part of the order. Through the work of such men as Bernardin of Sienna (q.v.) John of Capistrano (see CAPISTRANo, GIOvANNI DI), and Dietrich Coelde (b. 1435? at Munster; was a member of the Brethren of the Common Life, q.v.; d. Dec. 11, 1515), it gained great prominence during the fifteenth century. By the end of the Middle Ages, the Observantists, with 1,400 houses, comprised nearly half of the entire order. Their influence brought about attempts at reform even among the Conventuals, including the Observantists of the Common Life, founded by Boniface de Ceva and spreading principally in France and Germany; the reformed congregation founded in 1426 by the Spaniard Philip de Berbegal and distinguished by the special importance they attached to the little hood (cappuciola); the Neutri, a group of reformers originating about 1463 in Italy, who tried to take a middle ground between the Conventuals and Observantists, but refused to obey the heads of either, until they were compelled by the pope to affiliate with the regular Observantists, or with those of the Common Life; the Caperolani, a congregation founded about 1470 in North Italy by Peter Caperolo, but dissolved again on the death of its founder in 1480; the Amadeists, founded by the noble Portuguese Amadeo, who entered the Franciscan order at Assisi in 1452, gathered around him a number of adherents to his fairly strict principles (numbering finally twenty‑six houses) and, died in the odor of sanctity in 1482.
Projects for a union between the two main branches of the order were put forth not only by the Council of Constance but by several popes, without any positive result. By direction of
Martin V., John of Capistrano drew 8. 'Unsuc‑up statutes which were to serve as a cessful At‑ basis for reunion, and they were actu‑
Unites to ally accepted by a general chapter at
order. Unite the Assisi in 1430; but the majority of the
Conventual houses refused to agree to them,and they remained without effect. At Capistrano's request Eugenius IV. put forth a bull (Ut sacra minorum,1446) looking to the same result, but again nothing was accomplished. Equally unsuccessful were the attempts of the Franciscan pope Sixtus IV., who bestowed a vast number of privileges on both the original mendicant orders, but by this very fact lost the favor of the Observantists and failed in his plans for reunion. Julius Il. succeeded in doing away with some of the smaller branches, but left the division of the two great parties untouched. This division was finally legalized by Leo X., after a general chapter held in Rome, in connection with the reform‑movement of the Fifth Lateran Council, had once more declared the impossibility of reunion. The less strict principles of the Conventuals, permitting the posesssion of real estate and the enjoyment of fixed revenues, were recognized as tolerable, while the Observantists, in contrast to this usus nwderatus, were held strictly to their own uses arctus or pauper. The latter, as adhering more closely to the rule of the founder, were allowed to claim a certain superiority over the former. The Observantist general (elected now for six years, not for life) was to have
the title of "Minister‑General of the Whole Order of St. Francis " and the right to confirm the choice of a head for the Conventuals, who was known as " Master‑General of the Friars Minor Conventual " ‑although this privilege never became practically operative.
IV. Spread of the Order in Modern Times: The regulations of Leo X. brought a notable increase of strength to the Observantist branch, and many conventual houses joined them‑in France all but forty‑eight, in Germany the greater part, in Spain 1. New Con. practically all. But this very growth gregations. was fatal to the internal unity and strength of the strict party. The need for new reforms soon became apparent, and the action of Leo X., far from consolidating the order, gave rise to a number of new branches. The most important of these are: the Capuchins (q.v.), founded in 1525 by Matteo Bassi and established in 1619 by Paul V. as a separate order; the Discalced Franciscans, founded as a specially strict Observantist congregation at Bellacazar in Spain by Juan de Puebla toward the end of the fifteenth century, compelled by Leo X. to unite with the regular Observantists, but soon afterward reestablished as an independent branch by Juan de Guadelupe (d. 1580), and subsequently obtaining some importance in Spain and Portugal; the Alcantarines, a very strict congregation founded in 1540 by Peter of Alcantara (q.v.), and distinguished by remarkable achievements in the mission field; the Italian Riformati, founded about 1525 near Rieti by two Spanish Observantists, and becoming comparatively wide‑spread from the beginning of the seventeenth century through the favor of Clement VIII. and Urban VIII.; the French Recollects, originating at Nevers in 1592, formed into a distinct congregation by Clement VIII. in 1602, and important in later missionary history, especially in Canada.
