261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction

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BIBLIOGRAPHY: Krusoh'e introduction in MGM, at SUP.; BL, iv. 1576‑77.

gLoRQS: Deacon of Lyons; b. in the vicinity of Lyons (according to others, in Spain) in the latter part of the eighth century; d. at Lyons about 860. He was probably educated in Lyons, but despite his reputation for learning, never rose above the rank of deacon, or, according to some accounts, of subdeacon, the capacity in which he officiated under the archbishops Agobard (816‑$40) Amolo (841‑852), and Remigius. He was a firm advocate of the independence of the clergy and the autonomy of the Church of Gaul, so that he appears as a modest opponent of Amalarius, especially in his De diroinn pealmodia, although his defense of the ancient liturgy was not completed until Agobard, after his return from exile, yvrote his De corredione Antiphonarii. In his De elediontvws epiem, he advocated the canonical choice of bishops, and when Moduin, the bishop of Autun, inspected the diocese of Lyons at the command of the emperor Louis the Pious in 834, Florus assailed him both in prose and verse, moved not only by his affec­tion for Agobard, but also by his devotion to the independence of his diocese and Moduin's attach­ment to, Louis. In the, dogmatic controversies of his time he was an opponent of Paschasius Radbeh tus (q.v.)., teaching that the only participation in the body and blood of Christ is that of faith, and accord­ingly calling the bread the mystical body of the Lord. He set forth his views in his Expoaitio mWste, a work written previous to 834 and consisting for the most part of excerpts from Cyprian, Ambrose, Jerome, and others. He also took part in the controversy on predestination in his Sermo de pro=destinations, while the Advereue cujuedam . . . , emores de prtedmindiotte, written in the name of the Church of Lyons against Johannes Scotus Erigena, also seems to have been composed by him. Among his other works special mention may be made of his commentary on the Pauline Epistles, his revision of the Martyrologium of Bede, and of his hymns, in all of which he shows wide reading and much skill in composition.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Carmine, ed. E. DOmmler, are in MGM, Poets, Let. avi Carob, ii (1884). 507‑580; Part of his Pr

duetions are in J. Mabillon, Vetera andeeta, i. 388 eqq. Paris, 1723; Bouquet, 1. vi. 282‑283, vu. 301‑304

MPL, can. Two Poems are printed for the first time b

F. Patetta in AW of the Academy of Turin, xavii (18911892), 123‑129. Consult: ASB. June, vi., PP. siii•‑avi.

J. C. F. Bbhr, oeechichte der rt~nischea Littratur im kar

linpischea Zsitalter. PP‑ 108‑109. ‑ 447‑463. Carleruhe 1840; E. DOmmler, in NA, tv (1879), 296‑301. 518, 581 830; A. Ebert, Augeneine Gesebickte der Literatur de MiudaUsrs, ii. 268‑272, LeiPsie, 1880; Wattenbac

DQt;, i (1885), 5g, 199. 263, i (1893),60, 211, 280.

FLORUS, GESSIUS: Last Roman procurator of Judea (84‑6 A.D.), successor of Albinus. He was a native of Clasomensa (on the south side of the Bay of Smyrna) and obtained his office through the .friendship of his wife, Cleopatra, with the em­press, Poppma. His cruelty, tyranny, and shame­less corruption surpassed that of all his predeces­sors and led to the final revolt of the Jews, which cost them their national independence. Suetonius (Yeapmian, iv.) says he perished in the revolt, but


Joeephus (Life, vi.) says merely " he was beaten, and many of those with him fell."

BIBLIOGRAPHY: JoeePhu0. Ant XVIIL, i. 8, XR., s. 1; War, IL, uv. 2, 4, xv. 1. 2, ztn. 1; Taoitna. Hint.. v. 10; H. Greets, Geathidvta der Judea: iii. 445‑446. 450 mlq•. LeiPeic. 1888: SchOrer, oeschichta, i. 585, 801 eq9.. Eng. travel., L, ii. 190‑191. 208 edq.

