committee, the D616gation Lib6rale. On Doe. 11, 1905, Parliament voted and promulgated a law which decreed the separation of Church and State. The two parties, the orthodox and the liberal, are now utterly separate. A third party, the Center, which had at first tried in vain to unite the two others, forms now a third church. The three churches are called: the Agliee. R6form6e Avang6lique (orthodox), the Union d'l~glises R6form6eB de France (Center), and the Aglises11kform6es Unies (liberal).‑In 1848 Fr6d6ric Monod (q.v.) and others seceded from the State Church and in 1849 formed the Union den Aglises Avang6liques, generally called the Free Church. At first it numbered fifty congregations, but subsequently many returned to the State Reformed Church. See the articles GALLICAN CONFF$BION; Huauwon; and FRENCH RIcvoLuTION.
9. The Lutheran church: Before 1908 the status
of the Lutheran Church also depended upon the
laws of 1802 and 1852. The conaistories, however,
were to form an inspection, and the inspectors were
chosen for life. The Church had a central govern
ing body, the head consiatory, in two divisions, one
legislative and one administrative. This state of
affairs lasted until the Franco‑Prussian war, when
the loss of Alsace‑Lorraine, which contained six of
the eight inspections, shook the Lutheran Church of
France to its foundations and compelled it to enter
upon a struggle for existence. The two inspections
which were left (Montb6liard and Paris [including
Algeria]) were at first suspicious of each other, and
that of Montb6liard wished to join the Reformed
churches. A general synod, summoned July 23,
1872, brought peace; and a proposition for union
with the Reformed Church was voted down, like
wise a creed submitted by the Pietistic minority.
They passed, however, a project for reorganization
of the Church, brought forward by the minority.
The head consistory was given up and the Church
was divided into two synodal districts, Montb6liard
and Paris, almost wholly independent of each other.
The inspectors were named for only nine years. There
was a general synod constituted for the government
of the Church, to meet alternately at Paris and at
Montbdliard. The theological faculty at Strasburg
was replaced by one at Paris. Owing to the dis
turbed condition of France after the war, this
scheme was not sanctioned by the two chambers
and carried into effect until 1880. At the separa,
tion of Church and State in 1905, the synod adapted
the constitution of the Church to the law of separa
tion, and named the Church the #glise tvang6lique
Luth6rienne de France. The parishes became
Associations cultuelles. C. PFENDER.
S. Evangelical Work in France: Samuel Vincent says, " After the Revolution the French Protestants experienced a profoudd tranquillity very much like indifference. Religion possessed little interest for them, as it did for most Frenchmen; for them as for many others the eighteenth century was still in existence. The law of 1802 insured tranquillity and so relieved them and their pastors from all anxiety for the support of their form of worship, but at the same time that it removed the chief cause of unrest it also did away with that of awakening.
The pastors preached their sermons, the people
heard them, the consistoriea met, the service re
tained all its forms, but no one was interested or
troubled about it; religion was outside the sphere
of every one's daily life." This condition of things
lasted until the third decade of the century when
the religious awakening came from Switzerland into
France and gave new life to the Church. It roused
especially a glowing zeal for missions, and Evan
gelical work of all kinds was‑ undertaken with great
I1., 2), also several other societies for Evangelical
work in France. This great display of missionary
zeal, however, has another side: French Protestant
ism up to the middle of the last century produced
nothing noteworthy in theology. But since then
matters have improved, societies have been formed,
periodicals have been begun, and many learned
works have been written. In this work the Lutheran
Church has had its share; and the church at Paris
especially has become a spiritual force. Since
1896 the Lutheran Church has maintained a mis
sion in Madagascar. The . Methodists in France
have twenty‑five parishes, the Baptists twenty‑nine.
