The great flagellant movement of the years 13481349 is very closely connected with the apparition of the terrible pestilence known se the black death.
Originating in the East, by 1347 the a. The plague had found entrance into DalFlagellants matia, Upper Italy, and Southern
of r 348‑49• France, and from these three centers of
contagion it spread toward Central Europe in 1348. Probably attempts to avert the threatening disaster by organizing flagellant processions were first made in Italy. . From Upper Italy the movement then took its course, as precursor of the plague‑, by way of Hungary into Germany, then into Holland; Bohemia, Poland, Denmark, and even England, and reached its climax in the summer of 1349. The populace was already highly stirred up by apocalyptic expectations, and the plague was regarded as the premonitory sign of the great revolution of all things. Flagellation seemed the fitting preparation for the coming kingdom of God, and a substitute for the clergy, grown faithless to their charge. An apocryphal letter of Christ, originating in a much earlier age,
and purporting to have fallen to the earth at Jerusalem, which with menace of frightful vindictive judgment called men to repentance, was everywhere read aloud by the wandering flagellants, and appears to have been one of the most effective instruments in their hands for extending their doctrine of penance by flagellation. In more than one instance the flagellants took a hostile stand against the clergy. They also were active in the persecutions of the Jews in 1348‑49, though these, indeed, were already incited before the flagellants' appearance. Probably here also apocalyptic anticipations of a general social convulsion were a contributing factor.
As in 1260, so again in 1348‑49 the flagellants formed themselves into fraternities, which usually bound their members to a penitential season of thirty‑three days and a half. At such times they generally wandered far away from their homes in extended processions. Admission to the brotherhood had to be preceded by an act of general confession, reconciliation with enemies, and formal promise of unconditional obedience to the fraternity superior. All intercourse, even all conversation, with women was forbidden in most of the fraternities. The flagellants generally wore white undergarments, with mantles and hats marked with red crosses; whence they were commonly known in Germany as Kreuzbruder (" Brethren of the Cross "; Crucifratres, Cruciferi). Selfeastigation was performed twice a day, preferably in public squares, amid the intonation of hymns and according to a definitely prescribed ceremonial. Their hymns especially attracted the attention of their contemporaries. Quite a number of those of the German flagellants are recorded in the chronicles of Hugo von Reutlingen and Fritsche Closener, as well as in the Limburger Chronik (cf. P. Runge and H. Pfannensehmied, Die Lieder and Melodien der Geisaler des Jahres 13.1,9, Leipsic, 1900). There does not appear to have been a very close connection between the hymns of the Italian flagellants and those of their German brethren; but the German flagellant hymns became the basis of the hymns of the Bohemian, Polish, and Walloon flagellants. Beside the pilgrim flagellants, there also arose penitential associations which bound their members to the act of self‑castigation at the brotherhood's abode. In the Netherlands there were penitential associations, organized according to parishes, which practised flagellation on Sundays and festivals, and attended to the burial of the dead (see ALEXIANS).
The effect of the movement of 1348‑49 was powerful. In many towns for several weeks running, and almost daily, there would appear new companies of pilgrims to the number of several hundred persons. At last processions of flagellant women and children appeared. For the Church, whose influence over the multitudes for the time being was completely paralyzed by the flagellation movement, it became a simple act of self‑defense to oppose the movement with the sharpest weapons. On Oct. 20, 1349, Pope Clement VI. issued a bull, condemning the Flagellants and their cause in the severest terms and demanding
their suppression; self‑castigation was to be tolerated only within bounds of ecclesiastical regulation. The popular ferment subsided as suddenly as it had risen. By the early fifties of the same century, flagellation in Germany was nearly everywhere suppressed, and such as remained loyal to the cause were driven back into privacy as proscribed sectaries.
