by Albert Krantz (q.v.).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Ereah and Gruber, Allgesui'>M Eneyldo‑

pedie, I. al. 2, pp. 12‑13 Leipeic, 1844: ADB, vi. 488­490: J. Janssen, Cleschitlate des dautaehen i'oikea, ed. L. Pastor, vii. 56 eqq., 220, Freiburg, 1893.

FABER, f5'ber, FREDERICK WILLIAM: Eng­lish Roman Catholic; b. of Huguenot ancestry at the vicarage of Calverley (5 m. w.n.w. of Leeds), Yorkshire, June 28,1814; d. at the Brompton ora­tory, London, Sept. 26, 1863. He studied at BaI­liol College, Oxford, and won the Newdigate prize in 1836 for his poem The Knights °/ St. John. He was made fellow of University College in 1837 and was ordained priest in the English Church in 1839. In 1842 he accepted the rectory of Elton, Hunt­ingdonshire. 1n Oxford he because an ardent admirer of John Henry Newman and an earnest advocate of the Tractarian movement (see TRAC­TARIANIBM)• The greater part of the years from 1840 to 1844 he spent with a pupil on the Conti­nent, and during this time his feelings changed

with reference to the Roman Catholic Church; ha impressions are recorded in Sights and Thoughts in IT orChurches and among Foreign Peoples (London, 1842). He visited the Continent in 1843 with the distinct purpose of observing Roman Ca­tholicism and furnished with letters from Cardinal

'iseman. Hia Life of St. Wilfrid (London, 1844)

lowed clearly his Roman tendencies, and in 1845 e abjured Protestantism and was reordained in 347. He formed a religious society at Birmingham with the name Brothers of the Will of God, and again visit ed the Continent, being received at Rome by Gregory XVI. In 1848 he joined the Oratory of

It. Philip Neri in London (see PHILIP NERI, SAINT) and in 1849 became head of the congregation, re‑

naining in this position till his death. He was ;rested 17.D. by Plus IX. in 1854.

Faber and Keble were the chief religious poets >f the Oxford movement and the former's perma­nent fame rests upon his hymns; which are marked by fervid piety and grace of language. The moat beautiful, perhaps, are " O gift of gifts, O grace of

faith" (from a longer poem, Conversion), Work­man of God, O lose not heart " (from The Right Must Win), and " Paradise, O Paradise." He was a prolific author of religious and devotional works, including An Essay on Beatification, Canonization, and the Processes o f the Congregation o f Rites (Lon­don, 1848); The Spirit and Genius of St. Philip Neri (1850); The Blessed Sacrament (1855); Lives ° f the Canonized Saints and Servants ° f God (42 vols., 1847‑56, continued by the brothers of the Oratory); Devotional Notes on Doctrinal and Spiri­tual Subjects, ed. J. E. Bowden (2 vole., 1866). His hymns were first published in a small collection in 1848, enlarged editions appeared in 1849 and 1852, and the final edition (150 hymns) in 1862.

D. s. Scse>!P.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. E. Bowden, Life and Letters of F. TV.

Faber, London, 1889, new ed., 1888: F. A. Faber, Brief

Sketch of the Early Life of F. W. Faber, ib. 1889 (by his

brother); 9. W. Duffield, English Hymns. pp. ~~•

New York, 1888; Julian, H7nn, pp. 381‑382; DNB, aviii. 108‑111.

FABER, GEORGE STARLEY ~ English con­troversialist, uncle of Frederick William Faber (q.v.): b. at Calverley (5 m. w.n.w. of Leeds),

Yorkshire, Oct. 25, 1773; d. at Sherburn Hospital, near Durham, Jan. 27, 1854. He studied at Uni­versity College, Oxford (B.A., 1793; M.A., 1796; B.D., 1803), and was fellow from 1793 to 1803, when he became his father's curate at Calverley. In 1805 he received the vicarage of Stockton‑upon‑