BIHwoa$APH7: On the Catholic Church in general consult:Gallia Christiana, 18 vole., Paris, 1715‑1885; J. H. AIbanbs, Gallic Christiana nooissima, vol. i.. Valence, 1899; W. H. Jervis, The Gallican Church 1618‑1788 2 vole., Edinburgh, 1872; idem, The Gallivan Church and the Revolution London, 1882; E. de Presee , L'Aplise de France pendant la rivolutiorN Paris, 1890; ~ V. Maumus. La Republiqus et la politique do l'iplise, Paris, 1892; C. F. Ballet, Lee Oripines des 4plisee de France et lea tastes ipiscopauz, ib. 1898; E. BirE, Le Clergb de Franca pendant Is resolution, 1789‑1798, Lyons, 1901; L. Bourgain, L'Apliss de France. at 1'iW au 19 eiicle, 2 vole., Paris, 1901; W. M. Sloane, The French Revolution and Religious Reform, 1789‑180;, London, 1901; Archives de Mist. religiswe de la France, Paris, 1902 sqq.; F. V. A. Aulard, La Revolution fransaise et lea eonpripations, ib. 1903; L. Launay. Hint. de 1'ielim pauloise' jusqu'd la conquite franque, 611, 2 vole., ib. 1908.
On the aonoordate consult: J. Baisew, Le Concordat de 1801 et lea articles orpaniques, Paris, 1902; A. Body, Le Concordat; son histoire 1801‑1803, Lyons, 1903; F. D. Matthieu, Le Concordat de 1801, Paris, 1903; A. Baudrillart, Quatra cents an* de concordat, ib. 190.5; E. Sdveetre, L'Histoire, k texts at la destines du concordat de 1801, ib. 1906.
On the clergy and the orders consult: Rwueil des aetea, titres et m6moiraa concernant lea afaires du cleroi de France, 12 vols., Paris, 1718; E. Marie, Le Clerpi at les temps nouveaux, ib. 1892; A. Deeeaine, Le Clergi /ranvais au 20. sitde, ib. 1897; S. Grenier, Noa iviquee, ib. 1900; E. Leone. La Hierarchic 6piscopale an Gaul@ et Germane, 742‑882, Lille. 1905; Le Clerpi franraia (annual); E. Keller, Les ConprApations reiipituses an France, Paris, 1880; L. A. R dmondibre, Lea Congregations religicusss, is fiac, Is parlemsnt at is cow de caaaation, ib. 1892; G. Surugue, Regime legal des oonpr*ahone reiigeeueta en France, ib. 1898; Besunier, La France monastique, new ad., ib. 1905; Helyot, Ordrea monaetiques; Heirnbucher, Orden and Konprepationen.
On the separation of Church and State and its consequences consult: J. A. C. Sykes, The New Reign o/ Terror in France, London, 1903; J. L. E. Combes, fine campapne laique, 1800‑03, Paris, 1904; G. Berry, Une page d'hist.; la separation den eplisse et de 1'itat i1 la chambre des diputds, ib. 1905; A. Briand, La Separation des iplina et de Md. Rapport au nom de la commission de la chambre des diputis, ib. 1905; P. Grunebaum Balfin, La Separation des Mime a de Mal, ib. 1905; J. Roche, La Separation de l'ipliee et de lWQt, ib. 1883; Berard, Essai his‑
torique our la siparation de 1'6plies et do 1'6tat pendant la
r6roolution, ib. 1905; A. Debidour, L'Itplias ootholique et
1'f4 1870‑88, vol. i., ib. 1908; R. Bertin et J. Charpen
tier, Manuel des associations d&lar&a, ib. 1907; J. E. C.
Bodley, The Church in France, London, 1908; A. Galton,
Church and State in Franc, 1300‑1807, London, 1907;
E. Barbier, Le Proprta du libtralisme oatholiqua en Francs
sow . . . Lion XIII., 2 vols., Paris, 1907; J. N. Brod
head, The Religious Persecution in France, 1800‑OB, Lon
don, 1907; E. Lecsnuet, L'Aplise de Franc sow 1a boi
Paris, 1907. See also under Cauwa AND BTATm.