In 1399, a new flagellation movement of wide extent broke out in the Romance countries in
the appearance of the so‑called
3. The " Whites " (Albat%, Bianchi); from
Albati or Provence the movement spread over
Bianchi France, Spain, and Italy. The im‑
of 1399. pulse in this case was given by fic‑
titious revelations of future divine judgments, and the alleged command of the Virgin Mother. The movement was much enhanced by the advent of the well‑known Spanish Dominican and popular saint, Vincent Ferrar (q.v.), who prophesied the immediate approach of the end of all things. Endless throngs of flagellants followed him in the wanderings through France, Spain. and Upper Italy in the years between 1400 and 1417. These flagellant crusades filled the Council of Constance with no small anxiety; Jean Gerson, in 1417, presented to the Council a memorial in which he pronounced decidedly not only against the flagellant processions, but also against self‑castigation for the laity in general.
The procedure of the Church against the German flagellant brotherhoods in the period after 1349 had its equal in the fact that out of these associations there grew up a heretical flagellant sect, the combating of which occupied the Church till the end of the Middle Ages. This sect possessed an espe‑
cially strong organization in Thuringia
4. Flagel‑ about 1360 through the apocalyptical
lants in Konrad Schmid. He calculated the
Thuringia date of the final judgment as the about i36o. year 1369, and his numerous adherents
Konrad undertook to prepare themselves for
Schmid. the event by penitential flagellation.
It is probable that Schmid and his followers were also strongly influenced by the doctrines of the Waldenses, which were widely disseminated in Thuringia. The Thuringian flagellants are alleged to have rejected all sacraments and the entire ceremonial and hierarchical system of the Church; there was to arise instead a chiliastic kingdom, to whose government Schmid believed himself called. In 1369 many flagellants, among them Schmid himself, were burned at the stake. But his followers thenceforth identified him with Enoch and Elijah, and expected him shortly to hold the final judgment in place of Christ. From the close of the fourteenth century the Church repeatedly interposed with sanguinary severity against the Thuringian flagellants; but they furtively held their ground until the end of the fifteenth century.
The Italian flagellant associations, after their first appearance in 1260, complied in all points with the rules of the Church, and experienced no small measure of Church favor. Flagellant associations were organized in nearly all the cities of Italy; in
Flagellation THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
Flavian of Conatantinople
many cities, as for instance, in Gubbio, Perugia, public maintained itself to the nineteenth century
and Fabriano, no fewer than three, in Padua six, and in some cases to quite recent date, in East
existed side by side at the same India, the Azores and the Canary Islands, Italy,
5. Later time. The direction of a number of and the southern Tyrol. Flagellation of laymen
Italian these brotherhoods, though not of all,, in private at present is confined to somewhat narrow
Brother‑ was vested in the mendicant orders. circles; thoroughgoing directions with regard to
hoods. A good many of them devoted them‑ the most suitable kind of flagellation and the in
selves also to the care of the poor and struments to be applied are given by C. Capellmann
' ls. The Italianin his Pastoralmedicin (12th ed., Aachen, 1898, p.
osition in the his‑ 175). In the Greek Church flagellation has ap
ors of the popularpeared only here and there in certain monastic
drama. Even thecircles. Some Russian sects, however, are said to
g religious hymnspractise it in their so‑called services after a fashion
Subsequently the reminding of the dervishes. HERMAN HAUPT.
zealously‑ cultiva‑BIBLIOGRAPHY: I. E. G. F&rstemann, Die christiichen
more and .pore Geisalergesellachaften, Halle, 1828 (antiquates most of the
d soon becoming earlier literature); J. Morinus, Commentaries hiatoncaa de
discipline in administrations . . pornitentim • • ob‑
form in the tobook vii chap 14 pp. 471 sqq•, Antwerp. 1882;
flagellants occupy an important p tory of Italian literature as treat
religious lyric and the spiritual
early flagellants of 1260 had sung
in the popular speech (laude). vernacular spiritual song was
tad in the flagellant brotherhood crowding out the Latin hymns, an
the most richly developed litery
Italian language. At an early period certain dramatic elements found their way into the spiritual popular song, the singers, for instance, turning with appeals and questions to Christ or Mary, and receiving answers from them. From this point it was but a alight step to complete dramatization of the laude, and the creation of the popular religious play. The stage presentation of these dramatic laude, whose theme, of course, purported to be first and foremost the history of the life and Passion of Christ, is to be rated henceforth among the principal services of the Italian flagellant brotherhoods. See RELIGIOUS DRAMAS.
