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FENN, WILLIAM WALLACE: Unitarian; b. at Boston, Mass., Feb. 12, 1862. He was graduated at Harvard in 1884 and Harvard Divinity School in 1887. He was minister of Unity Church, Pitts­field, Mass., 1887‑91 and of the First Unitarian Society of Chicago 1891‑1901. Since 1901 he has been Bussey professor of systematic theology in Harvard Divinity School, of which he bas been dean since 1906. He was Shaw Lecturer on Biblical literature in Meadville Theological School 1892­1901 and preacher to Harvard University 1896­1898 and again since 1902. He has been American editor of the Hibbert Journal since 1902, and has written Lessons on Luke (in collaboration with H. G. Spaulding; Boston, 1890); Lessons on the Acts (1894); The Flowering of the Hebrew Religion (Chicago, 1894); and Lessons On the Psalms (Boston, 1900).


FENTON, FERRAR: Church of England layman; b. at Waltham (18 m. s.e. Of Hull), Lincolnshire, Dec. 4, 1832. He was educated privately, and until the age of twenty‑eight lived the life of a student. Financial reverses then compelled him to become an operator in a factory, where he eventually rose to be manager and overseer. He undertook vari­ous commercial enterprises, and amassed a fortune as the promoter of the De Beers Company for the development of the South African diamond mines after the panic of 1882, but in 1893 lost heavily through the dishonesty of a legal adviser. Since then, however, he has recovered much of his wealth. In theology he holds to the authenticity and divine origin of the Bible, and regards "the so‑called ` higher criticism' as either wild delusion or de­liberate swindle." He has a knowledge of many languages and has written various pamphlets, linguistic works, and biographies, but his chief work is his Bible in Modern English witty Critical Notes (London, 1903; published first fn parts, 1883‑1903), an independent translation from the original languages.


FERDINAND II. AND THE COUNTERREFORMA. TION IN AUSTRIA. Early Progress of the Reformation (§ Reaction under Rudolph 11. (~ 2). Protestant Gains after 1800 (§ 3).


Forces working for the Roman Catholics lp gl,


Fe II. His Measures in Inner Austria (15).


Ferdinand Emperor 1619‑27 (¢ 6

The culminating poin




Counterreformation 0, cu


in the Austrian crown lan elsewhere in German,; t


curs generation Hap‑burp


RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


F6nelon

Ferdinand II


to the Reformation, does not appear before the first third of the Thirty Years' War, under the rule


of Emperor Ferdinand II. When in r. Early 1564 the Austrian lands passed from

progress of the hand of Ferdinand I. into the the Refor‑ hands of his three sons, Maximilian, motion. Ferdinand, and Charles, the Reforma‑

tion had made nearly equal progress in all these jurisdictions; on all sides it had been tacitly tolerated, and had accordingly gained such accretions that the complete transition to Protes­tantism appeared to depend only on its recognition by law and the creation of a church organization. The majority of all classes of society had adopted the new ideas. In Bohemia and Moravia, in Silesia and Lusatia, in Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Gbr1tZ, nearly the entire population was filled with the new spirit. In Tyrol alone did the Roman Church continue securely pre­dominant.

Maximilian IL, in Bohemia (with its dependen­cies, Moravia, Silesia, Lusatia) and Upper and Lower Austria, and Archduke Charles in Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Gdrita) con­tinued at first in the tolerant disposition of their father. There soon followed most important con­cessions to the Protestant territorial estates. In

Lower Austria, from 1568 to 1571, Maximilian granted religious freedom for the nobility and their subjects; the same concession was straightway claimed for themselves by the Upper Austrians, and it was not denied them, although it was never formally extended to them. The Bohemian no­bility obtained the like religious freedom in 1575. In Inner Austria, from 1572 to 1578, Charles ac­corded the so‑called religious pacification, which allowed the lords and knighthood to profess the Augsburg Confession and tolerated Protestant schools and churches already existent; only for the crown cities and towns and for his own estates did the archduke retain express control of religion. Charles made these concessions with the utmost reluctance; nothing but need of money and the threatening danger from the Turks constrained him to do so. Indeed a similar external pressure was operative in the case of Maximilian IL; but his religious sensibilities suffered less by the con­cession, as he had considerable sympathy with the new views.