FLUE (FLUE$E), NIKOLAUS VON (DER), com­monly known as "Brother Klaus": Swiss hermit; b. at FtBeli (Fliihli, 12 m, a. of Lucerne), in the canton of Unterwalden, Mar. 21, 1417; d. in his hermit's cell at the Ranft, in the ravine of the Mel­chaa, below Flileli, Mar. 21, 1487. He descended from a distinguished family, and at first devoted himself to the management of his inherited property. He also served his country well, both in the army and in civil life. In 1482 he appeared in Stags as representative of Obwalden (the western part of Unterwalden) is settling a dispute between the monastery of Engelberg and the church of Stana. He married in 1450, and was the father of five sons and five daughters when he resolved in 1487 to renounce his worldly life. He left his home and passed over the Jura Mountains until he came to the region of Liestal; but a vision and the counsel of a peasant induced him to return to Obwalden. At first he settled in the mountains near Melchthal, but later approached more closely to his home and settled in the Ranft, a desolate place in the mountains, about a quarter of an hour from the home of his family. The congregation of f3achseln built him a small cell and beside it a chapel. In 1482 Brother Klaus founded here partly from his own property a chaplaincy and sacristy. But be did not always remain in his isolation; he wandered about in the neighborhood, and undertook pil­grimages to Einaiedeln and Engelberg. He went about barefooted and bareheaded, his only gar­ment a long gown of coarse gray wool. He re­nounced all comforts of life, sleeping on the floor of his cell and eating hardly any food. Owing to his severe fasts, people thought that he lived with= out other food than the sacramental elements and his widespread fame originated undoubtedly in this belief. Prominent visitors from afar came to his remote cell, among them Johann Geilerof Kaisers­berg, the famous Strasburg preacher, in 1472; the Saxon nobleman Hans von Waldheim, coun‑

t' cilor of Halls in 1474; and Albrecht von Bonstetten, dean of Einaiedeln in 1478, who, in 1479, recorded

o‑ his impressions in a book. People came in such

crowds that the famous hermit had to ask the authorities of Obwalden for relief. They were attracted by the miraculous halo of the reputed saint, but also by his earnest admonitions and his striking utterances, which exhibit knowledge of life

and intelligent observation.

The hermit obtained his greatest fame by his successful arbitration in the dissensions of the con­federate states of Switzerland, which threatened to bring on a civil war. In 1477 five cities; Zurich, Bern, Lucerne, Solothurn, and Freiburg formed a league to protect themselves against the tumul­tuous gatherings of rural communities.. But Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, and Zug, the seats of these insurrectionary gatherings, protested against the ad‑



mission of Lucerne into the new league because there had existed since .1332 an agreement between them and that canton that it should not enter a new league without their consent. They also protested against the admission of Solothurn and Freiburg to guard against a preponderance of the cities over the rural element. In the time from 1478 to 1481 the dissensions approached their climax. A last meeting was held in Dec., 1481, in Stans, and it was almost dissolved when Heini am Grund, preacher of Stans, rushed in with a message from Brother Maus which restored peace among the dissenting parties. The .noble deed of the hermit was greatly esteemed and honored all over the country. Six years afterward he was buried in Sachseln. In 1600 a chapel was built over his grave beside the church of Sachseln.

The veneration of the hermit increased after his

death, and legends began to cluster around the

history of his life. Bullinger expresses true ad­

miration for him in his history of the Reformation,

and Luther published in 1528 in union with Spera­

tus a vision of Bruder Clausen in Sehwytz. In

1590 the Roman Catholics of Switzerland asked

the pope to canonize the hermit; but the pro­

ceedings instituted to this end in 1591 were not

successful; they were reinstituted a second and a

third time, also without success. In 1669 nothing

more than a beatification could be obtained from

Clement IX. In 1887 the four hundredth an­

niversary of the death of Nikolaus was solemnly

celebrated. (G. MEYEa vON KNoNAu.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A list of the voluminous literature on

Nikolaus up to 1875 is found in E. L. Rochholz, Schurei­

zerlegende von Bruder Klaus, pp. 255‑309, Aarau, 1875.