On Protestantism in France consult: T. Bees, Hint. ecclhiastique de Franc, ed. P. Vessor, 2 vole.. Toulouse, 1882: D'Huismau, La Discipline due Aplisee r.1fonn* de France. Geneva, 1f86: G. de Fdlioe, Hist. do synodes nationaux do l*lise r6formie do Francs, Paris, 1884; idem, Hint. do proteatanta do Franc, Toulouse, 1580; idem, lea Protestants d'autrs foia, 4 vole., Paris, 18971902; G. Weber, Ouchichtliche Darstellunp des Calviniemue in Prankrcich bin sur Aufhebunp den Edikta von Nantes, Heidelberg, 1835; A. L. Herminiard, CoRSspondance des r4formateura, 9 vole., Geneva, 1888‑‑97; E. Bersier, Hint. du synods p6gralh do 7'Miae rbform6e de France, 2 vole., Parie, 1872; E. and 1t. Haas, La France proteatante, ed. H. L. Bordier, Paris, 1877 eqq.; L. Aguesse, Hut. do l'6tabliasemant du protestantjsms en France, 4 vols., ib. 1882‑80; A. Lode, La LApidation do eultae protestanfe 1787‑1887, ib. 1889; N. A. F. Puaux, Hist. du proteatantisms en Franc, ib. 1894: J. B. Marsval. Le Protestantism au 16. et 19. siicle, Albi, 1900; E. Belleroohe, Successive Events that finally Led to the Edict of Nantes, New York, 1901; C. Durand, Hint. du protcetantiame frangais pendant la rivolution et 1'empirs, Paris, 1902;
FRANCIS, SAINT, OF ASSISI,
I . Life of Saint Francis.
Boyhood and Early Manhood (§1).
The Winning of the Brotherhood (§ 2).
Work and Extension of the Brotherhood (§ 3).
The Last Years of Francis (§ 4).
II. The Three Rules of the Order and the Testament of Saint Francis.
The First Rule (§ 1).
The Rule of 1221 (§ 2).
The Third Rule (§3).
The Testament (§ 4).
C. Coignet, L'tvotu#ms du protaatantisms Jrnngats au 18. siJcie, ib. 1907; Bulletin hiatorique et Litlfrairs de la aoci.. 6t6 de Mist. du Protestantism franpaia (a monthly): Ades et d6asrnne du synods. den 6glisEa r6/ormbes de France; E. Davsine end A. Lode, Annuaire du proteefantiame fra. Paris, 1892 eqq.: $‑ Besu7our, L'Aplise r6form6s do Franc uni6 d l'6tat, eon organisation todifi6s, lC~a~en, 1883; and the literature under such articles as WLIaNI; HDaDE'NOTB; J•NaENIaIr, and NANTHs, EDICT or. For the Lutheran Churches consult W. Jackson, Recueii do documents relatifa d 7a r6orpaniaation de l'6plise de la confession d'Aupebo,ap, Paris, 1881; L'Aplias luth6rienna do Pons pendant la r6volution, ib. 1892.
FRANCE, CONGREGATION OF. See GzNzv>wE,
SAWT, ORDERS OF, 1.
FRANCICA‑NAVA DI BONTIFE, fran"chf"ca'na"vii'df ben"tl"f2', GIUSEPPE: Cardinal; b. at Catania (b4 m. n.n.w. of Syracuse), Sicily, July 23, 1848. After the completion of his studies and a successful career as a priest, he was consecrated titular bishop of Alabenda in 1883, and six years later was made titular archbishop of Heraclea end appointed papal nuncio to Brussels. He was then nuncio at Madrid, and in 1895 was enthroned archbishop of Catania. He was created cardinal priest of Santi Giovanni a Paolo in 1899, and is a member of the Congregations of the Council, Index, Studies, and Ceremonial.
AND THE FRANCISCAN ORDER.
III. Development of the Order after the Death of Frantic.
Dissensions During the Life of Francis (§ 1)•
Development to 1239. The Lazer Party (§ 2).
To 1274. Bonaventms (§ 3).
To 1300. Continued Dissensions (§ 4).
Temporary Success of the Stricter Party, Persecution (§ b).
Renewed Controversy on the Suction of Poverty (16).
From the designation Frtttrea minorea the members of the Franciscan order were called Minorites, and in England they were popularly called Grey Friars from the color of their dress.
I. Life of Saint Francis: Giovanni Bernardore, commonly known as Francesco, the founder of the Franciscan order, was born in the little town of Assisi, in Central Italy, between Perugia and Foligno, in 1182. His father Pietro, a well‑todomerchant;gave the boy a good education. The 1. Boyhood tee, of Francesco ("the French‑
and Early m >> bY .which his baptismal name
was soon altogether replaced, is said
to have been given him soon after his
birth by his father, returning to Assisi from a trip
to France; according to another account it was
due to his early acquisition of the French language.
Francis showed little inclination to concern him
self with his father's business, but lived a gay life
with the young men of his own age. In 1201 he
joined a military expedition against Perugia, was
taken prisoner, and spent a year as a captive. It
is probable that his conversion to more serious
thoughts was gradual. It is said that when he
began to avoid the sports of his former compan‑
ffepoaste Congrotgtione (§ 7).
