FOSTER, ROBERT VERRELL: Presbyterian (formerly Cumberland Presbyterian); b. near Lebanon, Tenn., Aug. 12, 1845. He was graduated at Cumberland University, Lebanon, Tenn., in 1870 and Union Theological Seminary in 1877. He was professor of mathematics in Cooper Institute (near Meridian, Miss.) 1871‑75, and in Waynesburg College, Waynesburg, Pa., 1877, professor of English, ethics, psychology, and logic in Cumberland University 1877‑81 and also of Hebrew and New Testament Greek 1877‑93. Since 1893 he has been professor of systematic theology in the Cumberland Presbyterian Theological Seminary in the same institution. In theology he is a Calvinist, although he believes that in the vicarious atonement of Christ propitiation is made for the sins of the whole world, and that for this reason the Gospel is freely and sincerely offered to all men for their acceptanee or rejection. He prepared com‑
mentaries on the International Sunday‑school Lessons from 1881 to 1895, edited The Theological Quarterly Review 1891‑92 and has written Introduction to the Study of Theology (Chicago, 1889);
Old Testament Studies: Being an Outline of Old
oz THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 348
Testament Theology (1890); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (Nashville, Tenn., 1891); Brief History of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (New York, 1894); Our Doctrines (Nashville, Tenn., 1897); and Systematic Theology (1898).
FOWLER, CHARLES HENRY: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Burford, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 11, 1837; d. in New York Mar. 20, 1908. He was graduated at Genesee College (now Syracuse University) in 1859, and at Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston,Ill., in 1861. He studied law, but never practised. He held various pastorates (in Chicago 1861‑72), and from 1872 to 1876 was president of Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. He was editor of the New York Christian Advocate 1876‑80 and corresponding secretary, of the missionary society of his denomination 1880‑84. In 1884 ne was elected bishop and for eight years resided on the Pacific Coast, later living in Minneapolis, Minn., Buffalo, N. Y., and New York City. He was a delegate to the General Convention in 1872, 1876, 1880, and 1884, and a fraternal delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 1874, as well as the Wesleyan Conference at London in 1898. He made extensive official tours; visiting South America in 1885, and Japan, China, and Korea in 1888, also a tour of the world, visiting the Methodist Episcopal missions in Malaysia and India. He was extremely active in the cause of education, being the founder of the Maclay College of Theology in southern California; the Wesleyan University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Neb., Peking University at Peking, China, and Nanking University in central China. He also founded missions of his denomination in South America and established the first Methodist Episcopal church in St. Petersburg, Russia. He wrote The Fallacies of Colenso Retrieaaed (Cincinnati, O., 1861); Wines of the Bible (New York, 1878); and Missions and World Movements (1903).
FOWLER, EDWARD: An English clergyman
connected with the liberal school in the Church of
England and with the " Cambridge Platonists "
(q.v.); b. at Westerleigh (8 m. e.n.e. of Bristol),
Gloucestershire, 1632; d. at Chelsea Aug. 26, 1714.
He studied at Corpus Christi College, Oxford (B.A.'
1653), and then migrated to Trinity, Cambridge
(M.A., 1655). He was for a while Presbyterian
chaplain to the Dowager Countess of Kent, and
rector of $orhill, Bedfordshire, from 1656. On
the passing of the Act of Uniformity, he hesitated
ter in 1676, and became bishop of that see in 1691.
He is related with the Cambridge school by his
correspondence with More, especially on ghost
stories, from 1678 to 1681, and by his defense of
their doctrines, published anonymously as a " Free
Discourse " on the Principles and Practice o f cer
tain Moderate Divines . . . called Latitudinarians
(London, 1670). Its better‑known sequel, The
Design o f Christianity (1671), vigorously attacked
by Bunyan, and the Libertm Evangelica (1680),
may also be mentioned. Influenced as he was by
the Platonic school, he yet does not strictly belong to their ranks. His type of latitude was that characteristic of the Revolution period, when the movement had largely ceased to occupy itself with higher philosophy and had become practical, political, and ambitious.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. & Wood, Athenm Osonienne, ii. 780, 790, 888, London, 1692; E. Calemy, Historiml Account of my Own life, pp. 90, 95, 330, 494, ib. 1713; Biopraphia Britanniaz, iii. 2012, ib. 1784; J. Tulloch, Rational Thwlopy . in 17th Century, ii. 35, 437 eqq., Edinburgh, 1882;
DNB, zz. 84‑86 (contains list of his work. and full refer. ones to souroes).
