FENN, WILLIAM WALLACE: Unitarian; b. at Boston, Mass., Feb. 12, 1862. He was graduated at Harvard in 1884 and Harvard Divinity School in 1887. He was minister of Unity Church, Pittsfield, Mass., 1887‑91 and of the First Unitarian Society of Chicago 1891‑1901. Since 1901 he has been Bussey professor of systematic theology in Harvard Divinity School, of which he bas been dean since 1906. He was Shaw Lecturer on Biblical literature in Meadville Theological School 18921901 and preacher to Harvard University 18961898 and again since 1902. He has been American editor of the Hibbert Journal since 1902, and has written Lessons on Luke (in collaboration with H. G. Spaulding; Boston, 1890); Lessons on the Acts (1894); The Flowering of the Hebrew Religion (Chicago, 1894); and Lessons On the Psalms (Boston, 1900).
FENTON, FERRAR: Church of England layman; b. at Waltham (18 m. s.e. Of Hull), Lincolnshire, Dec. 4, 1832. He was educated privately, and until the age of twenty‑eight lived the life of a student. Financial reverses then compelled him to become an operator in a factory, where he eventually rose to be manager and overseer. He undertook various commercial enterprises, and amassed a fortune as the promoter of the De Beers Company for the development of the South African diamond mines after the panic of 1882, but in 1893 lost heavily through the dishonesty of a legal adviser. Since then, however, he has recovered much of his wealth. In theology he holds to the authenticity and divine origin of the Bible, and regards "the so‑called ` higher criticism' as either wild delusion or deliberate swindle." He has a knowledge of many languages and has written various pamphlets, linguistic works, and biographies, but his chief work is his Bible in Modern English witty Critical Notes (London, 1903; published first fn parts, 1883‑1903), an independent translation from the original languages.
FERDINAND II. AND THE COUNTERREFORMA. TION IN AUSTRIA.Early Progress of the Reformation (§ Reaction under Rudolph 11. (~ 2). Protestant Gains after 1800 (§ 3).
Forces working for the Roman Catholics lp gl,
Fe II. His Measures in Inner Austria (15).
Ferdinand Emperor 1619‑27 (¢ 6
The culminating poin
Counterreformation 0, cu
in the Austrian crown lan elsewhere in German,; t
curs generation Hap‑burp
to the Reformation, does not appear before the first third of the Thirty Years' War, under the rule
of Emperor Ferdinand II. When in r. Early 1564 the Austrian lands passed from
progress of the hand of Ferdinand I. into the the Refor‑ hands of his three sons, Maximilian, motion. Ferdinand, and Charles, the Reforma‑
tion had made nearly equal progress in all these jurisdictions; on all sides it had been tacitly tolerated, and had accordingly gained such accretions that the complete transition to Protestantism appeared to depend only on its recognition by law and the creation of a church organization. The majority of all classes of society had adopted the new ideas. In Bohemia and Moravia, in Silesia and Lusatia, in Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Gbr1tZ, nearly the entire population was filled with the new spirit. In Tyrol alone did the Roman Church continue securely predominant.
Maximilian IL, in Bohemia (with its dependencies, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) and Upper and Lower Austria, and Archduke Charles in Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gdrita) continued at first in the tolerant disposition of their father. There soon followed most important concessions to the Protestant territorial estates. In
Lower Austria, from 1568 to 1571, Maximilian granted religious freedom for the nobility and their subjects; the same concession was straightway claimed for themselves by the Upper Austrians, and it was not denied them, although it was never formally extended to them. The Bohemian nobility obtained the like religious freedom in 1575. In Inner Austria, from 1572 to 1578, Charles accorded the so‑called religious pacification, which allowed the lords and knighthood to profess the Augsburg Confession and tolerated Protestant schools and churches already existent; only for the crown cities and towns and for his own estates did the archduke retain express control of religion. Charles made these concessions with the utmost reluctance; nothing but need of money and the threatening danger from the Turks constrained him to do so. Indeed a similar external pressure was operative in the case of Maximilian IL; but his religious sensibilities suffered less by the concession, as he had considerable sympathy with the new views.
The first lawful foundations for the development
of a Protestant Church were won through these
concessions but under the impulse of an energetic
reaction that was developing with new force in
Romanism, the successors of these princes, supported
by the Jesuits and the Roman Catholic
s. Reaction remnant of the nobility, ,q,tl'OVe t0
under set the concessions aside. In 1578,
Rudolph IL Rudolph II. (eon of Maximilian II.,
emperor 1576‑1612) been to expel all
the Protestant preaches from Vienna; but when he encountered strong opposition to his designs in
). and be set to work
t of the Reformation Upper Austria, more Prudently,
a full Nevertheless he achieved a good deal during the
later following decade,‑ by legs[ proceedings, one church
ds of the than after another was taken away from the Protestant
he decisive issue, adversely nobles of Lower Austria and restored to the Roman
Ferdinand II THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOGSoo
worship, while entire towns wereled back to the an
cient faith, thus paving the way as far as possible
for the party of Catholic restoration. The situation
successor to the royal dignity, his courage rose in
the direction of Counterreformation measures. The
consequence was the Bohemian uprising, and
Bohemia's assertion of independence of the Haps
burg dynasty; a Protestant prince, Frederick V.