From the sixteenth century onward, the Society of Jesus wrought with impassioned zeal toward the diffusion of self‑castigation, especially in the Marianite sodalities under Jesuit direction. In close touch with the Jesuits were also the French penitential and flagellant brotherhoods of the six‑
teenth century, which had much in6. Later fluence in the political life of France Manifests‑ under King Henry III (1574‑89).
present day flagellation has stoutly asserted itself
in South America, Mexico, and in the southwestern
portion of the United States‑ the brotherhoods
(Ht;rmanos pen.itentes) of New Mexico and Colorado
recently numbered their members by thousands,
and pushed their fanaticism to the point of cruci
fying their members, insomuch that Leo XIII. felt
prompted to interpose against their processions.
In South America. flagellation of laymen is still in
many places a customary and regular practise, in
specified churches, and according to ritual forms.
In like manner the practise of self‑castigation in
aerva •• •
L. Holster and M. Brockie, Codes regularum monaaticarum et canonicarum, ii. 329, v. 98, 967, vi. 97, 181, 258, 278, 340. 523, Augsburg, 1759; Kober, in TQ, Ivii (187b), 3 sqq., 355 eqq.; P. Hinschius, System des katholiachen Kire)terarechta, iy. 737, 803, 814, v. 78, 547, 824, Berlin, 1887; H. C. Lea. Hint. of inquisition, i. 272, 484, ii. 381 sqq., New York, 1906; idem, H%st. of Auricular Confession
ii. 152‑153, London, 1898; U. Zockler, Askew and MSnchthum, Frankfort, 1897; W. M. Cooper, Flagellation and as Flagellants, London, 1898; A. Cabarbs. La Flagellation dons fhiatoire et la littErsture, Paris. 1899; h`'tuda our la Flagellation, ib. 1899 (includes religious and primitive uses); J. Holmes, Memoirs of Private Flagellation. ib. 1899; A. Eulenberg, Sadiamua and Maaochdamua, New
York, 1902; H%et. of Flagellation among Different Nations, ib. 1904; Heimbucher, Order and Xonpregationen, ii. 221,
iii. 263; KL, iii., 1819 sqq•. 1532 sqq.
II. Helyot, Ordrea monaatiques, vol. viii.; G. Lami,
Lezioni di antich%th toscane. pp. 813‑671 Florence, 1788; G. B. Vermiglioli, Stories a constituzwni dally confraternity
dad Nob%li dells Giustizia, Perugia, 1848; A. Stumpf, Hietoria ftagel7antium, Halls, 1838; J. J. I. von D6llinger, in H%atoriachea Taschenbueh, 1871, pp. 322 eqq.; E. Monaci, in R%viata d% fiiologia Romanzs, i (1872). 235 eqq.;
R. Rehricht, Bibliographiache Beitrdtge our Geachishte der Geissler, in ZKG, i (1877), 313 aqq.: H: Haupt, Relipitlse Sekten in Franker, W iirzburg, 1882; Idem, in ZKG, ix (1888). 114 eqq.; R. Ilemger. Der Schwaru Tod in Deutschland, Berlin, 1882; C. Lechner, in Hiatoriaches Jahrbuch der Gorreageaellachaft, v (1884), 438 eqq.' idem, Die groese Geiaselfahrt des . . 13.49, ib. v. 437‑482; A. Gaspary. Geachichte der italieniachen Litteratur, i. 141 eqq., Berlin, 1885; F. Haseaurek, Vier Jahre enter den SpaniahAmerikanern, pp. 141 aqq., Dresden, 1887; P. Fredericq, Corpus documentorum %nquisitionda . . Neerlandica, i. 190 eqq., ii. 98 eqq., Ghent, 1889‑98; idem, Geachiedan%a der Inyuisitie in de Nederlanden, ii. 8 eqq., 1897; A. D 'Ancons, Origini dal teaCro italiano, vol. i. passim, Turin, 1891;
G. de Gregorio, Capitoli dells prima compagn4a di diecdplina d% San N%colb di Palermo, Palermo, 1891; W. Creisenach, Geschichte des neueren Dramas, i. 304 eqq., Halle, 1893; G. Mazzatinti, Coatituzion% dei diseiplinati d. 3. Andrea di Perugia, Forli. 1893; P. Fags, Hint. de S. Vincent Ferrier, 2 vols., Paris, 1894; E. Michael, in ZKT, xxiii. (1899) 180‑181; F. Rungs, Die Lieder and Melodien der Geissler, Leipsic, 1900; G. Galli, Diaciplinanti dell Um‑