The Franciscans also rendered important serv
ices to the cause of the Counterreformation in
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, rivaling
the Jesuit order in zeal, and frequently suffering
martyrdom for their faith in England, the Nether
lands, and Germany. During the last
2. Present hundred years the possessions of the Status. order have been much reduced by the storms of the French Revolution, the German secularizations since 1803, and the political changes of Spain, Italy, and France. On the other hand, there has been a considerable extension in many parts of the order, especially in North America. The present statistics of the three principal male branches of the order are approximately as follows: (1) Observantists: 1,500 houses, comprised in about 100 provinces and Custodice, with about 15,000 members of whom some 7,000 belong to the Regular Observance, 6,000 to the Riformati, and the rest to the Recollects and the Discalced ,Congregation; (2) Conventuals: 290 houses, principally in Italy, but also in Bavaria, Austria, Rumania, Turkey, etc.; and (3) Regular Tertiaries, following the rule of Leo X.: less than a score of houses‑two in Rome, five in Sicily, seven in Austria, and two in America. These figures show a
381 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Francis, Saint
great contrast to the strength of the order at the end of the Middle Ages, when it had over 8,000 houses, of which the 1,300 Observantist communities alone numbered 30,000 members, or even in the middle of the seventeenth century when there were about 70,000 members, divided into 150 provinces. The noteworthy proportional decline of the non‑Observantist section shows that the order to this day presents more attraction as it remains truest to its original principles.
Although surpassed in the number of prominent and influential theological authors by the Jesuits and Dominicans, the order still boasts a number of distinguished names. The first century of its existence produced the three great scholastics Alexander of Hales, Bonaventura, and Duns Scotus, the "Admirable Doctor" Roger Bacon, and the
well‑known mystic authors and popuS. Distin‑ lar preachers David of Augsburg and
guiahed Berthold of Regensburg. Among
Franciscan celebrities of the later Middle Ages may be mentioned Nicholas of Lyra, the Biblical commentator, Bernardin of Sienna, John of Capistrano, Mollard and Menot as preachers, and the famous canonists Astesanus, Alvarus Pelagius, and Occam. Later again came sound historical investigators such as Luke Wadding and Pagi. In the field of Christian art, during the later Middle Ages, the Franciscan movement exercised considerable influence, especially in Italy. Several great painters of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, especially Cimabue and Giotto, were spiritual sons of Francis in the wider sense, and the plastic masterpieces of the latter, as well as the architectural conceptions of both himself and his school, show the influence of Franciscan ideals. The Italian Gothic style, whose earliest important monument is the great convent church at Assisi (built 1228‑53), was cultivated as a rule principally by members of the order or men under their influence. The early spiritual poetry of Italy was inspired by Francis himself, who was followed by Thomas of Celano, Bonaventura, and Jacopone da Todi; and in a certain sense even Dante may be included within the sphere of Franciscan influence (cf. especially Parcudiso, xi. 50).
V. The Clarisses or Poor Clares : For the history of the female branch of the order, founded in the lifetime of Francis, See CLARA, SAINT, AND THE CLARISSES.
