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Venturinus tential disposition of the populace of Bergamo

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Venturinus tential disposition of the populace of Bergamo, consequent upon the phenomenal

1334• activity of St. Francis; the extreme

i tension of feeling because of the pas‑

sionate conflicts between papacy and empire; and

the general disorder and ruin induced by these

factional contests. The situation, again, was aggra­

vated in 1259 by the outbreak of a violent epi­

demic; and above all by the expectation that was

widely propagated by the adherents to the teach­

ing of Joachim of Fiore (q.v.), that in the year 1280

there would occur a general revolution of things,

especially a purification and renovation of the

Church. The direct occasion for the flagellant

crusades of that year was furnished by the advent

of the venerable hermit Raniero Fasani, who as

early as 1258 is alleged to have founded the first

flagellant fraternity in Perugia, proclaiming that

an impending visitation of judgment had been

revealed to him. In the autumn of 1260 the move­

ment overflowed all of Central and Upper Italy,

still in the same year crossed the Alps and spread

itself over Upper Germany and the neighboring

Slavic domains. In GermanYvhowever, both spiri­

tual and temporal powers, as they perceived in

the movement elements hostile to ecclesiastical

and civil order, very decidedly opposed it as early

as 1261; and with the exception of Southern France,

public flagellationa and flagellant crusades north

of the Alps in the period between 1261 and 1349

manifested themselves only in quite isolated in­

stances. In Upper Italy, however, the peniten­

tial sermons of the Dominican Venturinue of Ber­

gamo gave occasion, in 1334, to an extensive new

flagellant movement which came to a standstill in

the very next year.

The great flagellant movement of the years 1348­1349 is very closely connected with the apparition of the terrible pestilence known se the black death.

Originating in the East, by 1347 the a. The plague had found entrance into Dal­Flagellants matia, Upper Italy, and Southern

of r 348‑49• France, and from these three centers of

contagion it spread toward Central Europe in 1348. Probably attempts to avert the threatening disaster by organizing flagellant pro­cessions were first made in Italy. . From Upper Italy the movement then took its course, as pre­cursor of the plague‑, by way of Hungary into Ger­many, then into Holland; Bohemia, Poland, Den­mark, and even England, and reached its climax in the summer of 1349. The populace was already highly stirred up by apocalyptic expectations, and the plague was regarded as the premonitory sign of the great revolution of all things. Flagellation seemed the fitting preparation for the coming kingdom of God, and a substitute for the clergy, grown faithless to their charge. An apocryphal letter of Christ, originating in a much earlier age,



and purporting to have fallen to the earth at Jeru­salem, which with menace of frightful vindictive judgment called men to repentance, was every­where read aloud by the wandering flagellants, and appears to have been one of the most effective instruments in their hands for extending their doc­trine of penance by flagellation. In more than one instance the flagellants took a hostile stand against the clergy. They also were active in the persecutions of the Jews in 1348‑49, though these, indeed, were already incited before the flagellants' appearance. Probably here also apocalyptic an­ticipations of a general social convulsion were a contributing factor.

As in 1260, so again in 1348‑49 the flagellants formed themselves into fraternities, which usually bound their members to a penitential season of thirty‑three days and a half. At such times they generally wandered far away from their homes in extended processions. Admission to the brother­hood had to be preceded by an act of general con­fession, reconciliation with enemies, and formal promise of unconditional obedience to the fra­ternity superior. All intercourse, even all con­versation, with women was forbidden in most of the fraternities. The flagellants generally wore white undergarments, with mantles and hats marked with red crosses; whence they were com­monly known in Germany as Kreuzbruder (" Breth­ren of the Cross "; Crucifratres, Cruciferi). Self­eastigation was performed twice a day, preferably in public squares, amid the intonation of hymns and according to a definitely prescribed ceremonial. Their hymns especially attracted the attention of their contemporaries. Quite a number of those of the German flagellants are recorded in the chronicles of Hugo von Reutlingen and Fritsche Closener, as well as in the Limburger Chronik (cf. P. Runge and H. Pfannensehmied, Die Lieder and Melodien der Geisaler des Jahres 13.1,9, Leipsic, 1900). There does not appear to have been a very close con­nection between the hymns of the Italian flagel­lants and those of their German brethren; but the German flagellant hymns became the basis of the hymns of the Bohemian, Polish, and Walloon flagellants. Beside the pilgrim flagellants, there also arose penitential associations which bound their members to the act of self‑castigation at the brotherhood's abode. In the Netherlands there were penitential associations, organized according to parishes, which practised flagellation on Sun­days and festivals, and attended to the burial of the dead (see ALEXIANS).