Beitriige zur aocha%achen Kirchenpeach%chte. g. 81 eqq.; G. B. Menapaee. Notizie stories intorno a% battuti dal TrenClno, in Archivio Trentina, vole. ix.‑a.; Nea>1der,
Christian Church, v. 412; Schaff, Christian Church, iv. 788 eqq., v. 1, pp. 875 sqq.
FLATT, JOHANN FRIEDRICH. See Tt1s>rraEx
SCHOOL, THE OLDER.
FLATTICH, JOHANN FRIEDRICH:Swabian
preacher and pedagogue; b. at Beihingen near Ludwigsburg (8 m. n. of Stuttgart) Oct. 3, 1713;
d. at Manchingen (7 m. n.w. of Stuttgart) June 1, 1797. He went through the usual course of study of the Wurttemberg theologians, became preacher in Hohenasperg in 1742, in Metterzimmern in 1747, and in Manchingen in 1760. Though he always remained a simple country parson, he possessed a marked personality, an original wit ,and a clear perception which in its judgment of men and things was remarkably accurate. He was sincere, upright, and courageous enough to tell the truth to the reigning duke and his courtiers. His theological position was that of Bengel, whose disciple he was, and he was as mild as his teacher and avoided all theological Sad churchly extremes, both of Pietism and of rationalism.
He is chiefly known as a teacher. Even while a
student he began to instruct young people from
pure love, and continued this activity until his
old age. He usually had fifteen to twenty pupils
in his home, children and youths from every class
and destined for the most different vocations.
His methods of teaching were entirely original.
By the influence of his vital Christian personality,
by the power of his forbearing, active, supplicating
love, he made efficient men even from the most
cankerous material. (H. MOSAPP.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: K. F. Ledderhose, Leben and Schrsften room
J. F. Flattich, Heidelberg, 1873; idem, Z9pe Gus dam Lebm lee . . . J. F. Flattich, Stuttgart, 1873; C. Schafer, Flatr"'s pddagopiachea System, Frankfort, 1871; P. Paulus, J. F. Flattieh, sin Sokrates unserer Zeit, Stuttgart, 1875; G. Weitbreht, J. F. FlattdWs psydolopiache Beitrdpe aw Gymnasialpddapopik, ib. 1873.
FLAVEL, JOHN: English Presbyterian; b. At Bromsgrove (12 m. s.s.w. of Birmingham), Worcestershire, c. 1630; d. at Exeter, Devonshire, June 26, 1691. He studied at Oxford and in 1650 became curate of Diptford, in Devonshire. In 1656 he removed to Dartmouth. On being deprived of his living in 1662 by the Act of Uniformity, he continued to preach privately until the Five Mile Act (1665) drove him from Dartmouth. He then retired to Slapton, five miles away, where he continued to preach. bn the granting of the indulgence of 1671 he resumed his services at Dartmouth. Later the privilege of preaching was withdrawn from him and he was forced to seek safety in London. Afterward he returned to Dartmouth and met his people nightly at his own house, until in 1687, on the relaxation of the penal laws, they built a meeting‑house for him. Flavel was a voluminous writer of popular works strongly Evangelical in sentiment, including, Husbandry Spiritualized (London, 1669); Navigation Spiritualized (1671); A Saint Indeed (1671); The Fountain of Life Opened (1672); The, Seaman's Companion (1676); and An Exposition of the Assembly's Catechism (1693). There have been several collected editions of his works (new ed., 6 vols., London, 1820), and some of his writings are still reprinted as tracts.