Consult: J. Ming, Der aelige Bruder Nikolaus von Flae,

3 vols., Lucerne, 1861‑71; J. 1. von Ali, Des . . . Ein­

eiedlera Nikolaus von FlQe Leben and Wirken, Einsiedein,

1887; F. X. Wetzel, Der aelige Nikolaua von Flits, ib. 1887.

FOAKES ‑ JACKSON, FREDERICK JOHN Church of England; b. at Ipswich, Suffolk, Aug* 10, 1855. He studied at Eton and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1879), and was ordered deacon in 1879 and ordained priest in 1880. In 1882 he was appointed divinity lecturer' in Jesus College, Cambridge, and was elected fellow in 1886. Since 1895 he has been dean in the same college, as well as assistant tutor since 1896. He was curate of Ottershaw, Surrey, 1879‑81, of St: Giles, Cambridge, 1882‑84, and St. Botolph, Cambridge, 1884‑90. He has been examining chaplain to the bishop of Peterborough since 1897 and honorary canon of Peterborough since 1901. He was also select preacher at Cambridge in 1885, 1887, and 1902, and Hulsean Lecturer in 1902 and has written: History of the Christian Church to A.D. 337 (Lon­don, 1891); Christian Difficulties in the Second and Twentieth Centuries (Hulsean Lectures for 1902; 1903); A Biblical History o f the Hebrews (Cambridge, 1903); and Christ in the Church (London, 1905).
FOLMAR OF TRIEFENSTEIN: Provost of the chapter of Sts. Peter and Paul at Triefenstein (on the Main below Wiirzburg) from the middle of the twelfth century; d., according .to Kattner, 1181. Belonging to the dialectic school in theology, he had his own opinions on the dogma of the Lord's Supper.




They proceeded from the prevalent view that after the ascension of the Lord .his body is locally cir­cumscribed in heaven. From this Folmar log­ically concluded that Christ had never since been on earth and furthermore, as regards the Lord's Supper, that he is not corporaliter in the sacrament. But far from being another Berengar (see BERENQAR of Touxs), for Folmar the doctrine of transubstan­tiation is rather the presupposition of his theory. The peculiarity of his view consisted only in his belief that the Christian drinks the blood simply and purely without the flesh,. and eats the flesh of Christ simply and purely without the bones and limbs of the body. It is evident that there is taught here on the one side the transformation into the substance of the body and blood and repudiated on the other aide the transformation into the historical body of Christ. Folmar was vehemently opposed by his Bavarian brethren, especially by Gerhoh of Reichersberg (q.v.). Bishop Eberhard of Bamberg convoked a conference: at Bamberg where be convinced him of his heterodoxy.

Gerhoh attacked also Folmar's Christology, and the latter defended himself by a treatise, De carne et anima verbi Dei, which unfortunately is lost. Folmar made a sharp distinction between the two natures of Christ, teaching that Christ in so far as he is man is not the proper and natural son of God. Only in so far is Christ equal to the Father as he is one with him in essence. Folmar's treatise excited the wrath of the Salzburg theologians. It was just before .the great papal schism. Gerhoh as a follower of Alexander III. attempted .to secure Folmar's condemnation at the .papal court, but Alexander wished to hear both parties. That, however, was impossible because Eberhard of Bamberg and, in all probability, Folmar also, recognized Victor IV. as pope. But Alexander had no desire to make matters worse by a dogmatic dispute. So he urged Gerhoh to be silent.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: Letters by and to Folmar are in MPL,

exciv. 1481‑90. Consult: Gerhob's letters, v., vii., xiii.,

xv., xx., in MPL, cxciii. 494‑575, and De 9loria e! honors,

xiii. 1 aqq., in MPL, exciii. 1117‑1125: the ApolopeEicua

of Arno of Reiehersberg; J. Bash, Dopmenpeaeh%chte des

Mittclaltera, i. 398, ii. 431, Vienna, 1873‑?5.
FONSECA: The name of three noted Roman Catholics.

