Fletcher was not a polemist, but always treated his
opponents with fairness and courtesy, and in this
presented a marked contrast to Toplady and to John
Wesley. He was also a millenarian (cf. his letter
to John Wesley, Nov. 29, 1755). He sympathized
with Wesley's views concerning the revolt of the
American colonies and wrote two tracts to show
that " the right of taxing subjects, with or without
their consent, is an inseparable appendage of supreme
government," viz., A Vindication of Mr. Wesley's
" Calm Address to Our American Colonies " (Lon
don, 1776) and American Patriotism Farther Con
fronted with Reason, Scripture, and the Constitution
(Shrewsbury, 1776). These writings were read at
court and opened the way to high preferment,
which he refused to consider. His principal works
were Checks to Antinomianism, called forth by the
dispute in 1771, and The Portrait of St. Paul, or
the True Model for Christians and Pastors, trans
lated from a French manuscript after Fletcher's
death, with a notice of the author (2 vols., Shrews
bury, 1790). The first complete edition of his
works appeared in London, 8 vols., 1803; there is
a four‑volume edition issued by the Methodist Book
Concern in New York. D. S. SCHAFF.
Brsr.roanerar:The principal biography is by J. Benson,
4th ed.. London. 1817. Other lives are by L, Tyerman,
ib. 1882; F. W. Macdonald, ib. 1885; J. Marratt, ib. 1902;
DNB, six. 312‑314. Consult also: A. Stevens, History . , . Methodism. 3 vole., New Fork, 1858‑81: J. C.
RYIe. Christian Leaders of the Last Century, pp. 383‑423.
London, 1889; F J. Snell, Wesley and Methodism. Edin‑
FLETCHER, JOSEPH: English independent; b. at Cheater Dec. 3, 1784; d. at Stepney, London, June 8, 1843. He attended the grammar‑school at Cheater, then studied at Hoxton, and at the University of Glasgow (M.A., 1807; D.D., 1830). He was pastor of the Congregational Church at Blackburn 1807‑23, and at the same time (after 1816) tutor in theology at Blackburn College. In 1823 he became pastor at Stepney. He was chairman of the Congregational Union in 1837. Fletcher was a voluminous writer and a regular contributor to the newly established Eclectic Review. His works include: Spiritual Blessings (13lackburn, 1814; 6th ed., London, 1891); Principles and Institutions of the Roman Catholic Religion (London, 1817), which received generous praise; Personal Election and Divine Sovereignty (1825), also favorably received; and Poems (1846), in collaboration with hi9 sister, Mary Fletcher. His Select Works and Memoirs (3 vole., 1846) were edited by his son, Joseph Fletcher of Hanley.
FLEURY, ABBEY OF: Formerly a celebrated Benedictine abbey at Fleury‑aur‑Lobe in the diocese of OrlEans and 20 m. e.a.e. of the city. It was founded by Abbot Leodebod of St. Anian, later bishop of Ormana, in the early part of the reign of Clovis II (638‑657). The body of St. Benedict was brought here about 653, and this obtained many privileges for the abbey and made it a center of pilgrimage from all parts of Europe. The community was reformed by Odo of Cluny, and it became a famous seat of discipline and learning, which contributed not a little to the support of Dunstan's reforms in England. The school remained in great esteem until the sixteenth century, sometimes having as many as 5,000 pupils, and the library was exceedingly valuable until it was in part scattered by the zeal of the Huguenots (1561). Many of the manuscripts are now preserved in the municipal library of Orleans. Ultimately the monks associated themselves with the congregation of Saint Maur (q.v.).
BIHLIOaRAPHr: Chronicon Floriaunee, in A. lhrohesne, Hisforim Francarum script., iii. 355 eqq., Paris, 1840, abbreviated in M(iH., Script., ii (1829), 264 eq9via Christiana, viii. 1538; Cuieeard‑Gaueheron, R.I. de Fieury‑aur‑Loire, in M~naoirea de is aociktk arch6olagique de t'Orl€a.nais, aiv (1875), bbl eqq.; AL, iv. lbb4‑57.