VI. The Third Order: The Tertiary rule which passes under the name of St. Francis not only can not have been drawn up by him, but does not even show a basis of his original instructions. There must have been, however, in leis lifetime a following of devout laity who composed a sort of third
1. Originorder, beside the Friars Minor and the
and Rule. Clarisses. It seems probable that the
rule drawn up in 1285 for Dominican tertiaries served as a model for the corresponding Franciscan rule mentioned by Nicholas IV. in his bull Supra montem of Aug. 18, 1289. This rule excludes persons living in the estate of matrimony, but does not prescribe absolute renunciation of property or the wearing of the Franciscan habit. The precepts as to fasting are comparatively mild,
allowing the use of meat three times a week, and the devotional exercises required are very much less than in the first and second orders. The brothers are expressly allowed to render military service in defense of the Holy Roman Church, the Christian faith of their own fatherland. The position midway between the Church and the world taken by this rule corresponded to a need widely felt at the time, and contributed toward the spread of the mendicant principle. The growth of the third order was not without opposition. Frederick II. took severe measures against it, and now and then the Franciscan tertialies were confused with the heretical Beghards; especially after the condemnation of this sect by the Council of Vienne, many of its members sought entrance into the third order of St. Francis or adopted its habit and manner of life, so that John XXII. was obliged to issue a special bull (Sancta Romana, 1317) to distinguish the true and false tertiaries. The growth of the institute continued throughout the Middle Ages, and numerous pious brotherhoods and sisterhoods grew up either within it or in close connection with it. Under Leo X. a new system went into effect (1517), separating from the general body those tertiaries who accepted a new rule drawn up for them. These took the three monastic vows, had a minister‑general of their own, and could be admitted into the first order. The remainder were divided into three classes: those who lived in community, bound by simple vows, on the basis of the old rule of Nicholas IV.; those who lived alone, bound by a simple vow of celibacy, and wearing the habit of the order; and others of both sexes, single or married, who made no vows and did not live in community. The third class is by far the most numerous, and comprises all the affiliated members living in the world.
It is to these that the comprehensive rearrangements refer which were ordered by Leo XIII. toward the end of the nineteenth century. In the encyclical Auspicator of Sept. 17, 1882, he ur2. New Ar‑ gently commended the third order, and rangements dwelt upon its high usefulness in modof Leo ern conditions. By the constitution
XTTT, Misericors of May 30, 1883, he made
a number of changes in the obligations to be imposed on the members. No vows are now required on entrance, but a simple promise to keep the rule and wear the scapular and girdle under the ordinary clothing; a few fasts are imposed, especially on the vigils of the feasts of the Immaculate Conception and of St. Francis; the duty of monthly communion and grace before and after meals is insisted on, together with that of a generally self‑denying and temperate life. These easily fulfilled regulations have brought about a marked increase in the number of members, which in the single country of Germany is estimated at about half a million. (See TERTIARIES.)
BrDLIOGRAPIiY: Full lists of works on the subject are given in Hauck‑Herzog, RE, vi. 197‑‑220; Heilnbucher, Orden
and Kongrepationen, I. 285‑‑271; Potthast, Wepweiieer, pp. 1318‑21; and in the . British Museum Catalogue under " Francis [Bernardoni]." Consult also P. Robinson, A Short Introduction to Franciscan Literature, New
Francis, Saint THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 362
York, 1907. The oldest and weightiest sources for a life of St. Francis are the two Vita by Thomas of Celano, the Chronieon fratris Jordani a Jano, the Legenda trium sociorum (Leo, Rufmus and Angelus Tancredi) and the celebrated Vita by S. Bonaventura. These, with the exception of the fuller Vita of Thomas, are collected together with a commentary in ASS, Oct., ii. 545‑798. The principal editions and translations will be noted below. Other sources are of course the Opera of St. Francis, ed. Wadding, Cologne, 1849, and Horvy, Paris, 1880, made available in Eng. transl., London, 1890, and by P. Robinson, Philadelphia, 1906; and the Sacrum commercium (written anonymously c. 1227), Eng. transl. by M. Carmichael, London, 1901.