Tees, in 1808 the rectory of Redmarshall, and in 1811 that of Long Newton, which he held till 1832,


when he was made master of Sherburn Hospital. In 1830 he was given a prebendal stall in Salisbury Cathedral. His voluminous works, devoted largely to prophecy, belong to the apocalyptic school of Biblical interpretation and are now of little im­portance. To be mentioned are, Home Mosaic (Oxford, 1801), Bampton Lectures delivered in 1801; The Origin of Pagan Idolatry (3 vols., Lon­don, 1816); and The Sacred Calendar of Prophecy (3 vols., 1828).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Memoir by his nephew, F. A. Faber, is pre­fixed to an edition of The Many Mansions, London, 1854. Consult also: Gentleman's Magazine, May and June, 1854; G. V. Cox, Recollections of Oxford, p. 203, London, 1870; DNB, xviii. 111‑112.
FABER, f 8'ber, JOHANNES: The name of three Roman Catholic theologians of the sixteeLth cen­tury.

x. Johannes Faber of Augsburg was born in the

second half of the fifteenth century at Freiburg,

and died c.1530; the place of his death is unknown.

About 1515 he was prior of a Dominican monastery

at Augsburg, and in 1516 was instructor in theology

at Bologna, but was soon appointed court‑preacher

and confessor of the Emperor Maximilian I. At

the recommendation of Erasmus he became court­

preacher to Charles V., and sought to further a

policy of mediation in the Lutheran controversy.

Erasmus seems later to have become hostile to him.

The only writing known to have been composed by

him is a funeral oration over Maximilian (Augs­

burg, 1519). (J. A. WAGFxnsArlrrt.)

BIalrIOGRAPHY: J. Echard and J. Quetif, 3criptoras ordinie prtediomtorum, ii. 80, Paris, 1721; C. Khamm, Hierarchia Aupuatana chronologica, dipartita, i. 308, Mains, 1709; HL, iv. 1170‑1171.

Z. Johannes Faber of Leutkirch was born at Leutkirch (40 m. a. of Uhn) in 1478, and died at Baden (12 m. s.a.w. of Vienna) May 21, 1541. He studied theology and canon law at Tobingen and Freiburg, and was successively vicar and rector at Lindau, rector of Leutkirch, and canon and epis­copal official at Basel. In 1518 he was appointed vicar‑general of the diocese of Constance and re­ceived the title of prothonotary from Pope Leo X. The course of events forced him gradually to break with such humanists and Reformers as Erasmus, (Ecolampadius, Zwingh, and Melanchthon, and to change from their friend to their opponent. He disapproved of the preaching of indulgences by Bernhardin Sanson in Switzerland, and was in com­munication with Zwingli (1519‑20) and even with Luther, while his condemnation of Eck was undis­guised. A radical change took place in his attitude, however, and though he had not yet broken with Luther, he was planning polemics against him and Carlstadt in 1519. His attitude was strength­ened by a journey to Rome in the autumn of 1521, when he dedicated to the new pope, Adrian VI., his Opus adversus nova qumdam dogmala Lutheri (Rome, 1522). Faber returned to Germany a firm opponent of the new movement. On Jan. 29, 1523, he attended the disputation of Zurich as a dele­gate of the bishop of Constance, but was unable to prove the doctrines of the mass or the invocation of saints either from the Bible or tradition to the

satisfaction of Zwingli and his adherents. In the

same year he attended the Diet of Nuremberg,

where he seems to have met the Archduke Ferdinand,

and in 1524 he was a delegate of his bishop at

Regensburg, where he and Eck were the chief

representatives of the projected Counterreformation.

At the same time he republished his polemic against

Luther under the title Mdlleus in hceresin Luthe­

ranam (Cologne, 1524), and was invited to the court

of Ferdinand as chaplain, counselor, and confessor.

In September of the same year he took part in the

heresy trial of Kaspar Tauber at Vienna, and was

later employed in various affairs of state, endeavor­

ing in 1525 and the following years to win the Ro­

man Catholic cantons of Switzerland from France

to Austria, and acting as ambassador to Spain and

England in 1527. In 1528 he was consecrated

bishop coadjutor of Wiener‑Neustadt (now St.

Palten), and in the following year became provost

of Ofen. He was active in promoting the Roman

Catholic cause, taking part in the burning of Bal­

thasar Hiibmaier (Mar. 10, 1528), defending the

execution in his anonymous Ursach warum Bal­

thasar Hubmaier verbrannt sei (Dresden, 1528), and

urging the theological faculty of the University of

Vienna to action against Lutheran heresy. As the

court‑chaplain of Ferdinand he attended the Diets

of Speyer and Augsburg. On the death of Johannes

de Revellie in 1531, Faber succeeded him as bishop

of Vienna, and was also administrator of the dio­

cese of Neustadt until 1538. In the midst of his

episcopal duties, rendered doubly difficult by

Protestantism and Turkish invasion, he found

time to establish an institution for impoverished

theological students and to attempt to improve

the university and theological faculty of Vienna.