FLEURY, CLAUDE: French historian and ecclesiastic; b. at Paris Dec. 6, 1640; d. there July 14, 1723. He was educated at the college of Clermont, studied law, and for nine years practised as an advocate at Paris, where in 1674 he published his Histoire du droit frangais. Following the bent of his contemplative nature, however, and influenced by such men as Boeauet, he took orders, and was appointed tutor to the princes of Conti (1672), the count of Vermandoia (1680), and the dukes of Burgoyne, Anjou, and Berry (1689). In 1683 he received the Cistercian abbey of Locdien in Rhodes, and was elected to the Academy in 1696 as the successor of La Bruy&e. He declined the proffered see of Montpellier, but in 1706 accepted from Louis XIV. the priory of NBtre Dame d'Argenteuil, where he remained until 1716, when he was recalled to court as the confessor of Louis XV. This position
he resigned in 1722, the year before his death. Fleury's reputation rests chiefly upon his Histoire eceldsiastique (20 vols., Paris, 1691‑1720), a history of the Church to 1414, written with much detail and moderation of tone from a standpoint of pronounced Gallicanism, but marred by a lack of critical acumen. It was continued to 1778 by Jean Claude Faber and Alexandre la Croix, though with less happy results. In the middle of the nineteenth century the manuscript of Fleury's own continuation to 1517 was discovered at Paris and published in the latest edition of the entire work (Histoire meldsiastique par l'Abbd Fleury, augmentde de quatre livres, 6 vols., Paris, 1640), but is far inferior in value to the preceding part of the work.
For his pupils, Fleury wrote Les Maurs des Israklites (Paris, 1681; Eng. transl., The Manners of the Christians, . . . with Biographical Notes, Oxford, 1872); Las Masum des Chrdtiens (1682); and Grand catdchisme historique (1679). His Institution au droit eccWiatique (Paris, 1692), like his Discours sur lea libertds do l'dglise gallicane (1690), is permeated by a spirit of firm Gallicanism. His pedagogical system was developed in his Traitd du choir et de la mdthode des dtudes (1675). The minor works of Fleury were collected in his Opuscules (5 vols., Nimes, 1780‑81). (EUOI~NE C11018Y.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Nicdron, Mt"nwires, vol. viii.; L. E. Dupin,
Nouvelle bdbliodaque des auteurs ecelaiaetiques, vol. xviii.,
35 vols., Paris, 1689‑1711; F. R. Guetv6e, Histoire de
1'eglim de France, vols. x., xi., 12 vols., Paris, 1847‑56;
L. Genay, Un P6dagogue oublih du xviie a0cle, Paris, 1879.
FLICKINGER, DANIEL ~$UMLER: United Brethren in Christ; b. at Sevenmile, 0., May 25, 1824. He was educated at Germantown Academy and was elected corresponding secretary of the United Brethren Church Missionary Society in 1857, being reelected quadrennially until 1885, when he was chosen foreign missionary bishop. lie has been to Africa twelve times and to Germany five times on missionary tours, and has done much work upon the frontiers of the United States, and also among the Chinese. He is the author of Off‑hand Sketches in Africa (Dayton, 0., 1857); Sermons (in collaboration with Rev. W. J. Shuey; 1859); Ethiopia: or, Twenty‑six Years of Missionary Life in Western Africa (1877); The Church's Marching Orders (1879); and Our Missionary Work from 1863 to 1889 (1889).
BIBLIOGBAFBM D. K. Flickinger, Fifty‑five Years of Active Ministerial Life; Preface by Bishop G. M. Mathews, Dayton, 1907.
FLIEDNER, flid'ner, FRITZ: The "apostle of the gospel in Spain," son. of Theodor Fliedner (q.v.); b. at Kaiserewerth on the Rhine, June 10, 1845; d. at Madrid Apr. 25, 1901. He studied at Halle and Tiibingen, and became teacher in a school at Hilden 1868 and chaplain to the legation of the German Empire at Madrid and evangelist in Spain 1870. Besides editing Bldtter Gus ,Spanien, Revista Christians, and Amigo de la infancia, he published. (in Spanish.) lives of Livingstone, Luther, his father, John Howard, Elizabeth Fry, a hymnbook for Sunday Schools, and various other books of Spanish Christian literature. He also published
BMttter and Bluthen, poems (Heidelberg, 1885‑97), Romische Missionspraxis auf den Karolinen (1889); Erzahlungen aua Spanien (1895), Aus meinem Leben, Erinnerungen and Erfahrungen (Berlin, 1900).
