FITZGERALD, JAMES NEWBURY: Methodist Episcopal bishop; b. at Newark, N. J., July 27, 1837; d. at Hongkong, China, Apr. 3, 1907. He was admitted to the New Jersey bar in 1858, but in 1862 gave up his practise and entered the Methodist ministry. After holding various pastorates in the Newark Conference he was recording secretary of the Missionary Society of‑the Methodist Episcopal Church, from 1880 till in 1888 he was elected bishop. Besides being presiding elder of the Newton, New‑
ark, and Jersey City districts and secretary of the Newark Conference for eleven years, he was a member of the General Conference in 1876, 1880, 1884, and 1888.
FIVE MILE ACT: An Act of Parliament passed in 1665, and completing the system of measures intended to repress the non‑conformists known as the Clarendon Code. By its provisions no clergyman who had been expelled from his living by the Act of Uniformity of 1662 was to come within five miles of a city or corporate town, or of any parish where he had formally preached, unless he declared that he would not " at any time attempt any alteration of government either in Church or State," under a penalty of forty pounds; and no one who had not taken the oath of passive obedience and conformed was to teach in any school or take pupils in his house. As the Puritan congregations were mainly in the towns, this act cut them off from the ministrations of their chosen leaders and in most cases from even private education, and hastened the decline of Puritanism throughout England.
BrBweoBAFBY: The text is printed in Gee and Hardy, Documents, pp. 6211‑623. Consult: D. Neal, History of the Puritans, ii. 255 sqq. of Harper's ed., New York, n.d.; J. H. Overton, Church %n England, ii. 143, London, 1897.
FIVE POINTS OF CALVINISM:The five characteristic tenets of Calvinism as opposed to Arminianism, defended by the Synod of Dort (1618‑19) in answer to the Five Articles of the Arminians or Remonstrants, put forth in 1610. They are particular predestination, limited atonement, natural inability, irresistible grace, and the perseverance of saints. See ARMINIUB, JACOBUS, AND ARMINIANISM; CALVINISM; REMONBTRANTs.
Early Life (§ 1).
In Wittenberg. Opposition to Melanchthon (§ 2).
In Magdeburg. The Adiaphoristic Controversy (§ 3).
The Majoristie, Osiandrian, and achwenekfeldian Controversies (§ 4).
Fruitless Attempts at Reconciliation (§ 5).
Flacius Professor in Jena (§ 6).
The Synergistic Dispute (§ 7).
Flacius a Wanderer (§ 8).
Last Days at Frankfort (§ 9).
Flacius' Literary and Scholarly Work (§ 10).
Flacius (Latinized from Vlacich, or Francovich)
was born at Albona (42 m. s.s,e. of Trieste), Istria,
Baing a good Catholic he decided to become a monk,
study theology, and preach, but his uncle, Baldo
Lupetino, provincial ( f the Minorites, commended
Luther to him as a restorer of the true Gospel and
sent him to Germany in 1539. He now continued
his studies at Basel, but went to Tubingen in 1540,
and to Wittenberg in 1541, where he was favorably
received and assisted by Melanchthon. After an
inner conflict that lasted three years, Bugenhagen
directed him to Luther and it was through him that Flacius attained peace of soul by accepting the free grace of God. He had personal experience of the consolation of the Evangelical doctrine of justification by faith alone, and henceforth the defense of this doctrine in its purity and inviolability became the guiding star of his life.
In 1544 he accepted the chair of Hebrew at the university, in 1545 he married, and in 1546 received the master's degree. His extraordinary gifts excited great expectations with Luther and Melanchthon. He lectured on the Old Testament,
2. In Wit‑ epistles of Paul and on Aristotle; but
tenberg. his activity was suddenly interrupted
Opposition by the outbreak of the Schmalkald to Melanch‑ War. In 1547 he fled to Brunswick,
thon. where he lived by teaching. After
a few months, however, he was able
to return to Wittenberg, but the time of rest was
now over for him. After the Augsburg Interim in
1548 the Elector Maurice of Saxony entered into
negotiations with the theologians and estates of his
tracing of the sources, but also on account of its
method. The anti‑Roman interest had sharpened
the vision and made it capable of critical achieve
ments that marked a new epoch. [In reply Baro
nius produced his superior "Annals."] Finally
Flacius produced two works of importance in
the sphere of Biblical science: his Clovis seriP
turtB sacra seu de sermons sacraruin literarum
(1567) and Glossacompendiaria in Novum Testamentum (1570).
Flacius compels admiration by his learning and
extraordinary scholarly achievements, his inde
fatigable capacity for work, his indomitable zeal
in defense of pure doctrine, but it is impossible to
overlook certain grave defects in his nature, such
as arrogance, obstinacy, and even malice‑in
fact an entire inability to appreciate the rights of
others and their motives. [It is more charitable
to suppose that he was mentally slightly unbal
anced.] (G. KAwERAU.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Some of his letters are in CR, viii. and ix. and the Supplementum. His merits were long insufficiently appreciated and his rehabilitation is largely due to A. Twesten, Matthias Flaccius Illyricus, eine Vorlesung, Berlin, 1844, and W. Preger, Matthiae Placcius Myricw and seine Zeit, 2 vols., Erlangen, 1859‑61 (a list of his many publications is given ii. 539‑572). Consult also J. J. I. D611inger, Die Reformation, ii. 224 sqq., Regensburg, 1848; A. Ritschl, Theologie and Metaphysik, pp. 52 sqq., Bonn, 1881; ADB, vii. 88 sqq.