FOWLER, JOSEPH THOMAS: Church of England; b. at Winterton (12 m. s.w. of Hull), Lincolnshire, June 9, 1833. He was educated at St. Thomas' Hospital Medical School, London (M.R.C.S., L.S.A., 1856), and Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham (B.A., 1861), and was house surgeon at St. Thomas' Hospital 1856‑57 and at the Bradford Infirmary 1857‑58. After the completion of his theological studies he was curate of Houghtonle‑Spring, Durham, 1861‑63, chaplain and precentor at St. John's College, Hurstpierpoint, 18641869, and curate of North Kelsey, I.incolnehire,1870. Since 1870 he has been vice‑principal of Bishop Hatfield's Hall, Durham, and university lecturer in Hebrew since 1871, as well as university librarian from 1873 to 1901. He was public examiner in theology 1874‑75, senior proctor 1876‑77 and 1899‑1901, and junior proctor 1882‑87. He was keeper of Bishop Cosin's library in 1889 and has been honorary canon of Durham since 1897. He has been for many years local secretary for Durham of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of London, and vice‑president of the Surtees Society since 1873. In theology he is an orthodox Churchman, inclining neither to Protestantism nor Roman Catholicism. He has edited for the Surtees Society Acts of the Chapter of Ripon (Newcastle, 1875); The Newminster Cartulary (1878); Memorials of Ripon (3 vols., 1882‑88); Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert (1891); Durham Account Rolls (3 vols., 1898‑1901); and Rites of Durham (1903); for the Yorkshire Archaeological Society Cistercian Statutes (London, 1890); for the Yorkshire Record Society Coucher Book of Selby (2 vols., Worksop, 1891‑93); and also Adamnani Vita Sancti Columbce (Oxford, 1894). He has written Life and Letters of John Bacchus Dykes (London, 1897); Durham Cathedral (1898), and Durham University (1904).
FO%, GEORGE: Founder of the Society of
Friends; b. at Dmyton‑in‑the‑Clay (Fenny Dray
ton, 15 m. s.w. of Leicester), Leicestershire, July,
1624; d. in London Jan. 13, 1691. His father,
Christopher Fox, was a weaver, called " righteous
Christer " by his neighbors; his mother, Mary
Lago, was, he tells us, " of the stock of the Mar
Lord taught me to be faithful, in all things, and to
act faithfully two ways; viz., inwardly to God, and
849 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Bowler
outwardly to man." As he grew up, his relations " thought to have made him a priest "; but he was put as an apprentice to a man who was a shoemaker and grazier. In his nineteenth year the conduct of two companions, who were professors of religion, grieved him because they joined in, drinking healths, and he heard an inward voice from the Lord, " Thou seest how young people go together into vanity, and old people into the earth; and thou'must forsake all, both young and old, and keep out of all, and be as a stranger unto all." Then began a life of solitary wandering in mental temptations and troubles, in which he " went to many a priest to look for comfort, but found no comfort from them." At one time, as he was walking in a field, " the Lord opened unto " him " that being bred at Oxford or Cambridge was not enough to fit and qualify men to be ministers of Christ," but that a spiritual qualification was necessary. Not seeing this requisite in the priest of his parish, he " would get into the orchards and fields " by himself with his Bible. Regarding the priests less, he looked more after the dissenters, among whom he found "some tenderness," but no one that could speak to his need. " And when all my hopes in them," he says, " and in all men, were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could tell what to do, then, ohl then, I heard a voice which said, `There is one, even Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition."'
In 1648 he began to exercise his ministry publicly in market‑places, in the fields, in appointed meetings of various kinds, sometimes in the " steeple‑houses," after the priests had got through.
His preaching was powerful; and His many joined him in professing the
Ministry‑ same faith in the spirituality of true
The So‑ religion. in a few years the Society
ciety of of Friends had formed itself sponta.
Friends. neously under the prebching of Fox and
his companions (see FHIzNDS, Boclwx or, I., § 1). Fox afterward showed great powers as a religious legislator, in the admirable organization which he gave to the new society. He seems, however, to have had no desire to found a sect, but only to proclaim the pure and genuine principles of Christianity in their original simplicity. He was often arrested and imprisoned for violating the laws forbidding unauthorized worship, for refusal to take an oath, and for wearing his hat in court. He was imprisoned at Derby in 1650, Carlisle in 1653, London in 1654, Launceston in 1656, Lancaster in 1660 and 1663, Scarborough in 1666, and Worcester in 1674, in noisome dungeons, and with much attendant cruelty. In prison his pen was active, and hardly less potent than his voice.