1. Pedro da Fonseca, Portuguese Jesuit; b. at Cor tizada, Portugal, 1528; d. at Coimbra (110m. n.n.e. of Lisbon) Nov. 4,1599. On M%r.17,1548 he entered the Society of Jesus as a novice, and three years later attended the University of.Evora, where he soon be­came professor and,won the title of the " Portuguese Aristotle." After obtaining his doctor's degree in 1580, he gained rapid promotion, being appointed successively assistant to the general of the order, provincial visitor, and head of the house of the professed. Philip II. of Portugal appointed him on a committee for the reform of Portugal and Gregory XIII. entrusted him with affairs of the utmost im­portance while Lisbon owes to him, among other things, the establishment of the Irish College and the convent of St. Martha. The chief works of Da Fonseca are his Institutiones dialecticte (Lis‑

Foot‑Washing'>Font THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 338


bon, 1564) and his Commentarii in libros metaphysi­

corum Aristotelis Stagiritce (4 vols., Rome, 1577‑89).

He originated the theory of the " mediate knowl­

edge of God," or the knowledge of the potential or

what might have occurred either by itself or under

certain conditions, but did not‑a theory later

developed by his fellow Jesuit, Luis Molina (q.v.).

2. Antonio da Fonseca Soares: Portuguese Fran­

ciscan, poet and devotional author; b. at Vidigueira,

(13 m. n.e. of Beja) June 25,1631; d. Oct. 29,1682,

as rector of the theological seminary of Torres Vedras

(25 m. n.w. of Lisbon).

3. Josh Maria da Fonseca: Portuguese Francis­

can historian; b. at Evora (75 m. s.e. of Lisbon)

Dec. 3, 1690, founded the library of the monastery

of Ara Caeli, continued L. Wadding's Annales Mino­

rum from 1731 to 1740 and died as bishop of Porto

in 1752. ~ (O. ZbcgLi•;Rj'.)


FOR TAftUS, JOHANNES: Reformed preacher;

b. at Zoller, in 'the duchy of Jiilich, 1545; d. 1615.

He studied theology at Heidelberg, especially under

Zacharias Ureinus, who Latinized his name Piits,

into Fontanus. In his twenty‑third year he fin­

ished his studies and became teacher and preacher

in the seminary of Neuhausen near Worms, but

after the death of Elector Frederick III. was ex­

pelled by Ludwig VI., who was a Lutheran. Count

John the Older of Nassau‑Catzellelabogen re­

ceived him into his country, with other preachers

exiled from the Palatinate, and made him preacher

in Keppel in the principality of Siegen. But

Fontanus remained here only a short time. When

in the beginning of 1578 the estates of the province

of Geldern and of the county of Ziitphenelected

Count John as their viceregent, he took Fontanus

along; and under the count's protection the latter

organized a Reformed congregation in Arnhem and

became its pastor. It grew rapidly under his able

direction; and the influence of Fontanus extended

over the Church of the whole province, and even

beyond its borders. At the first general synod of

the whole Reformed Church in the three principali­

ties of Jiilich, Cleves, and Berg, held at Duisberg

in 1610, with Dr. Abraham Scultetua, court preacher

of Elector Frederick V. of the Palatinate, he ad­

vised on the organization of the congregations.

When, in consequence of the Arminian movement,

the secular authorities tried to interfere with the

inner affairs of the Calvinistic Church, Fontanlta

stood with great energy for the autonomy of the

Church. He was also influential in bringing about

a meeting of the strictly Reformed pastors in 1615

at Amsterdam to pass resolutions against the ad­

herents of Arminius, whom the government pro­

tected. He established a high school at Haderwyk

and was its curator for fourteen years.

(F. W. CuNOt.)

BIBI.rndalPnY; J. W . Staats fivers, J. Fontanua, Arnhem's

Berate Predikant, Arnhem, 1882; A. J. van der As, Bio­

praphiaeh T‑‑VoordenGoek, vi. 159 sqq., Haarlem, 1859; G. G.

van Prinsterer, Archives ou Correapondance dnFdite de to

Maiaon d'Oraage Nassau, lat ser., vola. vu., viii., 14 voh.,

Utrecht, 1835‑62.