The first lawful foundations for the development

of a Protestant Church were won through these

concessions but under the impulse of an energetic

reaction that was developing with new force in

Romanism, the successors of these princes, supported

by the Jesuits and the Roman Catholic

s. Reaction remnant of the nobility, ,q,tl'OVe t0


under set the concessions aside. In 1578,

Rudolph IL Rudolph II. (eon of Maximilian II.,

emperor 1576‑1612) been to expel all
the Protestant preaches from Vienna; but when he encountered strong opposition to his designs in

). and be set to work

t of the Reformation Upper Austria, more Prudently,


a full Nevertheless he achieved a good deal during the

later following decade,‑ by legs[ proceedings, one church

ds of the than after another was taken away from the Protestant

he decisive issue, adversely nobles of Lower Austria and restored to the Roman


Ferdinand II THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG Soo



Ferguson


worship, while entire towns wereled back to the an­

cient faith, thus paving the way as far as possible

for the party of Catholic restoration. The situation

in Lower Austria stopped short of any formally

compacted procedure on the side of the Protestant

estates; but in Upper Austria the opposition against

all these measures maintained itself till 1597, at.

last flaming up into the peasants' insurrection of

1595‑97, which had its origin in economic distress

and the straits of the Church. With this insurrec­

tion the Protestant opposition was at the same time

decisively suppressed by superior force of arms.

A " reformation committee " thereupon began its

relentless activity; the nobility, indeed, were still

allowed the exercise of Protestant worship in their

castles, but the citizens and peasants were so hard

pressed in the course of a few years that by the

beginning of the seventeenth century the dominion

of the Roman Church in Upper Austria was out­

wardly restored. However, a large portion of the

population remained Protestant at heart.

From about 1600, Rudolph II. was diseased in

mind. The consequences of his condition were so

disastrous, at last, for the govern­

3. Protes‑ ment of his dominions that in 1604

tant Gains it seemed as though a collapse of his

after i6oo. rule, and, with it, of the Hapsburg

power, were imminent. The emperor's

nearest kinsmen sought to obviate the danger by

leaguing themselves against Rudolph and preparing

to supplant him through his younger brother

Matthias. Rudolph not being tractable, Matthias

resorted to open conflict, and to strengthen his

power he had to entreat the aid of the estates of

Hungary and the crown lands and to fortify him­

self by concessions. In 1606 he promised the

Hungarian Protestants free exercise of religion,

and guaranteed the Moravian estates against all

manner of religious persecution. It proved more

difficult for him to make terms with the Austrian

estates; these demanded, before the act of homage,

complete religious freedom and new statutory

rights for themselves. Nevertheless Matthias re­

luctantly yielded in the essential points, while the

estates employed this time of independence in

reorganizing the church on Protestant lines and

in instituting public worship and schools on all

sides accordingly. The same conditions favored the

estates in Bohemia; as a condition of supporting

the emperor against Matthias they first obtained

provisional religious freedom, and then, on July 9,

1609, the imperial brief in solemn acknowledgment

of religious freedom and the ecclesiastical organi­

zation of the Protestants. Similar results were

achieved for themselves by the Silesian estates.

On succeeding to the crown lands and the empire

in 1612, Matthias confirmed the grants by his

brother.


The conflict between Rudolph and Matthias had

much strengthened the position of the Austrian

Protestants; apart from Tyrol and Inner Austria,

the situation was now as favorable as at the close

of the reign of Maximilian II. But there were

some weighty differences. Zealous and closely com­

pacted Roman mincrities stood side by side with

the Protestant estates of the realm; the Roman




Church had gained internal strength; the Jesuits had founded settlements and schools in all the im­portant centers, exerting an influence

¢: Forces over the coming generation; the uni‑

Working versity at Graz belonged to them out­for the right, and Vienna was transferred to Roman them in 1617; the Capuchins likewise

Catholics. exerted a fruitful activity. And still

tenser than formerly had grown the op­

position between the government and the Protestant

estates; ecclesiastical and political points of conten­

tion had become inseparably interwoven, and Prot­

estantism and " estatism " belonged together like

Catholicism and imperialism. The more the power

of the estates increased, and the more distinctly

the nobility strove for a federation of all the Bohe­

mian and Austrian estates, just so much the more

hostile became the attitude of the monarchy toward

all rights and strivings of the estates. Matthias

at first allowed things to take their course; but

when he contrived, in 1617, to induce the estates

to " accept " Ferdinand of Styria as prospective

successor to the royal dignity, his courage rose in

the direction of Counterreformation measures. The

consequence was the Bohemian uprising, and

Bohemia's assertion of independence of the Haps­

burg dynasty; a Protestant prince, Frederick V.

of the Palatinate, was elected king. But with the

suppression of the Bohemian insurrection, came

likewise the final, decisive defeat of Austrian Prot­

estantism. Ferdinand II., the successor of Matthias,

became the restorer of Roman Catholicism for all

Austria, just as Matthias had been for Inner Austria

two decades previously (see INNER AUSTRIA, THE

REFORMATION 1N).