In 1669 Fox married Margaret Fell of Swarthmoor Hall, a lady of high social position, and one of his early converts. In 1671 he went to * Bar bados and the English settlements in America, where he remained two years. In 1677 and 1684 he visited the Friends in Holland, and organized their meetings for discipline.
Fox is described by Thomas Ellwood, the friend of Milton, as " graceful in countenance, manly in
personage, grave in gesture, courteous in conversation." Penn says he was "civil beyond all forms of breeding." We are told that he was "plain and powerful in preaching, fervent in prayer," " a discerner of other men's spirits, and very much master of his own," skilful to " speak a word in due season to the conditions and capacities of most, especially to them that were weary, and wanted soul's rest; " " valiant in asserting the truth, bold in defending it, patient in suffering for it, immovable as a rock." ISAAC Saearrsss.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The original MS. of Fox's Journal is in Devonshire House, Biebopegate W., London; it was published 2 vole., London, 1694‑98, and contains the RpisUea, Letters and Testimonials, bicentenary edition, 1891; selections from it, edited by R. M. Jones with title &eorpa Fox, as AuWlriopraphb, were published, Philadelphia, 1903. Lives have been written by S. M. Janney, Philadelphia, 1862; J. S. Watson, London, 1860; T. Hodgkin, ib. 1898. Consult also: Maria Webb, The Palls of Swatthmoor Hall and their Friends, London, 1865; W. Tallaek, George Fox, the Friends, and Early Baptists, London, 1868; B. Rhodes, Tree Apostles of Quakerism, ib. 1884; Jane Budge, Glimpses of Fox and his Priendl<, ib. 1893; E. E. Taylor, Cameos from the Life WGeorpe Fox, ib., 1998; DNB, xx. ~117‑122, and, in general, the literature under FRIENDS, SOCIrrr OF.
FOX (FOXE), JOHN: Author of the Book of Martyrs; b. in Boston (100 m. n. of London), Lincolnshire, 1516; d. in London Apr. 15, 1587. He studied at Oxford, and became fellow of Magdalen College, where he appl'ed himself to church history. Dean Nowell, Hugh Latimer, and William Tyndale were among his intimate friends and correspondents. For his Protestant sentiments he seems to have been expelled from his college: He became tutor in Sir Thomas Lucy's family, and then to the children of the Earl of Surrey for five years. During this period he issued several tracts and a Sermon of John Oecolampadiua to Yong Men aced 'Sermon (London, 1550?). .After the accession of Mary he was obliged to seek refuge from persecution on the Continent. He met Edmund Grindal at Strasburg and saw through the press in that city a volume of 212 pages on the persecution of Reformers from Wyclif to 1500, entitled Commentarii rerum in ecelesia gestarum masitmarumque per totem Buropam persecutwnum a Vuwleut temporibus ad hanc =qua otatem descriptio (1554). He went to Frankfort and sought to be a mediator in the differences between Dr. Cox and John Knox and removed from there, on Knox's departure, to Basel. Poverty forced him to apply himself to the printer's trade. Encouraged by Grindal (Remains, ed. W. Nicholson for the Parker Society, Cambridge, 1843, pp. 223 aqq.) he labored diligently on his great work on the martyrs, which appeared in Latin at Basel, 1559, and was dedicated to his former pupil, now the duke of Norfolk. Returning to England he spent much time under the roof of the duke, and attended hint to the scaffold, when at the age of thirty‑six be was executed for conspiring with Mary Queen of Scots. He received a prebend in Salisbury Cathedral but remained poor all his life although an annuity from the duke of Norfolk of £20 kept him from want. Called by Archbishop Parker to subscribe ‑to the canons, he refused, and, holding up a Greek Tests‑
France THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 360
ment, said, " To this will I subscribe." He was fearless in the avowal of his convictions, and petitioned the queen earnestly but unsuccessfully to spare the lives of two Dutch Anabaptists.