Unsuccessful Attempts Ust(I7) Unite the
order <§ s).
IV. Spread of the Order in Modern Times.
New Congregations ($ 1).
Present Status (12).
Distinguished Names (§ 3).
V. The Clsrissee or Poor Clsles.
VI. The Third Order.
Origin and Rule (§ 1).
New Arrangements of Leo XIII.
ions, and they asked him laughingly if he were thinking of marrying, he answered " Yes, a fairer bride than any you have ever seen "‑meaning his " lady poverty," as he afterward used to say. He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment. By degrees he took to nursing the moat repulsive victims in the lazar‑houses near Assisi; and after a pilgrimage to Rome, where he begged at the church doors for the poor, he had a vision in which he heard a voice calling upon him to restore the Church of God which had fallen into decay. He referred this to the ruined church of St. Damian near Assisi, and sold his horse together with some cloth from his father's store, giving the proceeds to the priest for this purpose. Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to bring him to his senses, first with threats and then with corporal chastisement. After a final interview in the presence of the bishop, Francis renounced all expectations from his father, laying aside even the garments received from him, and for a while was a homeless wanderer in the hills around Assisi. Returning to the town, where he spent two years at this time, he restored several ruined churches, among them the little chapel of St. Mary of the
Francis, SaintTHE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 356
Angels, just outside the town, which became later his favorite abode.
At the end of this period (according to Jordanus, in 1209), a sermon which he heard on Matt. x. 9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty.
Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, 2. The Be‑ after the Evangelical precept, without ginning of
the Broth‑staff or scrip, he began to preach erhood. repentance. He was soon joined by a
prominent fellow townsman, Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, and by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a year. The brothers lived in the deserted lazarhouse of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time traveling through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations. Their life was extremely ascetic, though such practises were apparently not prescribed by the first rule which Francis gave them (probably as early as 1209), which seems to have been nothing more than a collection of Scriptural passages emphasizing the duty of poverty. In spite of the obvious similarity between this principle and the fundamental ideas of the followers of Peter Waldo, the brotherhood of Assisi succeeded in gaining the approval of Pope Innocent IIi. Many legends have clustered around the decisive audience of Francis with the pope. The realistic account in Matthew of Paris, according to which the pope originally sent the shabby saint off to keep swine, and only recognized his real worth by his ready obedience, has, in spite of its improbability, a certain historical interest, since it shows the natural antipathy of the older Benedictine monasticism to the plebeian mendicant orders.
It was not, however, a life of idle mendicancy on which the brothers entered when they set out in 1210 with the papal approbation, but one of diligent labor. Their work embraced devoted service in the abodes of sickness and poverty, earnest
preaching by both priests and lay 3. Work andbrothers, and missions in an ever Extension of widening circle, which finally included
erhood. heretics and Mohammedans. They
erhood. came together every year at Pentecost in the little church of the Portiuncula at Assisi, to report on their experiences and strengthen themselves for fresh efforts. There is considerable uncertainty as to the chronological and historical details of the last fifteen years of the founder's life. But to these years belong the accounts of the origin of the first houses in Perugia, Crotona, Pisa, Florence, and elsewhere (1211‑13); the first attempts at a Mohammedan mission, in the sending of five brothers, soon to be martyrs, to :Morocco, as well as in a journey undertaken by Francis himself to Spain, from which he was forced by illness to return without accomplishing his object; the first settlements in the Spanish peninsula and in France; and the attempts, unsuccessful at first, to gain a foothold in Germany. The alleged meeting of Francis and Dominic in Rome at the time of the
Fourth Lateran Council (1215) belongs to the domain of legend; even Sabatier's argument to show that such a meeting actually took place in 1218 is open to serious objection. Historical in the main are the accounts relating to the journey of Francis to Egypt and Palestine, where he attempted to convert the Sultan Kameel and gave fearless proofs of his readiness to suffer for his faith; the internal discord, which he found existing in the order on his return to Italy in 1220; the origin of his second and considerably enlarged rule, which was replaced two years later by the final form, drawn up by Cardinal Ugolino; and possibly the granting by Pope Honorius III. (in 1223) of the Indulgence of the Portiuncula‑a document which Sabatier, who formerly rejected it, has recently pronounced authentic on noteworthy grounds.