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Consult. besides the last work mentioned above, F. G. J. Grape, 8panien and des Evangelium,
FLIEDNER, THEODOR: German philanthropist, founder of the Kaiserswerth Deaconesses' Institute and the modem Protestant order of deacon eases (see DEAcoNEss, III., 2, a); b. at Epstein (7 m. n.e. of Wiesbaden), in Nassau, Jan. 21, 1800; d. at Kaiserswerth (on the Rhine, 6 m. n.n.w. of Dosseldorf) Oct. 4, 1864. He was the son of a clergyman and was himself a plain, unpretending German pastor, of great working power, indefatigable zeal, fervent piety, and rare talent of organization. He studied at Giessen, Gdttingen, and Her born and for a year was tutor in a family at Cologne and had begun to doubt his fitness for the ministry, when he received and accepted, in Nov., 1821, what he considered a providential call, from a small Protestant colony at Kaiserswerth, then a Roman Catholic town of 1,800 inhabitants. The failure of a silk manufactory, upon which the town de= pended largely for support, led him to undertake, in the spring of 1822, a collecting tour to keep his struggling congregation alive. By the end of a week he returned with 1,200 thalers. This was the beginning of much greater thihgs. By experience and perseverance he became one of the greatest beggars in the service of Christ. In 1823 he made a tour of Holland and England, which not only resulted in a permanent endowment of his congregation, but suggested to him the idea of his benevolent institutions. " In both these Protestant countries," he relates, " I became acquainted with a multitude of charitable institutions for the benefit both of body and soul. I saw schools and other educational organizations, almhousm, orphanages, hospitals, prisons, and societies for the reformation of prisoners, Bible and missionary societies, etc.; and at the same time I observed that it was a living faith in Christ which had called almost every one of these institutions and societies into life, and still preserved them in activity. This evidence of the practical power and fertility of such a principle had a most powerful influence in strengthening my own faith."
Fliedner made two more journeys to Holland, England, and Scotland (1832 and 1853), in the interest no more of his congregation, but of his institutions. He also visited the United States in 1849 and assisted in founding the Deaconesses' Institute in Pittsburg with Dr. Passavant at its head (see DEACONESS, III. 2, d, 1 1; PASBAVANT, WILLIAM ALFRED). Twice he traveled to the East, in 1851 to aid Bishop Gobat in founding a house of deaconesses in Jerusalem, and again in 1857, when he was, however, too feeble to proceed farther than Jaffa. King Frederick William IV. of Prussia and Queen Elizabeth took the most cordial interest in his labors for the sick and poor, furnished him liberally with means, and founded in 1847 the Bethany hospital with deaconesses at Berlin after the model of Kaiserswerth. In the
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
parsonage garden at Kaiserawerth there still stands old gave him the position of keeper of. the records in
the little summer‑house, with one room of ten feet the church of Reims. In 751 he was entrusted with
square, and an attic over it, which was the first a mission to King Otho I.; in 952 he was appointed
refuge for released female prisoners and magdalen bishop of Tournay, but owing to unfavorable
asylum, the humble cradle of all Fliedner's institu‑ conditions could not enter his new position. In
tions. In 1849 Fliedner resigned his pastorate to 963 he retired into the monastery of St. Basle.