Fox's title to fame rests upon the Book of Martyrs, in the compilation of which he had the assistance of Crammer and others. The first complete English edition appeared in London, 1563 (2d ed., 1570; 3d, 1576; 4th, 1583; etc.), with the title Aetes and monuments of these latter and perillous dayes, touching matters of the Church . . . from the yeare of our Lorde a thousande, to the tyme now present, etc. Of the numerous later editions mention may be made of those of S. R. Cattley, with dissertation by J. Townsend (8 vols., London, 1837‑49) and J. Pratt, with introduction by J. Stoughton (8 vols., London, 1877). The work has been often abridged as by M. H. Seymour (London, 1838). For list of other writings by Fox, cf. the Lives of the British Reformers (London, 1873). By order of Elizabeth a copy of the Book of Martyrs was placed in the common halls of archbishops, bishops, deans, etc., and in all the colleges and chapels throughout the kingdom. It exercised a great influence upon the masses of the people long after its author was dead. Nicholas Fermr (q.v.) had a chapter of it read every Sunday evening in his community of Little Gidding along with the Bible. The Roman Catholics early attacked it, and pointed out its blunders. Fox was not in all cases accurate or dispassionate, but he was a man of wonderful industry. His book was a book for the times and produced a salutary impression.
D. S. SCHAFF.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The earliest and popular life, the authorship of which is not known, is unreliable and not selfconsistent; it was prefixed to vol. ii. of the Actes and Monuments, edition of 16441; biographical notes of value were prefixed by Richard Day in his edition of Christus Triumphana, 1579; G. Townsend, Life and Defence of J. Foxe, London, 1841 (prefixed to the 1841 edition of the Actes and Monuments. careless and incorrect, bettered in the 3d ed. by J. Pratt, 1870). An elaborate memoir, with indefinite reference to sources, is in DNB, xx. 141150.
FOX, JOHN: Presbyterian; b. at Doylestown, Pa., Feb. 13, 1853. He was graduated at Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., in 1872 and Princeton Theological Seminary in 1876. He held pastorates at Hampden Presbyterian Church, Baltimore, Md., 1877‑82, North Presbyterian Church, Allegheny, Pa., 1882‑93, and Second Presbyterian Church, Brooklyn, 1893‑98. Since 1898 he has been corresponding secretary of the American Bible Society. He is also a member of the board of directors and board of trustees of Princeton Theological Seminary and of the board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church. In theology lie is a conservative Calvinist, and emphasizes his belief in the plenary and verbal inspiration of the Scriptures.
FOX, NORMAN: Baptist; b. at Glens Falls, New York, Feb. 13, 1836; d. in New York City June 23, 1907. He was graduated at the University of Rochester in 1855 and Rochester Theolob ical Seminary in 1857. He was pastor of the Baptist church at. Whitehall, N. Y., 1859'12, and chaplain of the Seventy‑Seventh New York Volun‑
teers, Army of the Potomac, 1862‑64. In 1868‑69 he edited the Central Baptist (St. Louis, Mo.), and from 1869 to 1874 was professor in the school of theology in William Jewell College, Liberty, Mo. After 1874 he was engaged in literary and religious work, being temporary editor of The National Baptist in 1881, assistant editor of The Independent in 1884‑85, and editor of the Colloquium (New York) in 1889‑90. He wrote A Layman's Ministry (New York, 1883); Preacher and Teacher: A Life of Thomas Rambaut, LL.D. (1892); and Christ in the Daily Meal (1898).
FOX (FOXE), RICHARD: English statesman, bishop of Winchester; b. at Ropesley, near Grantham (23 m. s.s.w. of Lincoln), Lincolnshire, c. 1448; d. at Winchester Oct. 5, 1528. He was educated at Winchester, at Magdalen College, Oxford, and at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, and afterward studied theology and canon law in Paris, where he became a favorite of Henry, Earl of Richmond, then in exile. Henry entrusted him with the conduct of negotiations with the French court in the interest of an invasion of England, and, on his accession to the throne as Henry VII., conferred on him the offices of principal secretary of state and lord privy seal, and in 1487 appointed him bishop of Exeter. In 1492 Fox was translated to the see of Bath and Wells, in 1494 to that of Durham, and in 1501 to Winchester. Throughout the reign of Henry VII. his influence was supreme in affairs of State. He negotiated several important treatises with Austria, France, and Scotland, and arranged for the marriage of Princess Margaret with James IV. of Scotland. He was also chancellor of the University of Cambridge (1500), master of Pembroke Hall (1507‑19), and one of the executors of Henry VII. Under Henry VIII. he was gradually succeeded, both in royal favor and political influence, by his former prot6g4, Thomas Wolsey. In 1516 he resigned the custody of the privy seal and retired to his diocese. Besides making liberal donations to numerous churches, hospitals and colleges, including Magdalen College, Oxford, and Pembroke College, Cambridge, he established and endowed schools at Taunton and Grantham, and founded (1516) Corpus Christi College, Oxford, which was the pioneer college of the Renaissance in the English universities. He established in the new institution a lectureship in Greek, which until then had not been officially recognized at either Oxford or Cambridge, brought over the Italian humanist, Ludovicus Vives, as reader of Latin, and required the reader of theology, in his interpretations of Scripture, to give the preference to the Greek and Latin Fathers rather than to scholastic commentators. Fox contributed to a little book entitled, A Contemplation of Sinners (London, 1499), edited the Processional (Rouen, 1508), and translated the rule of St. Benedict (London, 1517).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Register of Richard Fox, ed. by E. C. Batten, . with a Life of Bishop Fox, London, 1889 (only 100 copies printed); DNB, xx. 150‑156 (where other sources are indicated).