The best modern life is by P. Sabatier, Paris, 1894, which has run through many editions, Eng. transl., London, 1898. Sabatier edited the Speculum yerfectionis of Leo of Assisi, Paris, 1898, of which Eng. tranals. appeared by Sebastian Evans, London, 1899, Countess De Is Warr, 1902, and Robert Steele, 1903. Next to these should be noted H. G. Rosedale, St. Francis of Assisi according to Brother Thomas of Celano, with Critical Introduction, London, 1904 (for the best edition), cf. Thomas of Celano, The Lives of St. Francis of Assisi, tranal. by A. G. Ferrers Howell, ib., 1908. Other accounts are by K. Hase, Leipsic, 1856 (long the standard); Bemardin, 2 vols., Paris, 1880; a sumptuous work in 3 parts, S. Francois d'Aasise, containing the Vie by F. E. Chavin de Malan, first published Paris, 1845, S. Frangoia apres so mart and S. Francois dana fart, Paris, 1885; H. S. Lear, London, 1888; Miss Lockhart (from the Legends of St. Bonaventure), ib. 1889; J. M. S. Daurignae, Abbeville, 1887; L. Le Monnier, Paris, 1890, Eng. transl., London, 1894; J. W. Knox Little, ib. 1897; the Du,e Legendo of Bonaventura, Quaracchi (near Florence), 1898; J. Adderley, London, 1900; A. Barine (S. Frangoia . . . et la legends des trois eompagnons), Paris, 1901; L. de Chtrancd, Paris, 1892, Eng. trans]., London, 1901; J. Herkless Francis and Dominic, pp. 16‑80, New York, 1901; W. O. E. Oesterley, London, 1901; B. Christen, Innsbruck, 1902; L. de Kerval, Paris, 1902 (a Fr. tranel. of the legend of the three companions); A. Goffin, Brussels, 1902 (also a Fr. trans]. of the same); E. G. Satter, London, 1902 (Eng. transl. of the same); J. H. McIlvaine, New York, 1902; Anna M. Stoddart, London, 1903; S. Bonaventura, ib. 1904 (Eng. tranal.); L. L. Du Bois, New York, 1906; J. JSrgensen, Den hellige Prans of Assisi, Copenhagen, 1907; M. A. Heins, New York, 1908. On the portraiture consult N. H. J. Westlake, On the Authentic Portraiture of St. Francis of Assisi, London, 1897; O. Kuhns, St. Francis of Assisi, New York, 1906.
The Rules are given in L. Wadding, S. Franciaci opuscula, Antwerp, 1623, ed. V. der Burg, Cologne, 1889, and in Horoy's edition of the Opera of St. Francis, Paris, 1880. Consult also Regula antiqua frabum et serorum de pa;nitentia seu tertii ordinis S. Francois, ed. P. Sabatier, Paris, 1901, and cf. K. Miiller, Die Anfange des Minoritenordens, pp. 4‑114, 185‑188, Freiburg, 1885. The Teatamentum was edited from the Cottonian MS. in the British Museum by J. S. Brewer in Monumenta Franciacana, i (1858), 562‑566, and is given in Sabatier's Vie, 9th ed., pp. 389‑393.
Consult also: B. Francis, Rule and Ceremonial of the Third Order, London, 1883 Manual of the Third Order, ib. 1883; Nouvelle r6gle du tiers‑ordre seculier, Paris, 1883; F. Bertiuus, Manual of the Third Order, London, 1884; Little Manual of the Third Order, ib. 1899; Gerard, Documents pour erpliquer la regle du tiers‑ordre, Paris. 1899.
For the history of the order sources are: Chronicon fratris Jordanis a Jano, ed. G. Voigt, Vol. v. of Abhandlungen der koniglich.en adchaischen Gesellachaft der Wi,` sen8chaften, v (1870), 421 sqq. (good for Germany); Chroniche degli ordini inatituti dal S. Francesco, in Portuguese and Spanish, 3 vola., Lisbon and Salamanca, 15561670, Fr. transl., 4 cols., Paris, 1600, Germ. tranal., 2 vole., Constance, 1604; A. Parkinson, Collrctanea Anglominoritica, London, 1726; J.H. Sbaralea, Bullarium Franciscanum . . . conatitutiones, epistolos, diplomats .
4 vols.. Rome, 1759‑68 (Vol. 4 by D. A. Rossi); Analecta Franciacana, 2 vole., Quararchi, 1885‑87 (a collection of chronicles, and various documentary sources).