Corporal Punishment as a Penalty of the Church (§ 1).
Self‑scourging or Flagellation (§ 2). II. Flagellants.
The Flagellants of 1260. Venturinus of Bergamo, 1334 (§ 1).
The Flagellants of 1348‑49 (§ 2).
The Albati or Bianchi of 1399 (§ 3).
Flagellants in Thuringia about 1360. Konrad Schmid (§ 4).
Later Italian Brotherhoods (§ 5).
Later Manifestations and Developments (§ 6).
I: Flagellation: Corporal chastisement as an ec‑
clesiastical corrective pena4y for clerics appears
in the Western Church as early as the fifth century
transferred from the Roman penal law,
I. Corporal but resorted to only in rare instances.
clerical delinquents confined in the same, down to
the present time. Flagellation as a monastic pun
ishment for misdeeds of monks dates back to the
earliest period of monasticism, and the rule of Bene
dict of , Nursia makes extensive use of corporal
chastisement. The congregations which had their
origin in the Benedictine Order, as well as the other
monastic orders, sisterhoods, and knightly orders
founded in the twelfth century and later, adopted
flagellation; but various orders which arose after
the Council of Trent did not include this penalty
in their rules. For certain offenses of laymen, too
(desecration of Sunday, fortune‑telling, etc.), the
Church from the sixth century prescribed cor
poral chastisement as the penalty, and flogging in
particular teas threatened against such offenses
until the eighteenth century. Lastly, the Inqui
sition applied flogging and flagellation as one of the
lightest penalties in case of the voluntary recanta
tion of heresy. In penitential discipline, corporal
chastisement and particularly flagellation came to
THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG
have a rapidly increasing importance after the beginning of the tenth century. Corpora, chastisements in this connection are first mentioned (evidently as something newly in vogue) in the collection of canons of Regmo of Prism (c. 960); they appear as a substitute for public penance, and at first were doubtless always executed by some outside hand, mostly by the priest. The sermons of the well‑known crusade‑preacher Fulco of Neuilly (q. v.) so intensified ascetic zeal in Paris about 1195 that great throngs of the penitent submitted their bared bodies to Fulco's chastising.
The beginnings of ascetic self‑scourging, or flagellation proper, are still obscure. It is supposed to have originated about 1000 among certain Italian hermits, whose glowing penitential fervor became heightened into visionary and ecstatic enthusiasm, and started a religious movement which spread
throughout all Italy. The hermit s. Self‑ Marinus, who lived on an island of the
Scourging Po, and his pupil Romuald (d. 1027),
or Flagel‑ as well as the latter's disciples on
lation. Monte Sitrio, mutually chastised one
another with rods and lashes. Flagellation at their own hands was a customary practise, in the first half of the eleventh century, among the monks of Fontavellana (near Faenza) in Umbria, a foundation of the miracle‑working hermit and penitential preacher Dominic of Foligno (d. 1031); likewise among the hermits of Luceoli in Umbria, who styled themselves disciples of St. Romuald. In both places the monk Dominicus Loricatus (d. 1060) distinguished himself by his severe self ‑caetigations, and they found an enthusiastic admirer and imitator in Peter Damian (q.v.), who entered the cloister of Fontavellana about 1035. To the far‑reaching influence of Peter Damian, who also became prominent as the literary
a‑'0 t of Ila! tion it" rapid extension then and
P Zd is p Ltinen'tly
The monastic reform movement which emanated from Cluny with the more acute sense of sin awakened by Bernard of Clairvaux, and especially the ascetic enthusiasm propagated among the people by the mendicant orders and their preaching of Christ's Passion speedily made flagellation a most widely extended and impressive means of penance and expiation. Many of the monastic orders and sisterhoods adopted the provision of systematic self‑castigation, or flagellation, in their rules. No doubt, mainly through the influence of the two great mendicant orders, this ascetic practise was then further popularized in the ranks of the laity. With most of the stricter orders (among others the Trappists, Carthusians, Priests of the Oratory, Fathers of Christian Doctrine, Discalced Carmelites, Capuchins, Redemptorists, Brothers of Charity), flagellation has continued in practise down to this day. It is exercised for the most part as a devotional act, usually once or several times in the week, according to a definitely prescribed ritual. The opposition to the practise incited by the monastic reformer Jan Busch (q.v.) is an incident without parallel.
II. Flagellants: The great flagellant pilgrimage of the year 1260 was the first of its kind. A sig‑
nificant prelude thereto was the powerful religious movement called forth in Italy in 1223 by the preaching of repentance and pardon by a num‑
ber of mendicant monks, particularly r. The the Dominican Giovanni da Vicenza.