of the Palatinate, was elected king. But with the
suppression of the Bohemian insurrection, came
likewise the final, decisive defeat of Austrian Prot
estantism. Ferdinand II., the successor of Matthias,
became the restorer of Roman Catholicism for all
Austria, just as Matthias had been for Inner Austria
two decades previously (see INNER AUSTRIA, THE
Ferdinand (b. at Graz July 9, 1578; d. in Vienna Feb. 15, 1637) had received a strictly ecclesiastical education, first at Graz, then at the University of Ingolstadt; his favorite reading, thanks to the influence of the Jesuits, was edifying tracts and legends of the saints. He succeeded his father, the Archduke Charles, in 1590 and began to reign actively in 1595, with the firm resolve to
5. Ferdi‑ help forward the Roman Church once nand II. His again to victory. At the end of June,
Measures 1598, he began to institute summary
in Inner measures throughout Inner Austria.
Austria. Protestant preachers and teachers were
expelled, the Protestant churches were
closed, Protestant subjects were directed to choose
between return to Romanism and emigration; even
the nobility were forbidden the exercise of Prot
estant worship, their confession of faith being alone
left free. Later, when at the height of his success
in 1628, Ferdinand enjoined the nobility to return
to the Roman Church within a year at the latest.
So‑called " reformation committees " were active
throughout the country; the Jesuits now extended
their labors more widely than ever; while the pro
hibition of foreign schools restricted all aspirants
for education to the schools of the Society of Jesus.
Ferdinand allowed nothing to disturb him in carry
Catholic, and this irrespective of his rank or station,
the nobility being granted a term of six months for
making the change, and a corresponding term for
the sale of their properties in the event of disobeying
these orders. In the course of some years Protes
tantism was effectually suppressed in Bohemia.
Similar procedure was followed in Moravia and
Lower Austria, where, however, the nobility re
mained exempt from compulsory conversion; not
until 1641 were more severe measures inaugurated
against them, because they were alleged to stand
in alliance with the Swedes. In Upper Austria the
Counterreformation dated only from 1624, and was
virtually accomplished by 1626.
The last active manifestations of Protestant
views in central Austria were set aside in 1628 by
the expulsion of the Protestant nobles, to the re
ported number of 800. In Silesia, too, notwith
standing earlier promise to the contrary, Protes
tantism was antagonized from 1627 onward;
although in this case only particular jurisdictions
came to be Romanized anew, which the fortunes of
war brought completely under the emperor's hand.
To carry the Counterreformation through in Hungary
was not in Ferdinand's power, but as time progressed,
the peaceable Counterreformation was directed by
Cardinal Peter Ptizmany (q.v.), archbishop of Gran,
and achieved such results that at all events the ma
jority of the nobility again became Roman Catholic.
As concerns the internal affairs of Austria, the vic
tory of the Counterreformation was likewise the
defeat of the estates and their policy; the princes
needed no longer to fear the claims of self‑willed
estates. WALTER GOETZ.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. von Hurter, Geaehichte Ferdinands ll.. 4 vols., Schaffhausen, 1850‑64; F. Stieve, Politik Baierns, vol. i., Munich, 1878; idem, Der ober6sterreichiache Bauernaufstand des . . 16,26, ib. 1891; T. Wiedemann, Reformation and Gegenreformation im Lande unter der Enns, i.‑v., Prague, 1879‑86; J. Him, Erzherzog Ferdinand 11. von Tirol, Innsbruck, 1885; H. Ziegler, Die Gegenre(ormation in Schlesien. Halle, 1888; F. Seheiehl, Bilder ausderZeilderGegenre(ormation, Gotha, 1890; A. Gindely, GegenreformationinBohmen, Leipsie, 1894; J. Loserth, Die steirische Religionepaziflkation, Graz, 1896; idem, Reformation and Gegenre/ormation in den innerbsterreichischen Landern, Stuttgart, 1898; L. Schuster, Farattischof Martin Brenner, Graz, 1898; A. R. Pennington, The CounterRe/ormalion in Europe, London, 1899; Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii., Wars of Religion, pp. 568‑569, 572‑573, 575, 687, 689. 702, 714 aqq., 723 sqq., New York, 1905.