The effect of the movement of 1348‑49 was powerful. In many towns for several weeks run­ning, and almost daily, there would appear new companies of pilgrims to the number of sev­eral hundred persons. At last processions of flag­ellant women and children appeared. For the Church, whose influence over the multitudes for the time being was completely paralyzed by the flagellation movement, it became a simple act of self‑defense to oppose the movement with the sharpest weapons. On Oct. 20, 1349, Pope Clement VI. issued a bull, condemning the Flagellants and their cause in the severest terms and demanding


their suppression; self‑castigation was to be tol­erated only within bounds of ecclesiastical regu­lation. The popular ferment subsided as suddenly as it had risen. By the early fifties of the same century, flagellation in Germany was nearly every­where suppressed, and such as remained loyal to the cause were driven back into privacy as pro­scribed sectaries.

In 1399, a new flagellation movement of wide extent broke out in the Romance countries in

the appearance of the so‑called

3. The " Whites " (Albat%, Bianchi); from

Albati or Provence the movement spread over

Bianchi France, Spain, and Italy. The im‑

of 1399. pulse in this case was given by fic‑

titious revelations of future divine judgments, and the alleged command of the Virgin Mother. The movement was much enhanced by the advent of the well‑known Spanish Dominican and popular saint, Vincent Ferrar (q.v.), who prophesied the immediate approach of the end of all things. Endless throngs of flagellants fol­lowed him in the wanderings through France, Spain. and Upper Italy in the years between 1400 and 1417. These flagellant crusades filled the Council of Constance with no small anxiety; Jean Gerson, in 1417, presented to the Council a memorial in which he pronounced decidedly not only against the flagellant processions, but also against self‑castigation for the laity in general.

The procedure of the Church against the German flagellant brotherhoods in the period after 1349 had its equal in the fact that out of these associations there grew up a heretical flagellant sect, the com­bating of which occupied the Church till the end of the Middle Ages. This sect possessed an espe‑

cially strong organization in Thuringia

4. Flagel‑ about 1360 through the apocalyptical

lants in Konrad Schmid. He calculated the

Thuringia date of the final judgment as the about i36o. year 1369, and his numerous adherents

Konrad undertook to prepare themselves for

Schmid. the event by penitential flagellation.

It is probable that Schmid and his followers were also strongly influenced by the doc­trines of the Waldenses, which were widely dis­seminated in Thuringia. The Thuringian flagel­lants are alleged to have rejected all sacraments and the entire ceremonial and hierarchical system of the Church; there was to arise instead a chili­astic kingdom, to whose government Schmid be­lieved himself called. In 1369 many flagellants, among them Schmid himself, were burned at the stake. But his followers thenceforth identified him with Enoch and Elijah, and expected him shortly to hold the final judgment in place of Christ. From the close of the fourteenth century the Church repeatedly interposed with sanguinary severity against the Thuringian flagellants; but they fur­tively held their ground until the end of the fifteenth century.

The Italian flagellant associations, after their first appearance in 1260, complied in all points with the rules of the Church, and experienced no small measure of Church favor. Flagellant associations were organized in nearly all the cities of Italy; in


Flavian of Conatantinople

many cities, as for instance, in Gubbio, Perugia, public maintained itself to the nineteenth century

and Fabriano, no fewer than three, in Padua six, and in some cases to quite recent date, in East

existed side by side at the same India, the Azores and the Canary Islands, Italy,

5. Later time. The direction of a number of and the southern Tyrol. Flagellation of laymen

Italian these brotherhoods, though not of all,, in private at present is confined to somewhat narrow

Brother‑ was vested in the mendicant orders. circles; thoroughgoing directions with regard to

hoods. A good many of them devoted them‑ the most suitable kind of flagellation and the in­

selves also to the care of the poor and struments to be applied are given by C. Capellmann

' ls. The Italianin his Pastoralmedicin (12th ed., Aachen, 1898, p.

osition in the his‑ 175). In the Greek Church flagellation has ap­

ors of the popularpeared only here and there in certain monastic

drama. Even thecircles. Some Russian sects, however, are said to

g religious hymnspractise it in their so‑called services after a fashion

Subsequently the reminding of the dervishes. HERMAN HAUPT.