Francis had to suffer from the dissensions just alluded to and the transformation which they operated in the originally simple constitution of the brotherhood, making it a regular order under strict supervision from Rome. Especially after Cardinal
4. The Last Ugolino had been assigned as proteoYears of for of the order by Honorius III.‑it
Francis. is said at Francis' own request‑he
saw himself forced further and further
away from his original plan. Even the independ
ent direction of his brotherhood was, it seems,
finally withdrawn from him; at least after about
1223 it was practically in the hands of Brother
Elias of Crotona, an ambitious politician who sec
onded the attempts of the cardinal‑protector to
transform the character of the order. However,
in the external successes of the brothers, as they
were reported at the yearly general chapters, there
was much to encourage Francis. Ca;sarius of
Speyer, the first German provincial, a zealous ad
vocate of the founder's strict principle of poverty,
began in 1221 from Augsburg, with twenty‑five
companions, to win for the order the land watered
by the Rhine and the Danube; and a few years
later the Franciscan propaganda, starting from
Cambridge, embraced the principal towns of Eng
land. But none of these cheering reports could
wholly drive away from the mind of Francis the
gloom which covered his last years. He spent
much of his time in solitude, praying or singing
praise to God for his wonderful works. The can
ticle known as Laudes creaturarum, with its child
like invocations to Brother Sun, Sister Moon with
the stars, Brother Wind, Sister Water, Brother
Fire, and finally Sister Death, to raise their
voices to the glory of God, dates from this period
of his life. The hermit stage which opened the
career of many monastic founders was reserved
for the end of his who had once been so restless in
his activity. He spent the short remainder of his
life partly on Monte Alverno on the upper Arno,
where he fasted forty days and longed for union
with God, to be demonstrated by the impression
on his body of the wounds of Christ (see STIGMA
TrzATroNr); partly at Rieti under medical treat
ment; and partly in his beloved Portiuncula at
Assisi waiting for his deliverance from the flesh.
He died Oct. 3, 1226, at Assisi, and was canonized
two years later by Pope Gregory IX., the former cardinal‑protector of the order.
II. The Three Rules of the Order and the Testament of Saint Francis: The oldest rule, referred to above, no longer preserved in its original form, seems to have contained not much more than the three Scriptural commands in Matt. xix. 21; Luke
1. The First ix.3; and Matt. xvi. 24. The at‑
Rule. tempted reconstruction by Mfiller as
cribes to it too extensive a content,
though Sabatier goes too far in the other direction
the rule, surrounded by certain other more detailed
prescriptions. Sabatier's theory that these were
gradual accretions, depending especially on de
cisions of the yearly general chapter, needs further
evidence to confirm it; the oldest biographers say
nothing of any intermediate stage between the
primitive rule and that. of 1221. The former, based
upon the idea of poverty and self‑denying labor in
the cause of Christ, was intended fo: an associa
tion of a similar kind to the Pauperes Catholici or
" Poor Men of Lyons." It had little or nothing in
common with the older monastic rules, Benedictine
The rule of 1221 is more adapted to the needs of a monastic order intended to further the general ends of the Church and based upon the three usual vows, but laying special stress on that of poverty. It was drawn up by Francis himself, but under the influence of Cardinal Ugolino, as well as of the
2. The Rulelearned and practical Caesarius of
of 1221. Speyer and apparently of Brother
Leo, who from 1220 on was the con
stant companion of the founder. The matter of
the primitive rule was included in it, but scattered
among a large part of detailed directions, besides
many edifying thoughts and pious outpourings of
the heart, probably the work of Francis. But
there is much in the new rule which breathes a
different spirit. The humble founder, though re
fusing the title of general of the order, and appear
ing simply as " minister‑general," sometimes with
the addition " the servant of the whole brother
hood," appears now at the head of a regular mo
nastic hierarchy, consisting of provincial ministers
over the provinces, custodes over smaller districts,
and guardians over single houses. Definite rules
for the novitiate, the habit, hours of prayer, and the
discipline of the houses were modeled after the
older monastic tradition. In place of the informal
yearly gatherings of the brotherhood, there are
now regular chapters at fixed times. Of special
interest are the provisions for apostolic poverty
and the ascetic life in general, which show this rule
to be essentially a development of the older disci
pline, with the obligation of poverty made more
strict while that of other ascetic practises was miti
gated, partly for the reason that the new Fratres
minores were expected to be diligently occupied
in exhausting labors.