devote all his time to his institutions. One of his During his stay at Rome Flodoard was induced
last acts was to consecrate nineteen sisters, the to write a hexameter poem in three parts on the
largest number up to that time to go out from " Triumphs of Christ and the Saints," which with
Kaiserswerth in a single year. At his death the much show of learning and piety tells of the spread
number of deaconesses connected with Kaisers‑ of Christianity and the history of the popes. He
werth and its daughter institutions exceeded 400 compiled a chronicle (Annaks; in MGH, Script.,
(see DEACONESS, III., 2). Fliedner's most impor‑ iii., 1839, pp. 363‑407; also, ed. P. Lauer, Paris,
tant publications were several books descriptive of 1906) of his own time, from 919 to 966, which
his travels and Des Buch der Mdrtyrer der even‑ is a source of valuable information for the history of
gelischen Kirche (4 vols., Kaiserswerth, 1852‑60). Lorraine and the relations between the French
He founded the Christlicher Volkskalender, which and Germans of that time, and is indispensable for
was widely popular. dates of numerous events. He also wrote a reliable
(PHILIP ScaAFFt.) D. S. SCHAFF. and extensive Historia Remensis (in MGH, Script.,
BIBLIOGRAPHY: The chief "Life" is by his eon, G. Flied‑xiii., 1882, pp. 40rr599) up to~ 948.
ner, T. Fliedner, kurser Abrias seines Lebens and Wirkena, ~11 ILHELM ALTMANN.
3d ed., Kaiserswerth, 1892. Consult: P. Sehaff, Ger‑ BIBLIOGRAPHY: A3M, v. 325‑332' Hoatoore LittEraore de la
,Bang, its Universities, Theolo~v, and Religion, chap. France, vi. 313 Paris. 1742 J. C. F BBhr, GeaaAddad der
aaxund,Pheladelphia. 1857; Dr. T. Fliedner, eon Fharak‑ r6mischen Litteratur im karolingiaden Zeitalter, p• 274,
ter‑ and ~eoensbtld, Barmen, 1885; Life of Pastor ~hedner Carleruhe, 1840; Wattenbaeh, DGQ, i (1885), 378‑380,
of ~aiearan t1°a7. from the Germ. by Catharine ii. 490, i (1893), 409‑411; P. Scheffer‑Boichoret in Mit
worth, London, 1887; T. Schafer, Weobliche ~iakonie, 3 theilungen des Institute fur baterreich'Geachirhufor‑
vols., 2d ed., Stuttgart, 1887‑94. s ,tp, 1887.Consult also R.
FLIESTEDEft, PETER. See KLARENBACH, ADOLF.
FLINT, ROBERT: Scotch Presbyterian; b. at Dumfries, Scotland, Mar. 14, 1838. He was educated at Glasgow University (1852‑59) and was parish minister at East Church, Aberdeen (18591862), and at Kilconquhar (1862‑64). He was professor of moral philosophy and political economy at St. Andrews University (1864‑76) and professor of divinity at Edinburgh University (18761903). He was also Baird Lecturer (1876‑77), Stone Lecturer at Princeton (1880) and Croall Lecturer at Edinburgh (1887‑88). He has written: Christ's Kingdom on Earth (Edinburgh, 1865); Philosophy of History in Europe (1874); Theism (1877); Anti‑Theistic Theories (1879); Vico (1884); Historical Philosophy in France, Belgium, and Switzerland (1894); Socialism (London, 1894); Sermons and Addresses (Edinburgh, 1899); Agnosticism (1903); Philosophy as Scientia Scientiarum and History of Classification of Science (1904); and On Theological, Biblical, and other Subjects (1905).
FLODOARD, flo"do"br', OF REIMS: French writer of the tenth century; b. at Apernay (17 m. s.s.e. of Reims) 893 or 894; d. 966. He studied in Reims, which in the tenth century formed the center of French politics and of the higher studies of Lorraine, and under Archbishop Herivaeus (90(1‑922) became canon in the cathedral. Owing to political disturbances, he lost his position and joined Bishop Artold (932‑961). The latter sent him in 936 to Rome where he was favorably received by Pope Leo VII. and consecrated priest. When Artold lost his bishopric, Flodoard fled with him to Archbishop Rotbert of Treves (931‑956). Flodoard took part in the Synod of Ingelheim in 948, at which Artold was reinstated by Pope Agapetus II. As a recompense for his faithfulness Art‑
chu viii. 423‑430, Innsbruck,
Ceillier. Auteura aacr€a, xii. 841‑844.
FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF., See FERRARA‑
FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF.
FLOREftSIANS (Ordo Florensis; Order of Flore): A Roman Catholic order established at Flore (the modern San Giovanni in Fiore, 90 m. s.w. of Taranto) by the Cistercian abbot and prophet Joachim (see JOACHIM of FIORE) about 1192, some three years after he had exchanged the administration of his monastery of Corazzo for the life of a hermit in Mount Sila. For the inmates of his monastery of St. John, Joachim formed rules which were similar to those of the Cistercians, although independent and constituting a stricter Benedictine reform. This rule received the sanction of Celestine III. on Aug. 25,1196, and there were also secular patrons, such as Henry VI. and his wife Conatantia. The order gradually received several monasteries in Naples and both Calabrias, although it was exposed to persecution, since its founder was suspected of heresy. The miracles believed to be wrought at the tomb of Joachim gave a speedy impetus to the Florenaians, so that they soon had thirty‑four houses, including four nunneries, the most important at St. Helena near Amalfi. In 1227 Gregory IX. forbade the Cistercians to admit Florensiana into their order on account of the comparative laxity of the Cistercian rule, thus rousing the envy, and enmity of the monks of Cftesux. The Florensians maintained their high position, however, until the appointment of abbots in commendam, the first in 1470. The order then declined, and the majority of its monasteries, like the mother house in 1505, became incorporated with the Cistercians, although a few joined the Dominicans and Carthuaians. The habit of the Florenaiana was of coarse gray cloth and closely resembled that of the Cistercians. The monks went barefoot, and in choir
wore a cowl over their habit.(O. ZIICSLERt.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Helyot, Ordres monastiquea, v. $92 eqq.; Heimbueher, Orden and %onpreoationen, i. 267‑288.
FLORENTIUS RADEWYNS, r8'dt‑wins: One of the founders of the Brethren of the Common Life (q.v.); b. at Leerdam (13 m. a. of Utrecht), Holland, in 1350; d. at Deventer March 24, 1400. The son of educated, wealthy parents, he studied at the University of Prague from 1375 to 1378, when he received the degree of licentiate. On his return to Leerdam he heard Geert Groote (q.v.) preach, and the two became friends about 1380. He then exchanged his canonry at Utrecht for a vicarage at Deventer that he might be able to accompany Groote in his travels, and was ordained priest. A band of earnest thinkers gathered around the pair, and Florentius's vicarage became their home. After Groote's death in 1384, Florentius became the head of this community. In 1391 the brethren moved into their own house and their number increased, although the plague of 1398 deprived them of many members. They accordingly moved to Amersfoort, only to return after a year. The community controlled by Florentius was, as Thomas b, Kempis says in his Vita, a mirror of holiness and an ornament of morals, a refuge of the poor, a convent of the clergy, a school of life for the worldly, and a helper of poor scholars. The directions of Florentius became authoritative for all later foundations. After his conversion he was a harmonious picture of modern piety, which, rooted in humility, did not withdraw from the world, but by self‑denial sought to win all men for the higher life. At 3 A.m. he began to prepare the work of the brethren and during the day the needy sought his help. No work of charity was too great or too small for him. He bathed the sick himself, and whoever met him once never forgot the deep impression of his personality. He encouraged severe self‑examination, and gave prudent advice: " First think, and then act, but do not atop; never work mechanically; never seek thyself." The literary activity of Florentius was scanty, and he restricted himself to matters concerning humility and the fear of God. His principal works are as follows: a letter written at the request of Henricus de Balueren, included' by Jan Busch (q.v.) in his Chronicon Windeshemense, and