FOX, WILLIAM JOHNSON: English Unitarian; b. at Uggeshall Farm, Wrentham (20 m. s.e. of
351 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA FOX
Norwich), Mar. 1, 1786; d. in London June 3,
1864. He attended the Independent College at
Homerton (a northeast suburb of London) under
John Pye Smith, 1806‑09, but was chiefly self
educated; was pastor at Fareham, Hampshire
(1809), at Chichester (1812), and in London (1817
1852), where a chapel was built especially for him
effort to social and political questions than to the
ology, and made preaching subordinate to jour
nalism and agitation. He was one of the chief
orators of the Anticorn Law League, and was Mem
ber of Parliament, 1847‑52, 1852‑57, 1857‑63. He
was one of the editors of The Monthly Repository,
the leading Unitarian periodical, and from 1831 to
1836 as sole editor and proprietor made it the
medium of expression for his social and political
views, combined with literary criticism. His
Works were collected in a Memorial Edition, ed.
W. B. Hodgson and H. J. Slack (12 vols., London,
BIHLIO0HAPHY: A memoir is prefixed to vol. xii. of his
Works (ut sup.). Consult DNB, xx. 137‑139.
I. The Roman Catholic Church. Concordats, Organic Articles (§ 1). Organization (§ 2). The Clergy (§ 3). Religious Orders (§ 4). Separation of Church and state (§ 5). Effect of Separation on Clergy (§ 6). II. Protestant Churches.
1. The Reformed Church.
2. The Lutheran Church.
3. Evangelical Work in France.
France is a republic in the west of Europe with an area of 207,054 square miles and a population (legal, 1906) of 39,252,245. There has been no religious census since 1872. The Roman Catholics have been estimated to number from 36,000,000 to 37,500,000; the Protestants 600,000 to 2,000,000; the Jews about 86,000; and there are about 150,000 of other religions.
I. The Roman Catholic Church: From about 1813, the year of the Fontainebleau Concordat with Napoleon I., till about 1880, the
r. Concor‑ Church had a tranquil development, dats, Organ‑ which was only very transiently dis‑
ic Articles. turbed (see CONCORDATS AND DE
LIMITING BULLS, VI., 1). The Con
cordat of 1813, to be sure, was modeled after that
of 1801; but it alleviated in a great measure the
executive rulings added to the former by Napoleon;
because the pope abandoned the temporal power
of the Church. The Concordat of 1801 (see CON
CORDATS, ut sup.) was published at the same time
as the Articles organiques, which were arbitrarily
formulated by Napoleon. The seventy‑seven Or
ganic Articles practically enforced a progressive
application of the Gallicanism of 1682 (see GALLI
CANISM), which the professors were expressly bound,
under art. 24, to teach in their seminaries. The
State's placet, in relation to all documents of the
curia designed to be operative in France, was dis
tinctly set forth in art. 1; the State's authorization
with reference to every representative of the pope in the land was emphasized in art. 2; art. 20 forbade a bishop to leave his diocese without the State's permission; art. 58 ordered that there should be an organization of ten archbishoprics and fifty bishoprics, and arts. 65‑66 provided for their modest allowance of 15,000 and 10,000 franca, which remained the same amount until 1906. The parochial clergy's allowances as well were regulated in art. 66. Through the Organic Articles the magisterial power of the State as affecting the Church came to be operative to the widest extent; though upon the restoration of the monarchy the State allowed most of the enactments which were burdensome to the Church to lapse into oblivion. Hence the complete independence of the bishops from one another, each dealing directly with the pope. After 1822, however, the suffragan relationship was gradually restored. Likewise, written correspondence between the curia and the bishops was carried on independently of the State. The nomination of bishops usually took place in accordance with the recommendations of the cathedral chapters and the archbishops, just as chaplains were appointed for public institutions and in the army on the recommendations of the bishops. The Gallicanism formulated in 1682, however, succumbed more and more, in the clerical seminaries and among the clergy, to the persistent antagonism of literature and of the bishops.