zealously‑ cultiva‑BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. E. G. F&rstemann, Die christiichen

more and .pore Geisalergesellachaften, Halle, 1828 (antiquates most of the

d soon becoming earlier literature); J. Morinus, Commentaries hiatoncaa de

discipline in administrations . . pornitentim • • ob‑

form in the tobook vii chap 14 pp. 471 sqq•, Antwerp. 1882;



the sick, and maintained hospita

flagellants occupy an important p tory of Italian literature as treat

religious lyric and the spiritual

early flagellants of 1260 had sung

in the popular speech (laude). vernacular spiritual song was

tad in the flagellant brotherhood crowding out the Latin hymns, an

the most richly developed litery

Italian language. At an early period certain dra­matic elements found their way into the spiritual popular song, the singers, for instance, turning with appeals and questions to Christ or Mary, and receiving answers from them. From this point it was but a alight step to complete dramatization of the laude, and the creation of the popular religious play. The stage presentation of these dramatic laude, whose theme, of course, purported to be first and foremost the history of the life and Passion of Christ, is to be rated henceforth among the prin­cipal services of the Italian flagellant brotherhoods. See RELIGIOUS DRAMAS.

From the sixteenth century onward, the Society of Jesus wrought with impassioned zeal toward the diffusion of self‑castigation, especially in the Marianite sodalities under Jesuit direction. In close touch with the Jesuits were also the French penitential and flagellant brotherhoods of the six‑

teenth century, which had much in­6. Later fluence in the political life of France Manifests‑ under King Henry III (1574‑89).

tioas and In Germany, too, owing mainly to the

Develop‑ influence of the Jesuits and Capuchins,

meats. the self‑castigation of laymen was

again widely espoused in the sixteenth

century. The most notable German scholar of the

Jesuit Order, Jacob Gretscher (q.v.), compiled

(1806‑13) a comprehensive history and vindication

of self‑castigation, with a view to promoting its

diffusion as widely as possible. Thanks again to

the Jesuits' propaganda, flagellation celebrated

brilliant triumphs, after the sixteenth century, in

parts beyond Europe; especially in India, Persia,

Japan, the Philippines, and particularly in the

American provinces of Spain. Indeed even to the

present day flagellation has stoutly asserted itself

in South America, Mexico, and in the southwestern

portion of the United States‑ the brotherhoods

(Ht;rmanos pen.itentes) of New Mexico and Colorado

recently numbered their members by thousands,

and pushed their fanaticism to the point of cruci­

fying their members, insomuch that Leo XIII. felt

prompted to interpose against their processions.

In South America. flagellation of laymen is still in

many places a customary and regular practise, in

specified churches, and according to ritual forms.

In like manner the practise of self‑castigation in

aerva •• •

L. Holster and M. Brockie, Codes regularum monaati­carum et canonicarum, ii. 329, v. 98, 967, vi. 97, 181, 258, 278, 340. 523, Augsburg, 1759; Kober, in TQ, Ivii (187b), 3 sqq., 355 eqq.; P. Hinschius, System des katholiachen Kire)terarechta, iy. 737, 803, 814, v. 78, 547, 824, Berlin, 1887; H. C. Lea. Hint. of inquisition, i. 272, 484, ii. 381 sqq., New York, 1906; idem, H%st. of Auricular Confession

ii. 152‑153, London, 1898; U. Zockler, Askew and MSnch­thum, Frankfort, 1897; W. M. Cooper, Flagellation and as Flagellants, London, 1898; A. Cabarbs. La Flagella­tion dons fhiatoire et la littErsture, Paris. 1899; h`'tuda our la Flagellation, ib. 1899 (includes religious and primitive uses); J. Holmes, Memoirs of Private Flagellation. ib. 1899; A. Eulenberg, Sadiamua and Maaochdamua, New

York, 1902; H%et. of Flagellation among Different Nations, ib. 1904; Heimbucher, Order and Xonpregationen, ii. 221,

iii. 263; KL, iii., 1819 sqq•. 1532 sqq.