Ferdinand (b. at Graz July 9, 1578; d. in Vienna Feb. 15, 1637) had received a strictly ecclesiastical education, first at Graz, then at the University of Ingolstadt; his favorite reading, thanks to the in­fluence of the Jesuits, was edifying tracts and leg­ends of the saints. He succeeded his father, the Archduke Charles, in 1590 and began to reign act­ively in 1595, with the firm resolve to

5. Ferdi‑ help forward the Roman Church once nand II. His again to victory. At the end of June,

Measures 1598, he began to institute summary



in Inner measures throughout Inner Austria.


Austria. Protestant preachers and teachers were

expelled, the Protestant churches were

closed, Protestant subjects were directed to choose

between return to Romanism and emigration; even

the nobility were forbidden the exercise of Prot­

estant worship, their confession of faith being alone

left free. Later, when at the height of his success

in 1628, Ferdinand enjoined the nobility to return

to the Roman Church within a year at the latest.

So‑called " reformation committees " were active

throughout the country; the Jesuits now extended

their labors more widely than ever; while the pro­

hibition of foreign schools restricted all aspirants

for education to the schools of the Society of Jesus.

Ferdinand allowed nothing to disturb him in carry­

ing out his policy; neither the remonstrances of his

counselors, of the emperor, nor of the Protestant

estates of the realm, caused him to halt. The

opposition of his nobility, the vigorous resistance





301 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Ferdinand II

Ferguson


of the people at large, frequently manifested, proved

all in vain; his own sovereign power, energetically

applied, showed itself strong enough to execute his

will with promptness. By 1602, the Counter­

reformation was completed in the central Austrian

jurisdictions, though at the cost of a serious and

irretrievable decline of their prosperity, since many

of the stanchest and wealthiest inhabitants had

left home for the sake of their faith.

When Ferdinand, after the death of Matthias in

1619, had been elected emperor, his first step, in

alliance with Maximilian of Bavaria and the League,

was to put down the Bohemian in­

6. Ferdinand surrection. Then from 1621 forward,

Emperor began the systematic execution of the

0rg‑z7. Counterreformation in Bohemia, Mo­

ravia, and Upper and Lower Austria.

In Bohemia first the Protestant teachers and

preachers were expelled from the country, atten­

dance at Roman Catholic worship was made com­

pulsory, and the people were given the choice be­

tween subjection and emigration; in this case the

property of emigrants was confiscated. In the

cities, Catholic municipal counselors were put in

office, and the Protestants were excluded from all

municipal and civil positions. Military billeting

helped to break the spirit of the recalcitrant, while

rewards were bestowed for transition to Romanism.

From 1624, measures were also prosecuted against

the nobility, and in July, 1627, there was issued an

imperial patent to the effect that nobody should

be tolerated in the land unless he were Roman

Catholic, and this irrespective of his rank or station,

the nobility being granted a term of six months for

making the change, and a corresponding term for

the sale of their properties in the event of disobeying

these orders. In the course of some years Protes­

tantism was effectually suppressed in Bohemia.

Similar procedure was followed in Moravia and

Lower Austria, where, however, the nobility re­

mained exempt from compulsory conversion; not

until 1641 were more severe measures inaugurated

against them, because they were alleged to stand

in alliance with the Swedes. In Upper Austria the

Counterreformation dated only from 1624, and was

virtually accomplished by 1626.

The last active manifestations of Protestant

views in central Austria were set aside in 1628 by

the expulsion of the Protestant nobles, to the re­

ported number of 800. In Silesia, too, notwith­

standing earlier promise to the contrary, Protes­

tantism was antagonized from 1627 onward;

although in this case only particular jurisdictions

came to be Romanized anew, which the fortunes of

war brought completely under the emperor's hand.

To carry the Counterreformation through in Hungary

was not in Ferdinand's power, but as time progressed,

the peaceable Counterreformation was directed by

Cardinal Peter Ptizmany (q.v.), archbishop of Gran,

and achieved such results that at all events the ma­

jority of the nobility again became Roman Catholic.