The third rule, confirmed by Honorius Ill. on Nov. 29, 1223, has still less of Francis' own work in it. The edifying tone, the citation of the Scriptural texts, have disappeared from it. Instead of
357 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Francis, saint
the strong emphasis upon Christ's admonitions to his disciples with which the rule of 1221 had begun, 3. The Third the ,enumeration of the three tradi‑
Rule. tional monastic vows is here substi
tuted. The character of the order as a
mendicant order, pledged to an ideal of the strict
est poverty, comes out here, it is true; but these
concessions to the spirit of the earlier rules are in
termingled with a number of other prescriptions
which clearly show the externally official character
of the new statutes, framed in the interest of the
papacy and in conformity with the other organs
of the hierarchy. A cardinal appointed. by the
pope as protector of the whole order was to super
vise its activity. The conditions for entrance axe
more definitely laid down; the Roman Breviary
is expressly named as the obligatory basis of the
daily devotions of priests belonging to it; and the
preaching brothers have a more dependent position
than before. In a word, the life here regulated is
no longer the old free, wandering life of the first
years, marked by apostolic poverty and loving,
simple‑hearted devotion to the Lord, but rather a
carefully arranged quasi‑monastic system, shorn
of much of its original freedom.
Francis, as may be seen from more than one passage in the accounts of his last years, was unhappy about these changes. As a demonstration against them, he left what is called his " Testa4. The Tes‑ ment," whose occasional reading to‑
tament. gether with the rule was enjoined on
the brethren. Its tone is rather plain
tive than angry; it looks back in a spirit of regret
to the primitive days of the first love. It urges
unswerving obedience to the pope and the heads
of the order, but at the same time emphasizes the
necessity of following its principles, especially the
imitation of the poverty of Christ. The brethren
are commanded to oppose the introduction of any
future secularizing influences, and at the same time
are forbidden to ask for any special privileges from
the pope. In spite of the direct command in the
"Testament" against considering it as a new
rule, the Observantist section of the Franciscans
practically regarded it as even more binding than
the formal rule, while the advocates of a less strict
observance paid little attention to it, especially to
its prohibition of asking for ecclesiastical privileges.
III. Development of the Order after the Death of Francis: The controversy about poverty which extends through the first three centuries of Franciscan history began in the lifetime of the founder. The ascetic brothers Alattliew of Narni and Gregory of Naples, to whom Francis had
1. Dissen‑ entrusted the direction of the order lions Dur‑ during his absence, carried through ing the Life at a chapter which they held certain of Francis. stricter regulations in regard to fasting and the reception of alms, which really departed from the spirit of the original rule. It did not take Francis long, on his return, to suppress this insubordinate tendency; but he was less successful in regard to another of an opposite nature which soon came up. Elias of Crotona originated a movement for the increase of the worldly consideration of the order and the adaptation of its
Francis, Saint THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 3688
system to the plans of the hierarchy which conflicted with the original notions of the founder and helped to bring about the successive changes in the rule already described. Francis was not alone in opposition to this lax and secularizing tendency. On the contrary, the party which clung to his original views and after his death took his " Testament " for their guide, known as Observantists or Zedanti, was at least equal in numbers and activity to the followers of Elias. The conflict between the two lasted many years, and the Zdanta won several notable victories, in spite of the favor shown to their opponents by the papal administration‑until finally the reconciliation of the two points of view was seen to be impossible, and the order was actually split into halves.
Bt. Anthony of Padua (q.v.) has usually been regarded as the first leader of the Observantists; but recent investigations have shown that he was inclined to the opposite side. When Elias sent a delegation to Rome in 1230 to obtain papal sanc2. Develop. tion for his views, Anthony was one
ment to of the envoys; and there is little doubt
1889. The that the bull Quo elongati of Gregory
Later IX., favoring this side, was due in
pa'tY. large measure to his influence. The
earliest leader of the strict party was rather Brother
Leo, the witness of the ecstasies of Francis on
Monte Alverno and the author of the SPwulum
perfechonis, a strong polemic against the laxer
party. Next to him came John Parens, the first
successor of Francis in the headship of the order.