EBRALDI): A Roman Catholic order, founded to

the closing years of the eleventh century by Robert d'Arbrissel, who was born at Arbrissel (the modern Arbreaec, in the diocese of Rennes) about 1047 and died in 1117. He was educated at Paris, and at the age of thirty‑eight was appointed by Sylvester, bishop of Rennes, vicar‑general for the administra­tion of the diocese. Resigning from this office, he taught theology at Angers for a time, and finally retired to a hermit's life in the forest of Craon (Department of Mayenne). He gathered a band of followers, whom he formed, about 1094, into a community of canons regular. Robert built a num­ber of cloisters, of which the most important was that at Fontkvrault (8 m. s.e. of Saumur), consisting of a " great minater," dedicated to the Virgin and con­taining accommodations for 300 widows and virgins; an infirmary dedicated to St. Lazarus and receiving 120 sick or lepers; and a home for magdalens. A monastery with 200 monks was built beside the " great minater," but was subordinate to it, while the great church, dedicated by Calixtus II. in per­son in 1109, was for the entire community. In 1106 the order was confirmed by Paschal IL, and in 1113 was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the ordi­naries, whereupon Robert appointed Petronella de Craon‑Chemill6 first abbess and prepared a rule. The members of the Order, who were called pauperes Christi, were subject to restrictions of extreme asceticism, but the distinctive characteristic was the union of nunneries and monasteries under the control of an abbess, together with the most rigid separation of monks and nuns. The Order was under special protection of the Virgin. At the death of Robert, Fontkvrault is said to have contained 3,000 nuns, while in the cloister were the tombs of several of the Plantagenet kings of England.

The Order of FontAvrault never spread widely

outside of France, although it included fifty‑seven

priories in four provinces at the beginning of the

eighteenth century. _ The congregations of Savigny,

St. Sulpice, Tiron, and Cadouin had been formed as

early as the twelfth century, and drifted away from

the Order, which was not altogether free from

disputes between the abbesses and the heads of the

subordinate monasteries. The French Revolu­

tion annihilated the Order, and the last, abbess,

Julie Sofie Charlotte de Pardaillan, died in desti­

tution in Paris in 1799, while the cloister was turned

into a prison. (O. ZOCKLERt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, (7rdres monaetiquea, vi. 83 aqq.

Heimbueher, Orden and Kougreeationen, i. 417‑419; O.

ZSCkler; Aakeae and Monchtum, pp. 419‑422, Frankfort,

1897; Hauck‑Herzog, RE, vi. 125 gives a list of the older

literature on the order. The Life of Robert d'Arbrisael,

by Roberta von Beda Plaine, is in the biemoirea of the As­sociation bretonne, 1876, and a Vita is in Mittheitungen aua den Benediktina‑ and Cisterciena‑0rden, vi (1886),84 eqq.


FOOLS, FEAST OF (Festum stultorum, fatuorum, Jollorum; F(Ate des foux): A Christian survival of the old Roman Saturnalia. In the early Church participation in all heathen festivals was strongly interdicted, but there is evidence that about the year 200 there were Christians who still longed for the amusements of this season (Tertullian, De idololatria, xliv.). By the fourth century it was


widely observed by Christians. It was opposed by Chrysostom and Asterius of Amasia in the East, and by Augustine, Maximus of Turin, and Petrus Chrysologus of Ravenna in the West. Here an effort was made to remove the heathen character of the feast by making Jan. 1, and occasionally the next following days church festivals (see NEw YEAR'S FESTIVAL). Such measures, however, were in vain. The heathen observance persisted, and in the sixth and seventh centuries it was taken up by Christians among the West Goths, the Franks, and the Anglo‑Saxons. Despite the opposition of the Church the Saturnalia continued to be gener­ally celebrated by Romans, Franks, and the var­ious Germanic peoples till into the eleventh century. The festival seems then to have been gradually forgotten by the populace.