II. Helyot, Ordrea monaatiques, vol. viii.; G. Lami,

Lezioni di antich%th toscane. pp. 813‑671 Florence, 1788; G. B. Vermiglioli, Stories a constituzwni dally confraternity

dad Nob%li dells Giustizia, Perugia, 1848; A. Stumpf, Hie­toria ftagel7antium, Halls, 1838; J. J. I. von D6llinger, in H%atoriachea Taschenbueh, 1871, pp. 322 eqq.; E. Monaci, in R%viata d% fiiologia Romanzs, i (1872). 235 eqq.;

R. Rehricht, Bibliographiache Beitrdtge our Geachishte der Geissler, in ZKG, i (1877), 313 aqq.: H: Haupt, Relipitlse Sekten in Franker, W iirzburg, 1882; Idem, in ZKG, ix (1888). 114 eqq.; R. Ilemger. Der Schwaru Tod in Deutschland, Berlin, 1882; C. Lechner, in Hiatoriaches Jahrbuch der Gorreageaellachaft, v (1884), 438 eqq.' idem, Die groese Geiaselfahrt des . . 13.49, ib. v. 437‑482; A. Gaspary. Geachichte der italieniachen Litteratur, i. 141 eqq., Berlin, 1885; F. Haseaurek, Vier Jahre enter den Spaniah­Amerikanern, pp. 141 aqq., Dresden, 1887; P. Fredericq, Corpus documentorum %nquisitionda . . Neerlandica, i. 190 eqq., ii. 98 eqq., Ghent, 1889‑98; idem, Geachiedan%a der Inyuisitie in de Nederlanden, ii. 8 eqq., 1897; A. D 'An­cons, Origini dal teaCro italiano, vol. i. passim, Turin, 1891;

G. de Gregorio, Capitoli dells prima compagn4a di diecd­plina d% San N%colb di Palermo, Palermo, 1891; W. Crei­senach, Geschichte des neueren Dramas, i. 304 eqq., Halle, 1893; G. Mazzatinti, Coatituzion% dei diseiplinati d. 3. Andrea di Perugia, Forli. 1893; P. Fags, Hint. de S. Vin­cent Ferrier, 2 vols., Paris, 1894; E. Michael, in ZKT, xxiii. (1899) 180‑181; F. Rungs, Die Lieder and Melodien der Geissler, Leipsic, 1900; G. Galli, Diaciplinanti dell Um‑

bria dal 1880 ale Zoro Laud%, supplement to Giornale atorico delta letteratura Italians, Turin. 1908; P. Flade, in

Beitriige zur aocha%achen Kirchenpeach%chte. g. 81 eqq.; G. B. Menapaee. Notizie stories intorno a% battuti dal TrenClno, in Archivio Trentina, vole. ix.‑a.; Nea>1der,

Christian Church, v. 412; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 788 eqq., v. 1, pp. 875 sqq.




preacher and pedagogue; b. at Beihingen near Ludwigsburg (8 m. n. of Stuttgart) Oct. 3, 1713;



d. at Manchingen (7 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) June 1, 1797. He went through the usual course of study of the Wurttemberg theologians, became preacher in Hohenasperg in 1742, in Metterzimmern in 1747, and in Manchingen in 1760. Though he always remained a simple country parson, he possessed a marked personality, an original wit ,and a clear perception which in its judgment of men and things was remarkably accurate. He was sincere, up­right, and courageous enough to tell the truth to the reigning duke and his courtiers. His theolog­ical position was that of Bengel, whose disciple he was, and he was as mild as his teacher and avoided all theological Sad churchly extremes, both of Pietism and of rationalism.

He is chiefly known as a teacher. Even while a

student he began to instruct young people from

pure love, and continued this activity until his

old age. He usually had fifteen to twenty pupils

in his home, children and youths from every class

and destined for the most different vocations.

His methods of teaching were entirely original.

By the influence of his vital Christian personality,

by the power of his forbearing, active, supplicating

love, he made efficient men even from the most

cankerous material. (H. MOSAPP.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. F. Ledderhose, Leben and Schrsften room

J. F. Flattich, Heidelberg, 1873; idem, Z9pe Gus dam Lebm lee . . . J. F. Flattich, Stuttgart, 1873; C. Schafer, Flatr"'s pddagopiachea System, Frankfort, 1871; P. Paulus, J. F. Flattieh, sin Sokrates unserer Zeit, Stuttgart, 1875; G. Weitbreht, J. F. FlattdWs psydolopiache Bei­trdpe aw Gymnasialpddapopik, ib. 1873.