As concerns the internal affairs of Austria, the vic­

tory of the Counterreformation was likewise the

defeat of the estates and their policy; the princes



needed no longer to fear the claims of self‑willed


estates. WALTER GOETZ.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. von Hurter, Geaehichte Ferdinands ll.. 4 vols., Schaffhausen, 1850‑64; F. Stieve, Politik Baierns, vol. i., Munich, 1878; idem, Der ober6sterreichiache Bauern­aufstand des . . 16,26, ib. 1891; T. Wiedemann, Refor­mation and Gegenreformation im Lande unter der Enns, i.‑v., Prague, 1879‑86; J. Him, Erzherzog Ferdinand 11. von Tirol, Innsbruck, 1885; H. Ziegler, Die Gegen­re(ormation in Schlesien. Halle, 1888; F. Seheiehl, Bilder ausderZeilderGegenre(ormation, Gotha, 1890; A. Gindely, GegenreformationinBohmen, Leipsie, 1894; J. Loserth, Die steirische Religionepaziflkation, Graz, 1896; idem, Reforma­tion and Gegenre/ormation in den innerbsterreichischen Landern, Stuttgart, 1898; L. Schuster, Farattischof Mar­tin Brenner, Graz, 1898; A. R. Pennington, The Counter­Re/ormalion in Europe, London, 1899; Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii., Wars of Religion, pp. 568‑569, 572‑573, 575, 687, 689. 702, 714 aqq., 723 sqq., New York, 1905.
FERGUSON (FERGUSSON), DAVID: Scotch Reformer; b., perhaps at Dundee, c. 1525; d. at Dunfermline (16 m.n.w. of Edinburgh), Fifeshire, Aug. 13, 1598. He was a glover by trade, but later acquired an education, though there is no evidence that he ever attended a university. He was one of the earliest teachers of the Reformed doctrines, being chosen pastor at Dunfermline in the first appointment of ministers in Scotland in 1560. In 1567 he was also made pastor of Rosyth, for which Cumnock and Beith were substituted in 1574. He preached before the regent at Leith on Jan. 13, 1571‑72, protesting against the alienation of the estates of the Church for the personal use of the nobility or governmental purposes. This sermon received the approval of the General Assembly of the same year, and was heartily indorsed by John Knox. Ferguson was moderator of the General Assembly in 1573 and again in 1578, and for a number of years he was one of the assessors to the moderator. His acquaintance with James 1. as well as his ready wit, caused him to be repeatedly chosen one of the deputies of the General Assembly when it wished to bring matters to the attention of the king, and in Aug., 1583, he was one of the seven ministers cited by the king to attend a con­vention held at St. Andrews to answer for certain proceedings of the Assembly. At the meeting of the Synod of Fife at Cupar in Feb. 1597‑98, Fer­guson was the oldest minister in Scotland, but was still able to protest vigorously against any measure which he considered conducive to the reintroduction of episcopacy into Scotland. The works of Ferguson were: An Answer to an Epistle written by Renat Benedict, the French Doctor, to John Knox (Edin­burgh, 1563); the sermon already noted (1572); the posthumous Scottish, Proverbs (1641); and Epithalamium mystieum Solomonis regis, sine Analysis eritico‑poetics Cantici Canticorum (1677). His T;‑acts were edited at Edinburgh for the Ban­natyne Club in 1860.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: John Row, Historie of the Kirk of Scotland (Wodrow Society publication), Edinburgh, 1842; Intro­ductory notice to the Bannatyne Club's reprint of Fer­guson's Tracts, ib. 1869; Hew Scott, Fasti ecclesiee Sco­tean'e, II., ii. 565‑566, 3 vols., ib. 1866‑71; DNB, xviii, 341‑342.




FERGUSON, FERGUS: Evangelical Union of Scotland; b. at Glasgow Sept. 6, 1824; d. there Nov. 3, 1897. At the age of fourteen he entered Glasgow University and was graduated (B.A.) at the end of six sessions (M.A., some years later).



Fersaeon THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 302



Ferrari


He then studied at the (Congregational) Glasgow

Theological Academy under Ralph Wardlaw until

1844, when, with eight other students, he was ex­

pelled for not believing in the doctrine of uncon­

ditional election and the special and irresistible

influence of the Holy Spirit. His studies were

completed in the Theological Hall of the Evan­

gelical Union (q.v.) under James Morison (q.v.),

and he was ordained pastor of a newly formed

church of the Evangelical Union in Glasgow in

Mar., 1845. The church grew under Ferguson's

ministration and a new building was twice found

necessary. He became a leader of his denomination

and was professor of New Testament exegesis and

literature in the Theological Hall. His preaching

was popular and he was honored as one of the most

useful citizens of Glasgow. For some years he

edited the Evangelical Repository and he published

many popular volumes, including Bible Election

(Glasgow, 1854); Letters on the Principal Points



of a Calvinistic Controversy (1854); A Treatise on

Peace with God (1856); Holiness; or what we should

be and do (1862); Sacred Scenes; Notes of Travel

in Egypt and the Holy Land (London, 1864); The

History o f the Evangelical Union (1876; A Popular

Life of Christ (1878); From. Glasgow to Missouri

and Back (Glasgow, 1878); The Character of God

(London, 1881); The Patriarchs (1882).