Though the Church had fought the custom all along, it was the clergy by whom it was revived. It was now made a regular religious festival. Each of the clerical groups had long had its special day: the deacons, St. Stephen's day (Dec. 26); the priests, St. John's day (Dec. 27); the boys, Holy Innocents' day (Dec. 28); the subdeacons, New Year's day or Epiphany, Jan. 6. Later the festi­vals of the subdeacons and the children became especially popular, and the latter developed the unseemly performances of the "Boy‑bishop" (q.v.). Similar extravagances and excesses are found in the festivals of the priests, deacons, and subdeacons as early as the twelfth century. The latter, like the boys, elected a bishop, whom they accompanied to the church in festive procession. Here a parody on the mass was held, which was en­livened by jokes and ribald songs, sometimes by bloody brawls.

The first attempt to suppress these extrava­gances was made in Paris in 1198 by the papal legate, Peter of Capua. In 1210 Innocent III. forbade the festivals of priests, deacons, and subdea­cons, and in 1246 Innocent IV. made such observ­ances punishable with excommunication. Never­theless they continued, and in the fourteenth century there were even rituals for the ceremonies. Often the fool‑bishop was required to give the usual banquet " in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost." At the end of the fourteenth cen­tury the clergy appeared in the churches masquer­ading as animals, women, and mountebanks. In­stead of incense, sausage, or pieces of old shoes were burned; instead of the responses, songs of doubtful character were sung; and instead of the holy wafer, sausage was eaten. There were also dancing and games, such as throwing of dice. The processions, in which nude boys amused the rabble with suggestive gestures and speeches, were even worse.

Through an encyclical addressed to all bishops in France by the University of Paris, May 12, 1444, and made effective by an order of Charles VII., Apr. 17, 1445, these sacrilegious practises were finally stopped, at least in France, where they had been most common. The children's festival, though often opposed and forbidden by the Coun­cil of Basel (1431), was less objectionable and sur­vived into the sixteenth century. In Cologne the

custom continued till the seventeenth, and in Reims and Mainz till the eighteenth century.

. (H. BOHMER.)

BIBLIOGRAPRl': C. Du Cange, Glossarium media, et inflmas latinitatis, s.v. " cervala," ii. 277‑278, Berlin, 1883; J. B. Lucotte du Tilliot, Memoires pour serhir h l'histoire de la ate des four, Lausanne, 1741; A. Schmidt, Thesaurus iuris ecrlesiastici, iii. 58‑83 Bamberg, 1744; E. Mar­thne,. De antiquis ecclesim ritibus, chap. xiii., nos. 3‑11, 4 vols., 1788; Zeitschrift fur Philosophie and katholisehe Theologie, xi. 2 (1850), 161‑180; A. Springer, Paris im 13. Jahrhundert, pp. 66 sqq., Leipsie, 1856: M. E. C. Wal­eott, Sacred Archa'ology London, 1868; A. Tille, Die Geschichte der deutschen fireihnacht, ib. 1893, Eng. transl., London, 1899; KL, iv. 1398‑1403.

FOOT‑WASHING: A religious ceremony prac­tised at various times in different branches of the Church. The use of sandals among the Eastern natives required frequent washing of the feet, and to perform this office for others was considered a mark of hospitality. At the Last Supper Jesus washed the feet of his disciples (John xiii. 5‑10) to indicate that he who was not purified by him had no part with him. The postapostolic age under­stood the example thus given to be mandatory. Augustine (Epist. ad Januarium) testifies that it was followed on Maundy Thursday by the Church of his day. St. Bernard in his sermon De ccena Domini recommends foot‑washing as " a daily sacrament for the remission of sins." In the Greek Church also it was regarded as a " mystery." Yet it nowhere became a general, public, solemn, eccle­siastical act. It is still, however, solemnly per­formed in certain places as by the pope, the em­perors of Austria and Russia, the kings of Spain, Portugal, and Bavaria, and a number of bishops and monastic superiors, the subjects being twelve poor old men invited for the purpose, or twelve priests. Many minor Baptist bodies also observe the custom (see ADVENTISTS, 2; BAPTISTS, II., 4, d, g, h; DUNKERS, II, § 3).