Since the Concordat of 1801 the bishops have greatly increased in number. The present organization of the Church is as follows: archbishopric
of Aix (founded before 409; vacant z. Organi‑ 614‑794), with the suffragan bishopzation. rics of Ajaccio (c. 313), Digne (c. 364),
Frt;jus (c. 374), Gap (before 430), Marseilles (before 314), and Nice (before 253); archbishopric of Albi (before 406; raised to archbishopric 1678), with the suffragan bishoprics of Cahors (c. 250), Mende (before 314), Perpignan (see at Elne, 571‑1602), and Rodez (before 506); archbishopric of Auch (before 396; raised to archbishopric 879), with the suffragan bishoprics of Aire (c. 506), Bayonne (c. 980), and Tarbes (c. 394); archbishopric of Avignon (before 353; raised to archbishopric 1475), with the suffragan bishoprics of Montpellier (see at Maguelone c. 585‑1527), Nimes (c. 394), Valence (c. 344), and Viviers (before 432); archbishopric of Besanpon (c. 180), with the suffragan bishoprics of Belley (c. 412), Nancy (1777), St. Dit; (1777), Toul (c. 338; united to Nancy 1801), and Verdun (c. 346); archbishopric of Bordeaux (c. 314), with the suffragan bishoprics of Agen (before 358), Angouleme (before 406), La Rochelle (see at Maillerais 1317‑1648), Luton (1317), Pt;rigueux (before 356), and Poitiers (before 350), also in the French colonies the three bishoprics of R6union (St.. Denis; 1850), Guadeloupe (Basse‑Terre; 1850), and Martinique (St. Pierre; 1851); archbishopric of Bourges (before 280), with the suffragan bishoprics of Clermont (c. 250), Le Puy (before 451), Limoges (before 73), St. Flour (1318), and Tulle (1317); archbishopric of Cambrai (580; raised to archbishopric 1559; bishopric 1801‑41), with the suffragan bishopric
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
of Arras (c. 500; vacant 545‑1093); archbishopric of Chamb6ry (1775; raised to archbishopric 1817), with the suffragan bishoprics of Annecy (1822), St. Jean‑de‑Maurienne (c. 577), and Tarentaise (see at Moutiers; c. 420); archbishopric of Lyons (c. 150), with the suffragan bishoprics of Autun (c. 270), Dijon (1731), Grenoble (381), Langres, (before 220), and St. Claude (1742); archbishopric of Paris (c. 100; raised to archbishopric 1622), with the suffragan bishoprics of Blois (1697), Chartres (before 390), Meaux (before 549), Orl6ans (before 344), and Versailles (1802); archbishopric of Reims (c. 290), with the suffragan bishoprics of Amiens (c. 303), Beauvais (c. 250), Chfilons (c. 290), and Soissons (c. 290); archbishopric of Rennes (358; raised to archbishopric 1859), with the suffragan bishoprics of Quimper (c. 444), St. Brieuc (8G0), and Vannes (c. 448); archbishopric of Rouen (c. 250), with the suffragan bishoprics of Bayeux (c. 390), Coutances (c. 429), Evreux (c. 412), and Suez (2d century); archbishopric of Sens (c. 275), with the suffragan bishoprics of Moulins (1817), Nevers (c. 505), and Troyes (before 344); archbishopric of Toulouse (c. 257; raised to archbishopric 1317), with the suffragan bishoprics of Carcassonne (before 589), Montauban. (1317), and Pamiers (1295); and archbishopric of Tours (c. 250), with the suffragan bishoprics of Angers (before 372), Laval (1855), Le Mang (before 451), and Nantes (before 374). [The above dates have been supplied by the editors from P. B. Gams, Series episcoporum ecclesite catholica (Regensburg, 1872), and in many cases they are too early, especially those for Limoges and Paris both of which were probably founded about 250. Fifty‑seven sees, not included in the list given above were suppressed by Napoleon in 1801; and a few others have gone out of existence at various times.]