In 1232, however, Elias succeeded him, and ad
ministered the affairs of the order in the interest of
his own, party for seven years. Much external
progress was made during these years; many new
houses were founded, especially in Italy, and in
them, without regard to the founder's depreciation
of secular learning, special attention was paid to
education. The somewhat earlier settlements of
Franciscan teachers at the universities (in Oxford,
for example, where Alexander of Hales was teach
ing) continued to develop. Contributions toward
the promotion of the order's work came in abun
dantly, and Elias authorized his subordinates to get
around the provision of the rule against the receiv
ing of money, usually by the appointment of agents
outside the order, who had the custody of the
funds. Elias pursued with great severity the prin
cipal leaders of the opposition, and even Bernardo
di Quintavalle, the founder's first disciple, was ob
liged to conceal himself for years in the forest of
Jesi (1244‑47), governed to a great extent in this
sense, and had the new pope Innocent IV. on their
side. In a bull of Nov. 14, 1245, he even sanc
tioned an extension of the system of financial
agents, and declared the funds in their custody the property of the Church, to be held at the disposal of the cardinal‑protector and not to be alienated without his permission. The Observantist party took a strong stand in opposition to this ruling, and carried on so successfully an agitation against the lax general that in 1247, at a chapter held in Lyons, where Innocent IV. was then residing, he was replaced by the strict Observantist John of Parma (1247‑57). Elias, who had been excommunicated and taken under the protection of Frederick II., was now forced to give up all hope of recovering his power in the order. He died in 1253, after succeeding by recantation in obtaining the removal of his censures. Under John of Parma, who enjoyed the favor of Innocent IV. and Alexander IV., the influence of the order was notably increased, especially by the provisions of the latter pope in regard to the academic activity of the brothers. He not only sanctioned the theological institutes in Franciscan houses, but did all he could to facilitate the entrance of their teachers to the universities, especially Paris, the headquarters of theological study. It was due to the action of his representatives, who were obliged to threaten the university authorities with excommunication, that the degree of doctor of theology was conceded to the Dominican Thomas Aquinas and the Franciscan Bonaventura (1257), who had previously been able to lecture only as licentiates. , In the same year Bonaventura succeeded John of Parma. In spite of his adherence to Observantist principles, Bonaventura took a decided stand against the teaching of Joachim of Fiore, which John of Parma had been inclined to favor. Not a few of the " Spiritual " party, as they were now coming to be called, were condemned to lifelong imprisonment; and for the purpose of discouraging their extreme tendency a new life of the founder was compiled by Bonaventura, at the request of the general chapter held at Narbonne in 1280, and authorized by that of Pisa. three years later as the only approved biography. Apart from the severe measures taken against Joachim's followers, Bonaventura seems to have ruled (1257‑74) in a moderate spirit, which is represented also by various works produced by the order in his time‑especiauy by the Expositio regulce written by David of Augsburg (q.v.) soon after 1280.
The successor of Bonaventura, Jerome of Ascofi (1274‑79), the future Pope Nicholas IV., and his successor, Bonagratia (1279,85), also followed a middle course. Severe measures were taken against certain extreme Spirituals who, on the 4. To 1800.strength of the rumor that Gregory
Continued X. was intending at the Council of
Dissensions. Lyons (1274‑75) to force the mendi
cant orders to tolerate the possession
of property, threatened both pope and council
with the renunciation of allegiance. Attempts
were made, however, to satisfy the reasonable de
mands of the Spiritual party, as in the bull Exiit
qui semixiat of Nicholas III. (1279), which pro
nounoed the principle of complete poverty meri
torious and holy, but interpreted it in the way of
a somewhat sophistical distinction between pos‑
359 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Francis, saint
session and usufruct. The bull was received respectfully by Bonagratia and the next two generals, Arlotto of Prato (1285‑87) and Matthew of Aqua Sparta (1287‑89); but the Spiritual party under the leadership of the fanatical apocalyptic Pierre Jean Olivi (q.v.) regarded its provisions for the dependence of the friars upon the pope and the division between brothers occupied in manual labor and those employed on spiritual missions as a corruption of the fundamental principles of the order. They were not won over by the conciliatory attitude of the next general, Raymond Gaufredi (1289‑96), and of the Franciscan pope Nicholas IV (1288‑92). The attempt made by the next pope, Celestine V., an old friend of the order, to end the strife by uniting the Observantist party with his own order of hermits (see CELEsTINEs) was scarcely more successful. Only a part of the Spirituals joined the new order, and the secession scarcely lasted beyond the reign of the hermit‑pope. Boniface VIII. annulled Celestine's bull of foundation with his other acts, deposed the general Raymond Gaufredi, and appointed a man of laxer tendency, John de Murro, in his place. The Benedictine section of the Celestines was separated from the Franciscan section, and the latter was formally suppressed by Boniface in 1302. The leader of the Observantists, Olivi, who spent his last years in the Franciscan house at Narbonne and died there in 1298, had pronounced against the extremer " Spiritual " attitude, and given an exposition of the theory of poverty which was approved by the more moderate Observantists, and for a long time constituted their principle.