The Reformers, especially Luther (cf. his Maun­dy Thursday sermon concerning foot‑washing in the Hauspostille), opposed " that hypocritical foot­washing, in which one stoops to wash the feet of his inferior, but expects still more humility in re­turn." The Evangelical Church has endeavored, therefore, to impress the meaning of Christ's act on the hearts of men by diligently proclaiming his Gospel. At Schwabisch Hall (in Wdrttemberg), on Wednesday before Easter every year, a special Fusswaschungspredigt is still delivered in St. Cath­erine's Church. The Church of England at first carried out the letter of the command; but the practise afterward fell into disuse. The Anabap­tists declared most decidedly in favor of foot‑wash­ing, appealing to John xiii. 14, and also to I Tim. v. 10, considering it as a sacrament instituted by Christ himself, '1 whereby our being washed by the blood of Christ and his example of deep humiliation is to be impressed upon us " (Confession of the United Baptists or Mennonites, 1660). The Mora­vians with the love‑feasts revived also the foot­washing, yet without strictly enforcing it or confi­ning it to Maundy Thursday. It was performed not only by the leaders toward their followers, but also by the latter among themselves, during the singing of a hymn explanatory of the symbol. This prac‑

d tificte corttroversiarxcm de justifications, purgatorio

1644 until 1648 he resided in Holland. He then returned to his native country, and spent the re­mainder of his life at Cores. Forbes, who was irenic in temperament, was the author of Irenicum amatort'bus veritatis et paGia in Ecclesia Scoticana (Aberdeen, 1629) and Irratitutianes historico‑theodogicce de dodrina Christians (Amsterdam, 1845), as well as of a number of minor writings. His complete Latin works, including several posthumous treatises and a Latin translation of his diary, were edited by G. Garden (2 vole., Amsterdam, 1702‑03).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A Life by Dr. Garden was prefixed to the Works, ut sup.; DNB, ai:. 402‑404.

FORBES, PATRICK: Bishop of Aberdeen; b. probably at Come (30 m. n.w. of Aberdeen), 1584; d. at Aberdeen Mar. 28, 1835. He studied at the universities of Glasgow and 8t. Andrews under his kinsman Andrew Melville (q.v.). In deference to his father's wishes, he declined a professorship in theology, and did not take orders till 1612, though for years he had been preaching privately at Cores. Prior to his ordination he had begun to hold serv­ices in the parish church, but these public minis­trations were stopped by royal order. He held the pastoral charge of Keith 1612‑18. In 1618 he took a prominent part in the General Assembly, and was placed upon a commission to revise the confession of faith, liturgy, and rules of discipline. In 1818 he was appointed bishop of Aberdeen. He was conspicuously successful is the administration of his diocese, did much to put down existing feuds, and raised the University of Aberdeen to a condi­tion of prosperity. His principal work is An Ez­quisite Commentary upon the Revelation of St. John (London, 1613; Middelburg, 1614; Lat. trawl., Amsterdam, 1648), which is directed against Romanian.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Funeral of Patrick Forbes .... consist­ing o/ , Orations, Epitaphs, and other. Pisces on the Death of the Rood BHP. Aberdeen. 1635, reprinted by C. F. Shand for the Spottiewoode Society, Edinburgh, 1845; DNB, uZ. 407‑409.