FLAVEL, JOHN: English Presbyterian; b. At Bromsgrove (12 m. s.s.w. of Birmingham), Worces­tershire, c. 1630; d. at Exeter, Devonshire, June 26, 1691. He studied at Oxford and in 1650 became curate of Diptford, in Devonshire. In 1656 he removed to Dartmouth. On being deprived of his living in 1662 by the Act of Uniformity, he con­tinued to preach privately until the Five Mile Act (1665) drove him from Dartmouth. He then re­tired to Slapton, five miles away, where he con­tinued to preach. bn the granting of the indul­gence of 1671 he resumed his services at Dartmouth. Later the privilege of preaching was withdrawn from him and he was forced to seek safety in London. Afterward he returned to Dartmouth and met his people nightly at his own house, until in 1687, on the relaxation of the penal laws, they built a meet­ing‑house for him. Flavel was a voluminous writer of popular works strongly Evangelical in sentiment, including, Husbandry Spiritualized (London, 1669); Navigation Spiritualized (1671); A Saint Indeed (1671); The Fountain of Life Opened (1672); The, Seaman's Companion (1676); and An Exposition of the Assembly's Catechism (1693). There have been several collected editions of his works (new ed., 6 vols., London, 1820), and some of his writings are still reprinted as tracts.

BIHLIOaaAP87; The Life is prefixed to the collected edition

of his Works. Consult: A. b Wood, Athena: Oxonisnaea, ed. P. Bliss, iv. 323‑326, London, 1820; S. Palmer, Non. conformists' Memorial, ii. 18‑22, London, 1778.

FLAMM: The name of two bishops of Antioch. 1. Patriarch 381‑404; b. in the early part of the fourth century; d. in Antioch June, 404.


Flavian of Constantinople

of the sixty years of his life before he was consecrated bishop of Antioch in 381 little is known; Chrysostom states that he was the child of wealthy parents who died while he was still young. Despite his wealth he remained faithful to the ascetic ideal, and as an adherent of the Nicene party, to which he may have been converted by Eustathius (see EUSTATHIBs OF ANmOCH), whose last sermon he heard, was one of the Successful opponents of the Arianism of Bishop Leontius (344‑357). At that period he evidently sided with the partizans of Eustathius, but after the formation of the neo‑Nicene party Flavian joined it and during the banishment of Meletius (see MELETius of ANTZocH) he and his friend Diodorus (q.v.) directed the fortunes of the neo‑Nicenes of Antioch with wise resistance to Arian teachings. In 378 Diodorus was consecrated bishop of Tarsus, and three years later Flavian accompanied Meletius to Constanti­nople, only to be chosen, after the sudden death of this bishop, his successor by the neo‑Nicene ma­jority in the First Council of Constantinople. This 'choice, however, resulted in many dissensions, the primary consequence being a revival of the Mele­tian schism (see MELwTIUs OF ANTlocn). Apart from this there is but scanty knowledge of his episcopate. He ordained both Chrysostom and Theodore ‑ of Mopsuestia to the priesthood, the former in 386, while in the following year he has­tened to Constantinople in a successful endeavor to appease £he emperor's anger at the affront shown him by the riotous citizens of Antioch who had mutilated the imperial statues. He emphasized the honor due to the saints, and was eager that they should be interred far from heretical graves. Flavian convened a synod of three other bishops and thirty priests and deacons to oppose the Mes­salians (q.v.), and Adelphins, one of their leaders, was condemned, with his followers, and excommu­nicated. He was still able to travel to Constan­tinople in 394. The precise day of his death is unknown, but it certainly was not Sept. 27, his festival in the Greek Church.

Except for an allusion of Photius to two letters of Flavian against the Memalians, one to the in­habitants of Osrhoene and the other to an Armenian bishop, only nine brief citations from nine homilies are known, seven of these being found in the Eranistea, of Theodoret and two in Leontius of Byzantium. These fragments are sufficient, how­ever, to show that he was Antiochian in dogmatics. The oration ascribed to him by Chrysostom as delivered before Theodosius is in great part, if not entirely, the invention of his pupil.

2. Bishop 498‑512. See MoNoPHysITES.

(F. LooFs.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of knowledge are the $isL sod. of

Theodoret and the writings of Chryeoetom. Consult:

Tillemont, M6moires, vol. x.; idem, Histoirs des empereurs,

vol. a. L.; E. Dupin, Nouvelle bibliothkw lee auteurs

sodhiaa"iii. 6‑7, Paris, 1893; Ceillier, Auteurs saerbs,

vi.3 10‑318 et passim; DCB, ii. 527‑531; %L, iv. 1544‑46.

FLAVL43 OF CONSTANTINOPLE: Bishop of Ccnstantinople; b. in the second half of the fourth century; d. at Hypepe in Lydia, 449. Little is known concerning him except his part in the Eutychian controversy (Bee EuTycHiAN‑

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