FERGUSON (FERGUSSON), DAVID:Scotch Reformer; b., perhaps at Dundee, c. 1525; d. at Dunfermline (16 m.n.w. of Edinburgh), Fifeshire, Aug. 13, 1598. He was a glover by trade, but later acquired an education, though there is no evidence that he ever attended a university. He was one of the earliest teachers of the Reformed doctrines, being chosen pastor at Dunfermline in the first appointment of ministers in Scotland in 1560. In 1567 he was also made pastor of Rosyth, for which Cumnock and Beith were substituted in 1574. He preached before the regent at Leith on Jan. 13, 1571‑72, protesting against the alienation of the estates of the Church for the personal use of the nobility or governmental purposes. This sermon received the approval of the General Assembly of the same year, and was heartily indorsed by John Knox. Ferguson was moderator of the General Assembly in 1573 and again in 1578, and for a number of years he was one of the assessors to the moderator. His acquaintance with James 1. as well as his ready wit, caused him to be repeatedly chosen one of the deputies of the General Assembly when it wished to bring matters to the attention of the king, and in Aug., 1583, he was one of the seven ministers cited by the king to attend a convention held at St. Andrews to answer for certain proceedings of the Assembly. At the meeting of the Synod of Fife at Cupar in Feb. 1597‑98, Ferguson was the oldest minister in Scotland, but was still able to protest vigorously against any measure which he considered conducive to the reintroduction of episcopacy into Scotland. The works of Ferguson were: An Answer to an Epistle written by Renat Benedict, the French Doctor, to John Knox (Edinburgh, 1563); the sermon already noted (1572); the posthumous Scottish, Proverbs (1641); and Epithalamium mystieum Solomonis regis, sine Analysis eritico‑poetics Cantici Canticorum (1677). His T;‑acts were edited at Edinburgh for the Bannatyne Club in 1860.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: John Row, Historie of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow Society publication), Edinburgh, 1842; Introductory notice to the Bannatyne Club's reprint of Ferguson's Tracts, ib. 1869; Hew Scott, Fasti ecclesiee Scotean'e, II., ii. 565‑566, 3 vols., ib. 1866‑71; DNB, xviii, 341‑342.
FERGUSON, FERGUS: Evangelical Union of Scotland; b. at Glasgow Sept. 6, 1824; d. there Nov. 3, 1897. At the age of fourteen he entered Glasgow University and was graduated (B.A.) at the end of six sessions (M.A., some years later).
Fersaeon THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 302
He then studied at the (Congregational) Glasgow
Theological Academy under Ralph Wardlaw until
1844, when, with eight other students, he was ex
pelled for not believing in the doctrine of uncon
ditional election and the special and irresistible
the families of his brother and his brother‑in‑law,
John Collet he settled at Little Gidding, and es
tablished there what the Puritans called his Prot
estant nunnery. In 1626 he was ordained deacon
by Laud, but would never consent to take priest's orders, and the most flattering offers of valuable benefices were not sufficient to tempt him from his life of religious devotion. Matins and evensong were said daily by Ferrar in the church of Little Gidding, the other canonical hours being said in the manor house. One room was set apart as an oratory for general devotions, and there were two separate oratories for the men and women at night. Vigils were kept throughout the night; and Ferrar himself, who slept on the floor, arose at one o'clock in the morning for religious meditation. Everything was done by rule, and there was some definite occupation for every hour. It was Ferrar's theory that everybody should learn a trade; and bookbinding was taught in his institution. Numerous elaborate volumes bound here are still extant, including a copy of Ferrar's Harmony of the Gospels (1635) made for Charles I., who held Ferrar in great veneration and visited him in 1642, and again in 1646. Ferrar also provided a free school for the children of the neighborhood, and served himself as teacher. The institution soon attracted the enmity of Puritanism. In 1641 it was unjustly attacked in a pamphlet entitled The Arminian Nunnery; and early in 1647 the manor and the church at Little Gidding were sacked by the Parliamentary army. The church was carefully restored in 1853.
BIRmOORAPH7: Two lives, by his brother John Ferrar and Dr. Jebb, are reproduced in Cambridge in the 17th Century, ed. J. E. B. Mayor, Cambridge, 1855; F. Turner, Brief Memoirs of Nicholas Perrar, London, 1837; P. Peckard, Memoirs o/ Nicholas Perrar, Cambridge, 1790, abridged London, 1852; T. T. Carter, Nicholas Perrar; his Household and his Friends, ib. 1892; DNB, xviii. 377380.
FERRAR, ROBERT: Bishop of St. David's; b. near Halifax (14 m. w.s.w. of Leeds), Yorkshire, before 1509; burned at Carmarthen, Wales, Mar. 30, 1555. He probably studied at Cambridge, afterward at Oxford (B.D., 1533), where he became a canon regular of the order of St. Augustine and a member of the priory of St. Mary's. He read Luther's works, became a Reformer, and in 1528 was compelled to recant. Later he aided Henry VIII. in suppressing the monasteries, and in 1540, a pension of eighty pounds a year was bestowed upon him, a large amount for those times. During the reign of Edward VI. he enjoyed the patronage of the Duke of Somerset, who employed him in carrying on the Reformation. He was elevated to the see of St. David's in 1548; but on his arrival in his diocese in 1549 he found serious difficulties awaiting him. Technical flaws were found in his commission, false charges were trumped up against him. Somerset, now in the Tower, could do nothing for him, and in 1551 Ferrar was thrown into prison and kept there till the accession of Queen Mary. He was deprived of his bishopric in Mar., 1554, condemned as a heretic a year later, and was burned at Carniarthen on Mar. 30, 1505. To a bystander who commiserated him he remarked, " If you see me once to stir while I suffer the pains of burning, then give no credit to those doctrines for which I die." He made good his assertion, for lie did not move till a blow on the head felled him in the midst of the flames.