He was an author of note, his works including, in

addition to those already mentioned, De Moscovi­

tarum religions at juxta mare glaciale religio (Basel,

1526) and De fade et bonis operxbus (Cologne, 1536).


BIBLIOGRAPHY: A collection of his smaller polemical wri­tings appeared, Leipsic, 1537; another collection, princi­pally of polemical works, 3 vols., Cologne, 1537‑41. Con­sult: C. E. Kettner, De J. Fabri rift aeriptisque, Leipaio, 1737; J. Echard and J. Quetif, $criptores ordinia prmdi­aatonum, ii. 111, Paris, 1721; R. Roth. Geachichte der . .

Reichastadt Leutkiroh, i. 200, ii. 90 eqq., Leutkirch, 1872; A. Horawita, J. Heigerlin, Vienna, 1884; BL, iv. 1172‑75.

3. Johannes Faber of Heilbronn was born at Heilbronn (26 m. n. of Stuttgart) about 1504, and died at Augsburg after 1557. He was a Dominican of the monastery of Wimpfen and was educated at Cologne at the expense of his city. He was later called to Augsburg as preacher at the cathedral and was a zealous opponent of the Reformation. The most of his writings are polemics against Prot­estantism and include the following: Ricardi Pampolitani Anglo‑Samonis enarratio in Psalmos (Cologne, 1536); Quod fides esse possit sine caritote (Augsburg, 1548); Enchiridion bi7bliorum (1549); Fructus qut&us dignoscuntur hwretici (Ingolatadt, 1551); Testimonium PetrumRomw fuisse (Antwerp, 1553); Der rechte Weg (Dillingen, 1553); Was die evangelische Mess sei. (Augsburg, 1553); and Johe1 in Predigten ausgelegt (1557).

(J. A. WAaaMLAxNt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Echsrd and J• Q~tif• Rcrripw°° ordtnis Faber fled with his friend Gtsrard Roussel (q.V.)

yradica!orum ii. lei, Paris, 1721‑ J. N. Mederer, Annales to Strasburg, under the pseudonym of Peregrinus,

1„polstad;snsia Aoadernia', Ingoldstadt, 1782: P. 1. Braun. earl in Nov., 1525. After the return of Francis I.

Geschichte der Bisch6fs roan Augsburg, Augsburg, 1813‑ y

15; Kt, iv. 1171‑72. to France, both were recalled. Faber even became

private tutor of the king's children and lived as

FABER, PETRUS. See FAVBE, PIERRE. librarian in the royal castle at Blois. As conditions

FABER (FAB,~R,I), STAPULENSIS, JACOBUS grew more menacing for the adherents of the Ref­

(JACQUES LE1tL'VRE D'kTAPLES): The most ormation, the Queen of Navarre took Faber to her

prominent among the men who in the beginning residence in Nt=rac, where he spent peacefully the

of the Reformation in France prepared the way for remainder of his long and active life. Faber fully

Calvin and Farel, at the same time a promoter and %vowed the principles of the Reformation, but ex­

renovator of the genuine Aristotelian philosophy, ternally remained in the Roman Church, hoping

founder of a better exegesis of Holy Scripture, and that the renovation of the Gospel might be effected

translator of the Bible; b. at ttaples (120 m. n.n.w. without rupture with papacy, and being unequal

of Paris), Picardy, c. 1450; d. at Ni=rac (85 m. s.e. to an open battle with hostile powers.

of Bordeaux), Barn, 1536 Notning is known of Faber's theological productions may be divided

his family or of his youth except that he was or‑ into two classes‑editions of Church Fathers and

dained priest and came early to Paris, attracted mystical writers, and translations and commen­

by his love of knowledge. Here he devoted him‑ taries on Holy Scripture. The first result of his

self earnestly and zealously to classical studies. Biblical studies was his Psalterium quintuplex

Jerome of Sparta became his teacher in Greek, (1509). The preface to his commentary on the

and with him, as well as with Paulus qua of Pauline Epistles is remarkable because Faber here

Verona, Faber lived in intimate intercourse, although propounded the principles of the Reformation,

his Latin style and his knowledge of the Greek five years before the Wittenberg theses of Luther.