BIHLIOaaAP87; The Life is prefixed to the collected edition
of his Works. Consult: A. b Wood, Athena: Oxonisnaea, ed. P. Bliss, iv. 323‑326, London, 1820; S. Palmer, Non. conformists' Memorial, ii. 18‑22, London, 1778.
FLAMM: The name of two bishops of Antioch. 1. Patriarch 381‑404; b. in the early part of the fourth century; d. in Antioch June, 404.
Flavian of Constantinople
of the sixty years of his life before he was consecrated bishop of Antioch in 381 little is known; Chrysostom states that he was the child of wealthy parents who died while he was still young. Despite his wealth he remained faithful to the ascetic ideal, and as an adherent of the Nicene party, to which he may have been converted by Eustathius (see EUSTATHIBs OF ANmOCH), whose last sermon he heard, was one of the Successful opponents of the Arianism of Bishop Leontius (344‑357). At that period he evidently sided with the partizans of Eustathius, but after the formation of the neo‑Nicene party Flavian joined it and during the banishment of Meletius (see MELETius of ANTZocH) he and his friend Diodorus (q.v.) directed the fortunes of the neo‑Nicenes of Antioch with wise resistance to Arian teachings. In 378 Diodorus was consecrated bishop of Tarsus, and three years later Flavian accompanied Meletius to Constantinople, only to be chosen, after the sudden death of this bishop, his successor by the neo‑Nicene majority in the First Council of Constantinople. This 'choice, however, resulted in many dissensions, the primary consequence being a revival of the Meletian schism (see MELwTIUs OF ANTlocn). Apart from this there is but scanty knowledge of his episcopate. He ordained both Chrysostom and Theodore ‑ of Mopsuestia to the priesthood, the former in 386, while in the following year he hastened to Constantinople in a successful endeavor to appease £he emperor's anger at the affront shown him by the riotous citizens of Antioch who had mutilated the imperial statues. He emphasized the honor due to the saints, and was eager that they should be interred far from heretical graves. Flavian convened a synod of three other bishops and thirty priests and deacons to oppose the Messalians (q.v.), and Adelphins, one of their leaders, was condemned, with his followers, and excommunicated. He was still able to travel to Constantinople in 394. The precise day of his death is unknown, but it certainly was not Sept. 27, his festival in the Greek Church.
Except for an allusion of Photius to two letters of Flavian against the Memalians, one to the inhabitants of Osrhoene and the other to an Armenian bishop, only nine brief citations from nine homilies are known, seven of these being found in the Eranistea, of Theodoret and two in Leontius of Byzantium. These fragments are sufficient, however, to show that he was Antiochian in dogmatics. The oration ascribed to him by Chrysostom as delivered before Theodosius is in great part, if not entirely, the invention of his pupil.
2. Bishop 498‑512. See MoNoPHysITES.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sources of knowledge are the $isL sod. of
Theodoret and the writings of Chryeoetom. Consult:
Tillemont, M6moires, vol. x.; idem, Histoirs des empereurs,
vol. a. L.; E. Dupin, Nouvelle bibliothkw lee auteurs
vi.3 10‑318 et passim; DCB, ii. 527‑531; %L, iv. 1544‑46.
FLAVL43 OF CONSTANTINOPLE: Bishop of Ccnstantinople; b. in the second half of the fourth century; d. at Hypepe in Lydia, 449. Little is known concerning him except his part in the Eutychian controversy (Bee EuTycHiAN‑