FORBES, WILLIAM: Bishop of Edinburgh; b. at Aberdeen 1585; d. there Apr. 12, 1834. He studied at Marischal College (M.A.,, 1801), where he held the chair of logic for several years. He

traveled on the Continent 1808‑11, visiting several Dutch and German universities and making the acquaintance of Scaliger, Grotius, and Vossius. Soon after his return to Britain‑he entered the min‑

istry, having declined a professorship in Hebrew at Oxford. In, 1616 he was appointed one of the ministers of Aberdeen, and at the assembly at Perth in 1818 he was chosen to defend the article enjoining kneeling at the communion. In 1621 he was chosen one of the ministers of Edinburgh, but, owing to the unwelcome reception which his Romanism encountered here, he was glad to return to his former charge at Aberdeen is 1826. In 1833

be preached at Holyrood before Charles L, who was so delighted with ;the sermon that he made the

preacher bishop of Edinburgh. Forbes wan con­secrated in Feb., 1834. His only published work is the posthumous Conaideraxiones modeato? et pa‑



in 1643, forced him to leave Scotland, and from

but the Solemn League and Covenant, sanctioned

He accepted the Presbyterian form of government,

FORBES, JOHN: Scotch theologian; b. May 2, 1593; d. at Corse (19 m. w. of Dumfries), Kirk­cudbrightshire, Apr. 29, 1648. He studied at King's College (Aberdeen), and at Heidelberg, Sddan, and other Continental universities, and in 1619 was ordained at Middelburg, returning in the same year to Aberdeen, where his father was bishop. In 1620 he was appointed professor of divinity is King's College, Aberdeen, where he was conapicu­ous for his defense of episcopacy. He succeeded to his father's estate of Corse in 1635, and two years later was an advocate of the project to unite the Reformed and Lutheran churches. In 1638, how­ever, he refused to sign the National Covenant, and despite the protests of the synod was ejected from his professorship by the General Assembly

BIBLIOGRAPHY: D. J. Mackey, Bishop Forbes, a Memoir, London, 1888; S. M. F. Slkene]; Meter of Alexander Bishop of BrwAin, ib. 1876.

FORBES, ALEXANDER PENROSE: Bishop of Brechin; b. at Edinburgh June 6, 1817; d. at Dundee (37 m. n.n.e. of Edinburgh) Oct. 8, 1875. He studied at the University of Edinburgh, Hailey­bury College, and Brasenose College, Oxford (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1846; D.C.L., 1848), where he came strongly under the influence of the Oxford move­ment. Before entering Oxford he was in the civil service in India. He was curate at Aston Rowant, near Oxford, 1844, and at 8t. Thomas', Oxford, 1845. In 1848 he became the incumbent of Stone­haven, Kincardineshire, in May, 1847, vicar of St. Saviour's, Leeds, a church built expressly to fur­ther the tractarian doctrine. Later in the same year he was appointed bishop of Brechin. He re­moved the headquarters of the bishopric to Dundee and added to his duties as bishop those of vicar of 8t. Paul's,‑ Dundee. For inculcating the doctrine of the ~ real presence in his primary charge to the clergy, Aug. 5, 1857, he was formally tried for heresy. He was finally acquitted with an admo­nition and censure in‑ Mar., 1860. Bishop Forbes published numerous sermons, commentaries, trans­lations, etc.; his principal works are, A Short Ex­planation of the Nicene Creed (Oxford, 1852; 2d ed., enlarged, 1866), a handbook of dogmatic the­ology; An Explanation of the Thirty‑Nine Articles (2 vole‑., 1887‑68); and Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 1872).

1744; W. F. Gees. Die Fusewaschunp Jesu, Basel. 1884; F. Kattenbuech, Lehrbuch der romgleichenden Confession­kunde, Freiburg, 1890; AL, iv. 2146‑48.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: E. Marthne, De antiquia exleeiss ritibus, IV., xltii. 8, 4 vole., Baeeano, 1788; J. Goar. Bucholopium, pp. 591‑596, Paris, 1647; G. Catalani, Ceremonials e0a­oopomm . . . commentariis Qusbatum, ii. 286‑272, Rome,

tile was finally abolished by the Moravian Synod

in 1818. In the Lutheran Church, during the

period of orthodoxy, foot‑washing was considered

as '‑ an abominable papal corruption." In the

year 1718 the Upper Consistory at Dresden con­

demned twelve Lutheran citizens of Weida to pub­

lic penance for having permitted Duke Maurice

William (at that time still a Roman Catholic) to

wash their feet. PAUL TscaAcgxaT.



m invocations aanctorum Chriato mediators et exicha‑

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