Of more modern accounts the beA are: L. Wadding, Annalea minorum, Vol. i.‑vii., Leyden, 1625‑48, Vol. viii.
Rome, 1654, 2d ed. begun by J. M. Fonseca, vols. i.xvi., Rome, 1731‑36, continued al intervals, Vol. xxv., 1887; Helyot, Ordres monastiquea. Vol. vii., cf‑ i., pp. Ixxi. aqq.; Heimbueher, Orden and Kongregationen, i. 264‑385. Consult also: V. Greiderer, Germania Franci8cana, 2 vols., Innsbruck, 1777‑81; G. F. C. Evers, Analecta ad fratrum minorum historian, Leipsic, 1882; K. Maller, Die Anfange des Minoritenordena, Freiburg, 1885; D. de Gubernatis, Orbis aeraphicue. Hist. de tribue ordinibus a . . . S. Francisco inatitutis, new ed., Quaracehi, 1887 sqq.; F. Servais Dirks, Hist. litt&aire den fr&ea mineura en Belgique, Antwerp, 1888; B. Hammer, Die Franciscaner in den Vereinigtcn Staaten, Cologne, 1892; A. G. Little, The Grey Friars in Oxford, Oxford, 1892; J. M. Stone, Sufferings of English Franciscans during 16th and 17th Centuries, London, 1892; O. Huettebrauker, Der Minoritenorden, Berlin, 1895; T. Kolde, Die kirchlichen Bruderachaften and das religibee Leben, Erlangen, 1895; Thaddeus, The Franciscans in England, 1800‑1860, London, 1898; Anne Macdowell, Sons of Francis, New York, 1902; D. Muszey, The Spiritual Franciscans, ib., 1908.
On the Third Order consult: F. J. d'Ezerville, Le Tiersordre de S. Franyois, Lille, 1887; Ldon, Le Tiers Ordre a&aphique, Paris, 1887; P. B. da Greccio, 11 Terz' Ordine di San Francesco, Quaracchi, 1888; P. de Martignd, Le Tiers‑ordre . . . d'apr~s Leon XIII., Le Mans, 1896; Morbert, Les Religieuaee frangiseainea, Paris, 1897; P. Baptists, Spirit of the Third Order of St. Francis, London, 1899; J. G. Adderley and C. L. Marson, "Third Orders," ib. 1902; F. O. Kaercher, Summary of Indulgencet, Privileges, and Favors Granted to the Secular Branch of the Third Order of St. Francis, St. Louis, 1902; T. C. L. Josa, St. Francis of Aaeiai and the Third Order, ib. 1906.
FRANCIS BORGIA, SAINT.See JESUITS.
FRANCIS, JOSEPH MARSHALL: Protestant Episcopal bishop of Indianapolis, Ind.; b. at Eaglesmere, Pa., Apr. 6, 1862. He studied at Racine College (1879‑82) and Oxford (188r86), and was ordered deacon in 1884 and priested two years later. After being in charge of the mission churches of St. Edmund, Milwaukee, and of St. Peter, Greenfield, Wis., 1884‑86, he was canon of All Saints' Cathedral, Milwaukee, 1886‑‑87 and rector of St Luke's, Whitewater, Wis., 1887‑88. He then went as a missionary to Japan, where he remained until 1897, being professor of dogmatic theology in Trinity Divinity School, Tokyo, 1891‑97 and subdean of the same institution 1893‑97. Returning to the United States, he was rector of St. Paul's, Evansville, Ind., 1898‑99, and in 1899 was consecrated bishop of Indianapolis. In theology he is in "entire conformity with the teaching of the Episcopal Church as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer."