Under Clement V. (1305‑14) this party succeeded
in exercising some influence on papal decisions.
In 1309 Clement had a commission sit at Avignon
for the purpose of reconciling the conflicting parties.
Ubertino of Casale (q.v.), the leader,
6. Tempo‑ after Olivi's death, of the stricter rary Success pay who was a member of the com‑
ofthe mission, induced the Council of Vienne
Stricter. to arrive at a decision in the main Party. Per‑
exigit he modified several provisions of the constitu
tion Exivi, and required the formal submission of
the Spirituals. Some of them, encouraged by the
strongly Observantist general Michael of Cessna,
ventured to dispute the pope's right so to deal
with the provisions of his predecessor. Sixty‑four
of them were summoned to Avignon, and the most
obstinate delivered over to the Inquisition, four of
them being burned (1318). Shortly before this all
the separate houses of the Observantists had been
A few years later a new controversy, this time theoretical, broke out on the question of poverty. The Spirituals contended eagerly for the view that Christ and his apostles had possessed absolutely nothing, either separately or jointly. This proposition had been declared heretical in a trial before an inquisitor. A protest was now made against this
decision by the chapter held at Perugia in 1322, as well as by such influential members of the order as William Occam (q.v.), the English e. Renewed provincial, and Bonagratia of BergaControveray mo. John XXII. ranged himself deonthe cidedly with the Dominicans> who Bueation of
poverty. combated the theory, and by the
bull Cum inter nonnullos of 1322
declared it erroneous and heretical. Appealing
from this decision, Bonagratia, Occam, and Michael
of Cesena were imprisoned at Avignon for four
years, until they escaped by the help of the Em
peror Louis the Bavarian. Supported by him,
they carried on a literary war against the papal
and Dominican denial of the absolute poverty of
Christ and his apostles. The pope deposed Cessna
and Occam from their offices in the order, and ex
communicated them with the Franciscan antipope
Peter of Corvara (Nicholas V.) and all their adher
ents. Only a small part of the order, however,
joined them, and at a general chapter held in Paris
(1329) the majority of all the houses declared their
submission to the pope. The same step was taken
in the following year by the antipope, later by the
ex‑general Cesena, and finally, just before his death,
Out of all these dissensions in the fourteenth century sprang a number of separate congregations, almost of sects. To say nothing of the heretical parties of the Beghards and Fraticelh (qq.v.), some which developed within the order on both 7. Separate hermit and cenobitic principles may Congrega‑ here be mentioned: (1) The Clareni tione. or Clarenini, an association of hermits established on the river Clareno in the march of Ancona by Angelo di Clareno after the suppression of the Franciscan Celestines by Boniface VIII. It maintained the principles of Olivi, and, outside of Umbria, spread also in the kingdom of Naples, where Angelo died in 1337. Like several other smaller congregations, it was obliged in 1568 under Pius V. to unite with the general body of Observantists. (2) The Minorites of Narbonne. As a separate congregation, this originated through the union of a number of houses which followed Olivi after 1308. It was limited to southwestern France and, its members being accused of the heresy of the Beghards, was suppressed by the Inquisition during the controversies under John XXII. (3) The Reform of Johannes de Vallibus, founded in the hermitage of St. Bartholomew at Brugliano near Foligno in 1334. The congregation was suppressed by the Franciscan general chapter in 1354; reestablished in 1368 by Paolo de' Trinci of Foligno; confirmed by Gregory X1. in 1373, and spread rapidly from Central Italy to France, Spain, Hungary and elsewhere. Most of the Observantist houses joined this congregation by degrees, so that it became known simply as the " brothers of the regular Observance." It acquired the favor of the popes by its energetic opposition to the heretical Fraticelli, and was expressly recognized by the Council of Constance (1415). It was allowed to have a special vicar‑general of its own and legislate for its members without reference to the conventual