The qlergy subordinated to the bishops, apart from the cathedral chapters, were variously graded
with respect to their official powers 3. The and the State allowances. The numClergy. ber of vicars‑general in 1904 was 185;
and these were paid by the State 2,500 francs a year (18 were paid 3,500 francs); the canons received, until 1885, a State stipend of 1,000 francs each. Among the parochial clergy, the majority of those officiating in dependent churches were distinguished, by the State's request, from the parish priests, or curs, as desseruants (see CnApi.anv) and vicaires (curates). In 1904 there were 31,000 of these clerical assistants, of whom 18,420 were paid 900 franca, while those over sixty years of age received 1,000 to 1,300 francs. Those incumbents who by the Concordat's terms were designated as priests of the first class (1,121) received an allowance from the State of 1,500 and 1,600 francs; and priests of the second class (2,530) 1,200 francs. The pr&res habituels (about. 4,000), employed more and more frequently in the cities, received smaller amounts. These regulations and the State allowances continued.in force until 1906.
The repeal of the Concordat on the side of the State, and the separation law of December 11, 1905, radically altered the situation of the Church. Besides the public instruction law of 1886 had already
begun to drive the clergy out of the schools, and
the so‑called association law of July 1, 1901, had
nearly done away with the congrega
4. Religious tions and religious orders. The law of
Orders 1886 decreed that all public instruction
should be given only by teachers out
side of the clergy; so that no priest can set foot in
the schools to give religious instruction, which here
after can be given only in premises belonging to the
Church, and only privately to voluntary pupils.
Despite all this, the continued maintenance of
schools under church administration, with clergy or
sisters as teachers, was still possible, since free in
struction under State supervision was not forbidden.
Accordingly, on January 1, 1899, the ratio of such
schools to State schools was as three to four. The
statistical compilation of these facts was promoted
by the law of 1901, which was aimed particularly
against the existence and the educational activity
of religious orders. Even as far back as 1880 the
Jesuits had been banished from France, though the
measure was not completely carried out; bat in
1901 all orders not approved by the State were for
bidden to teach in the schools. There were sanc
tioned only five male orders: the Congregations for
Foreign Missions, the Lazarista, the Fathers of the
Holy Ghost, the Sulpicians, and the Brothers of the
Christian Schools. The latter alone were a brother
hood for teaching and, like the rest, had in law the
rights of a person. These rights were not accorded
to the female congregations; but their localestab
liahmenta had received specific authorization.
Hence there were 905 congregations of women
which were approved by the State. 1n 1890 the
membership of female congregations amounted to
about 130,000. While there were only some twenty
actual congregations of women, with numerous es
tablishments scattered through the country, the
number of unauthorized associations far exceeded
the 905 approved ones. The external motive for the
Articles to episcopal attendance before the pope in
Rome. Only rarely in the days of the monarchical
governments had any difference of opinion occurred
in relation to a bishop, and in 1884 the pope effect
ually refused recognition of a bishop nominated
by the government. Not until 1903 was it defi
nitely demanded by the State that the nomination
be recognized as an episcopal appointment.. The
law of separation first of all repeals all State and
municipal appropriations for public worship. Es
tablishments of worship are declared to be abro
gated and are to be reconstructed as religious asso
ciations (.Law of July I, 1901), to which the property
of the abrogated ecclesiastical establishments be
comes transferred. . For the organization of such as
sociations there is needed a quorum of but seven per
sons in communities of less than 1,000 inhabitants;
fifteen in communities of 1,000 to 20,000, etc.; and
ordy twenty‑five in communities with mere than 200,
000 inhabitants. The churches and chapels, epis‑
363 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Frsaoe
copal palaces. and parsonages are declared the property of the State and the communes, and are loaned to the religious associations for a term of two to five years. These associations have to furnish, on occasion of general annual conventions of their members, exact financial reports with respect to their economic activity. Should no religious association be organized in places where church property existed, the latter is transferred to the communal institutions for charitable purposes. The use of churches for divine service is permitted only by virtue of annual notifications to the civil authorities pending the term of their use. Religious insignia or symbols on buildings or on any public site are forbidden. Incumbents who had served upward of twenty years are allowed a pension; the others, proportional allowances of their former stipend, for a term of four years.