FRANCIS, SAINT, OF PAOLA:Founder of the Order of Minims; b. at Paola (13 m. w.n.w. of Cosenza), Italy, 1416 (according to the Bollandists),1438; d. at Plessis‑lee‑Tours (1 m. sm. of Tours). France, Apr. 2, 1507. His parents dedicated him at an early age to St. Francis of Assisi, to whose intercession they attributed his birth. At the age of twelve he entered the Franciscan monastery of San Marco in Calabria, and quickly surpassed the strictest monks in his rigid observance of the rule. After spending a year as novice he accompanied his parents in a pilgrimage to Assisi, Rome and other holy places, and after his return to Paola lived for six years in a cave on the seashore, gradually gathering about him a band of disciples. After a few years the archbishop of Cosenza gave permission for the erect‑'on
888 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA:Francis, Saint
of a monastery and church, probably about 1454, although the date is usually given as 1435. This marks the establishment of his order, which assumed the title of " Eremites of St. Francis " and strove to surpass the Franciscans by a more rigid application of the vow of poverty and by extreme asceticism. The fame of the miracles of St. Francis soon attracted the attention of Paul II. who sent a chamberlain in 1469 to test them. The result was favorable, and the rule of the new order was confirmed by Sixtus IV. in a bull issued May 23, 1474, their founder himself being appointed eorrectorgeneral. The rule was slightly modified by Innocent VIII., Alexander VI., and Julius I I., the second changing the name of the order to Minimi fratres (" Least of the Brethren "), probably in allusion to Matt. xxv. 40. Numerous miracles are recounted of St. Francis, many of them closely resembling those of Christ. As a consequence, Louis XI. of France, when near death. summoned him to his court, but was obeyed only at the command of the pope, St. Francis declining to attempt to prolong the dying monarch's fife by his prayers. The new king, Charles VIII., induced him to remain in France, consulted him both in spiritual and secular matters, and built for him two monasteries in France, one at Plessis‑lesrTours and the other at Amboise, as well as a third at Rome, to be occupied solely by French monks. Francis was canonised by Leo X. in 1519.
The Minims are bound, in addition to the three
monastic vows, by a fourth which devotes them to a
vita quadrigesimalia, or perpetual fast, enjoining
abstinence from all meat and lacticinia, and per
mitting only bread and water, oil, vegetables, and
fruit to be used for food. The appointed fasts of
the Church are intensified by the Minims,, who are
also bound by strict rules of silence. The rule of
the Minimite nuns, whose first convent was estab
lished at Andujar in Spain in 1495, closely resembles
are subject to far less rigid restrictions, especially
with regard to diet. During its period of greatest
prosperity, from the death of its founder to the end
of the sixteenth century, the order had 450 houses,
and extended its missionary activity as far as India.
It now has only nineteen cloisters, the mother house
at Paola, Sant'Andrea della Fratte in Rome,
fourteen in Sicily, and one each in Naples, Marseilles,
and Cracow. (O. ZSCSLLMRt.)
BtBLIOUEAPHY: The earliest fife of the founder is in ASB, April, i. 105‑234. Other lives are by Hilarion de Coate, Paris, 1855; I. Toecano, Venice, 1704; C. du Vivier, Douai, 1722; Rolland, Paris, 1874; J. Dabert, Paris, 1877; and in HL, iv. 1824‑28.
Early accounts of the order are: L. de Montoia, Cronies general de la Orden de loo Minimoe,Madrid, 1819; Louie DOW Datichi, Hist. p€n&ale de l'ordre des Minim". Paris, 1824; P'• Lanovius, Chronicon penernle ordinia MinimOmm, ib. 1835. Consult: Helyot, Ordrea monastiquea, vii. 428‑452; Heimbucher, Orden and %onprepationen, ii. 527 eqq.; Currier, Religious Order, pp. 288‑270. On the Rules consult: C. Passarelii, StaNta fratrum Minorum, Naples, 1570; Lea fles des fr&es et sa;urs et des fd&a . do l'ordr des Minim", Paris, 1832; Digestum sapientif Minimitanm tripwtitum, ad. P. Baltas d'Avila, Lille, 1867; Traduction nouvelle des raglet . . . de 1'ordre des Minimes,Paris, 1703.