language were always very defective. He became He maintained the authority of Holy Scripture and

teacher, and in 1492 traveled to Italy, where he the unmerited grace of redemption, combated the

sojourned in Florence, Rome, and Venice, studying merit of good works, the celibacy of priests, and

Platonism and works of mystics, but chiefly Aris‑ discussed the necessity of a reform of the Church.

totle. Returning to France he renewed his ac‑ In 1522 appeared his commentary on the four

tivity as teacher in Paris, with a clearer insight. Gospels and in 1525 on the Catholic Epistles. Here

He became professor in the college named after its he first discovered the errors of the Vulgate and by

founder, Cardinal Lemoine, and exerted an influ‑ his exposition of the text prepared the way for a

ence beyond the lecture‑room by intimate inter‑ better exegesis. The Bible is for him the only rule

course with gifted students and by Latin transla‑ of faith, and he is not afraid of offending against

tions of the Church Fathers and introductions and the dogmas and usages of the Church. At the in­

commentaries on works of Aristotle. He inspired stance of the king and his sister, Brigonnet induced

respect and love by his extensive knowledge, his Faber to translate the New Testament into French.

talents as a teacher, his piety, modesty, and gentle‑ The translation was made from the Vulgate and

ness, and found numerous admirers and friends. appeared at Antwerp in 1523; the Psalms fol­

When Guillaume Brisonnet (q.v.), his former pupil, lowed in 1525. In Blois Faber prepared a French

was made head of the famous Benedictine abbey translation of the whole Bible (1530), which be­

of St. Germain des Pry (1507), he appointed Fa‑ came, at least for the New Testament and the Apoc­

ber librarian, and they lived together until 1520. rypha, the basis of R. Olivetan's translation of the

About this time, Faber, already more than fifty, Bible (1535) sanctioned by the Reformed Church

laid aside secular studies, and devoted himself to of France (see BIBLE VERSIONS, B, VI., § 3) and

the Bible. Two critical essays on Mary Magdalene so very useful. (G. BoNEm‑MAuRy.)

which he published in 1517 and 1518 gave the

Sorbonne occasion for an accusation of heresy; BiBaj°°g°paT: The best sources for a life are Natalia Beda,

and Natalia Beda (No51 dier)Bt, syndic of the theo‑ A""°,`°"°"'a Fabrum et Brasmum (o. lsTb); Gutelsume

logical faculty of Paris, had the book formally Fares' Bycstrv a tow SeandeA. (c. 1548); Theodore Base,

con‑ Icorus, Geneva, 1580. and A. B. Herminjard, CorresPon,

demned by a decree of the faculty, Nov. 9, 1521. dance des ROmrn'ateura, i. 3‑4, 89. 132. 158‑2IS, Paris,

Beda,who suspected a secret Lutheran in Faber, 1878.Later works are: K. A. Graf, in ZHT, 1852, parts

wanted to institute further proceedings against 1‑2' He Bonnet, Plantfer, Le(ksrs d',tapiss, Montauban,

1870; J. Bonnet, Recite du xui. si&ie, Paris, 1876: H. M.

him, but was prevented by the interference of Baird, Hiat. of the Rise of As Huguenots, vol. i., chap. ii

Francis I. and Marguerite of Navarre. In 1520 London, 1880. On his Bible consult: . Quidvreux, La

Faber had to leave Paris and gladly followed an A~ ~ du Nouveau do 1'Aaciis^ T ta's°ntedeBLe­

invitation of Brisonnet to come to Meaux as director thorn, ib. 1895.

of the hospital for lepers. In 1523 the bishop ap­

pointed him vicar‑general. After the battle of FABIAN, Wbi‑an: Pope Jan. 10, 236‑Jan. 20, 250,

Pavia (1525), the captivity of the king gave Faber's martyr in the Decian persecution. In the Chroni­

opponents opportunity to proceed more severely con Paschale he is called Flavian, while the Coptic

against the adherents of so‑called Lutheranism, Synaxarium terms him Palatian. According to

and a special commission was appointed by parlia‑ Eusebius (Hilt. eccd., vi. 29), he was chosen to succeed

ment to investigate the heresies in the diocese of Anterus because a dove descended from heaven

Meaux. Several preachers who had been installed and lighted on the head of Fabian, a bishop who

by Brigonnet, were arrested; others recanted; had been summoned to Rome with others to elect

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