appended in complete form to the life of Florentius by Thomas i; Kempis; Tradatulus devotus de exstirpatione vitiorum et passionum et acquisitions verarum virtutum et maxims caritatis Dei et proximi et verm unionis cum Deo et proximo, aeu traetatulus de apirilualibus exercitiis (ed. H. Nolte, Freiburg, 1862); Puncta quodam seaundum quee actus suns volebat moderari, quo: quis tegens poterit diqualiter cognoscere interiors ipsius, appended to the life by Thomas h Kempis, and commonly called bona puncta. Tklia latter work reflects the ideal of a man of benevolence and contains the conclusa et proposita prepared by Groote, but collected and enlarged by Florentius. It agrees, for the most part, with the Tractatulus. and is extant in many manuscripts and recensions of his pupils, but the most original form is given by J. B. Malon, in his Recherches historiques et critiques sur le veritable auteur du Livre de p1mitation de Jesus‑Christ (3d ed., Paris, 1858). Meditation
upon the principles of Florentius inspired the
writings of his pupils, Thomas i! Kempis, Theodore
of Herzen, and Zerbold of Zutphen. A work of
this character, reflecting the spirit of Florentius,
was discovered by J. M. Wiistenhoff in a Berlin
manuscript and reprinted by him under the title
Parvum et simplex ezercitium ex consualudine
humilis patria domini Florentii et aliorum denotontm
(Archief tbor nederlandaoAe Kerkgeschiedenis. The
Hague, 1894, 80 aqq.). L. SenuLzz.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Chief sources for a life are the Vita by Thomas h Kempis in the latter's Opera, ad. Sommaliue, Antwerp, 1600, Eng. travel. in The FoaHdsrs cif the New Devotion, pp. 81‑164, London, 1905; R,. Dier, 8eriptura,
. G. Grote . . . et multis alas fratribua, in G. Dumbar, Arwlecta, 3 vols., Deventer, 1719‑22. and Dumbar's Hot kerkelyke en werentlyke Deventer. 2 vole., ib. 1732‑38. Consult: K. Grubs. Gerhard Groot and seine Stiftunpen, pp. 66 sqq., Cologne, 1883; BL, ix. 728‑729; ADB, vii. 130; and literature under C010IOH LIPS, BBBT88EH or Tea.
FLOREZ, HENRIQUE: Spanish priest; b. at
Valladolid Feb. 14, 1701 (P); d. at Madrid May 5,
1773. He was an Augustinian friar, and became
teacher of theology at the University of Alcala,
rector of the royal college at the same place, theolog
ical adviser for the supreme council of Castile and
finally general assistant of his order for the Spanish
geogra fco‑historico de la igleaia de Espafia; the first
volume appeared at Madrid in 1747, and the work
was carried on by Floret to the end of vol. xxix
(1775); a continuation, vols. xxx: xlviii (1775
1862), was made by his fellow Augustinians, Manuel
Risco, Antonio Merino, Jose de la Canal, and the
town librarian, P. S. de Baranda. The work
contains a historical and statistical presentation of
the Spanish bishoprics, with their respective chap
ters and monasteries, and a catalogue of their
bishops, martyrs, famous men, etc.
BIBLInaaAPH;: H. Hurter, Nomenelatar Uterarius, vot. iii., Innsbruck, 1895. A list of his works is given in HL, ire
FLORMN, SAINT: The patron saint of Upper Aus. tria, said to have suffered martyrdom by drowning in the Enna at Laureacum (Loreh or St. Lorenz, near Enna, 10 m. s.e. of Linz) during the Diocletian persecution. His Passio, however (ed. B. Krusch, MGR, Script. rer. Merov., iii., 1896, 65‑71), is a last of the Passio Irenmi Sirmii and of no value. The saint is first mentioned in the eighth century, when his relics are said to have been worshiped ad puoche ( = Buche, " the beech‑tree," the site of the present abbey of St. Florian, 5 m. w.s.w. of Enna). There was probably a monastic settlement there as early as the eighth century under Otkar, an itinerant bishop. Charlemagne gave the cloister to Passau. In the beginning of the tenth century it is mentioned as a congregatio clericoram. Then it was destroyed by the Hungarians, but in the last quarter of the tenth century it was rebuilt,. without, however, regaining its former flourishing condition until Bishop Altmann of Passau made it a foundation of regular canons ire 1071, under an able leader, Hartmann. Since then its existence has never been shaken, but the relics of Florian are lost.