The entire law ignores the Church as such, and treats religion as a concern for voluntary associations on the part of the citizens. On the 6. Effect of other hand, the Church has complete Separation freedom on the side of its organization, on Clergy. its hierarchy, discipline, and liturgical arrangements (except as regards the announcement of the appointed times of divine service).
The pope, in a proclamation to the French epis
copate, declared it to be incompatible with the
canonical regulations of the Church to comply with
the law of separation; so that some other plan must
be devised for the execution of the law, if it is to be
carried out without too prolonged disturbances of
domestic and ecclesiastical peace. The question of
financial provision will the more pressingly assert
itself with reference to the parochial clergy; seeing
that the. cathedral chapters and the scholastic es
tablishments for the clergy had to be supported
from the episcopal revenues for the last twenty years.
In 1885 the theological faculties attached to the
universities were likewise abrogated; and only the
vicars‑general continued to draw an actually sig
nificant State allowance (3,000 to 5,000 francs).
Henceforward, indeed, the bishops alone will nomi
nate all their provincial dignitaries, whereas hitherto
the so‑called titularies of the cathedral chapter were
named by the State; while only the remainder, the
honoraries, obtained the canonical rank pursuantly
appointments; although in this connection the dis
tinction as to desservants is no longer observed.
The dissolution of the religious congregations occa
sioned much concern for the bishops, as the admin
istrative activity of these societies came to an end;
although many individual fraternity clerics contin
ued their labors. WILHELM GOETZ.
II. Protestant Churches. ‑1. The Reformed
Church: Until 1906, when Church and State
were separated, the legal status of the Reformed
churches in France rested on the law of April
8, 1802 (afterward altered and extended by the
law of March 26, 1852). Each congregation
was to have its presbytery, chosen by general
vote, over which was to be the consistory, usu
ally including several congregations, and five con
sistories were to form a provincial synod (these synods, however never came into existence). Up to 1872 the Church had no power to summon a general synod; at its head was only an advisory commission, the Conseil central, which was by no means equal to a synod. From the beginning of the nineteenth century there were two parties in the Church, the orthodox and the liberal, that at first lived together in peace, but at last the peace was broken by the liberals. The famous preacher Adolphe Monod (q.v.) was removed from office because of a bitter sermon against the despisers of the Lord's Supper (April 15, 1831). However, at that time the liberals had not abandoned all positive belief. They still believed in historic Christianity and in miracles. This was soon changed under the influence of the new school of theology, and gradually even the orthodox party deserted the old doctrines and laid stress on only the chief dogmas and on the facts of Bible history. The liberals went still further, attacked the authority of the Bible, and denied not only the divinity, but even the sinlessness of Christ. The founding of the Union Protestante Lib6rale and Renan's Vie de Jesus (Paris, 1863) hastened the crisis. The split was widened at the conferences of pastors held in Paris every year, and at the one in the year 1864 Guizot proposed and carried a declaration of faith in the immanence of God in the world, the inspiration and authority of Scripture, the divinity, the immaculate conception, and the resurrection of Christ. The liberals took revenge at the conference of Nimes; and 121 men were compelled to separate themselves and form the Conf6rence Nationale tvang6lique du Midi, which subscribed to the declaration of Guizot. The strife was renewed the next two years; another declaration of belief in the Apostles' Creed and the authority of Scripture was made, so that the liberals were forced to secede. From now on the orthodox party worked for the calling of a genehal synod, in which they were opposed by the liberals. Finally Thiers decreed the summoning of a general synod, which met June 6, 1872. In the synod straightway appeared four parties: Right, Right Center, Left, and Left Center. The synod, which sat for a month, chiefly split upon a creed, which was finally accepted. Forty‑one liberal consistories protested against the decisions of the synod; there was also a middle party which worked for the formation of an orthodox and a liberal church. The orthodox party won the day with the government, and a synod was called to publish the creed, which the liberals did not attend (Nov. 20, 1873). New elections were held for the consistories in which the liberals refused to take part. At last in 1877 there were again new elections in which the liberals did take part, since the government allowed them to treat the decrees of the synod according to their conscience. The liberals and the orthodox then lived under the r6gime of the official union with common consistories. The orthodox part of the Church grouped the consistories that accepted the creed of 1872 into twenty‑one provincial synods, over which was placed a formal general synod entrusted with the direction of the Church. The liberal part of the Church was represented by a