WILLIAM ADAMSON.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Life by William Adamson, London, 1900.

FERGUSON, SAMUEL DAVID: Protestant Epis­

copal missionary bishop of Cape Palmas and parts

adjacent; b., of African descent, at Charlestown,

S. C., Jan. 1, 1842. At the age of six he was taken

by his parents to Liberia, where he was educated

in the church mission schools and received his theo­

logical training from the mission clergy. He was

ordered deacon in 1865 and priested two years later,

afte! which he was rector of St. Mark's, Harper,

Liberia, until 1885, being also a teacher in the

boys' boarding‑school at Cavalla 1862‑63 and mas­

ter of Mount Vaughan high school 1863‑73. In

1885 he was consecrated missionary bishop of Cape

Palmas and parts adjacent, and was the first negro

to be elevated to the Protestant Episcopal episco­

pate.


FERMENTARII (FERMENTTACEI). See AzY­

MITEB.


FERRAR, NICHOLAS: English clergyman;. b.

in London Feb. 22, 1592; d. at Little Gidding

(10 m. n.w. of Huntingdon), Huntingdonshire,

Dec. 4, 1637. He studied at Clare Hall, Cambridge

(B.A., 1610; M.A., 1613). From 1613 to 1618 he

traveled and studied in Germany, Italy, France, and

Spain, and on his return to England devoted himself

till 1623 to the affairs of the Virginia Company, in

which his family was interested. In 1624 he was

elected to Parliament, and took part in the im­

peachment of the Earl of Middlesex. But he soon

tired of public life, and, shrinking from the impend­

ing political disorders, with his widowed mother, and

the families of his brother and his brother‑in‑law,

John Collet he settled at Little Gidding, and es­

tablished there what the Puritans called his Prot­

estant nunnery. In 1626 he was ordained deacon


by Laud, but would never consent to take priest's orders, and the most flattering offers of valuable benefices were not sufficient to tempt him from his life of religious devotion. Matins and evensong were said daily by Ferrar in the church of Little Gidding, the other canonical hours being said in the manor house. One room was set apart as an oratory for general devotions, and there were two separate oratories for the men and women at night. Vigils were kept throughout the night; and Ferrar him­self, who slept on the floor, arose at one o'clock in the morning for religious meditation. Everything was done by rule, and there was some definite occupation for every hour. It was Ferrar's theory that everybody should learn a trade; and book­binding was taught in his institution. Numerous elaborate volumes bound here are still extant, in­cluding a copy of Ferrar's Harmony of the Gospels (1635) made for Charles I., who held Ferrar in great veneration and visited him in 1642, and again in 1646. Ferrar also provided a free school for the children of the neighborhood, and served himself as teacher. The institution soon attracted the enmity of Puritanism. In 1641 it was unjustly attacked in a pamphlet entitled The Arminian Nunnery; and early in 1647 the manor and the church at Little Gidding were sacked by the Parliamentary army. The church was carefully restored in 1853.

BIRmOORAPH7: Two lives, by his brother John Ferrar and Dr. Jebb, are reproduced in Cambridge in the 17th Cen­tury, ed. J. E. B. Mayor, Cambridge, 1855; F. Turner, Brief Memoirs of Nicholas Perrar, London, 1837; P. Peckard, Memoirs o/ Nicholas Perrar, Cambridge, 1790, abridged London, 1852; T. T. Carter, Nicholas Perrar; his Household and his Friends, ib. 1892; DNB, xviii. 377­380.

FERRAR, ROBERT: Bishop of St. David's; b. near Halifax (14 m. w.s.w. of Leeds), Yorkshire, before 1509; burned at Carmarthen, Wales, Mar. 30, 1555. He probably studied at Cambridge, afterward at Oxford (B.D., 1533), where he became a canon regular of the order of St. Augustine and a member of the priory of St. Mary's. He read Luther's works, became a Reformer, and in 1528 was compelled to recant. Later he aided Henry VIII. in suppressing the monasteries, and in 1540, a pension of eighty pounds a year was bestowed upon him, a large amount for those times. During the reign of Edward VI. he enjoyed the patronage of the Duke of Somerset, who employed him in carrying on the Reformation. He was elevated to the see of St. David's in 1548; but on his arrival in his diocese in 1549 he found serious difficulties awaiting him. Technical flaws were found in his commission, false charges were trumped up against him. Som­erset, now in the Tower, could do nothing for him, and in 1551 Ferrar was thrown into prison and kept there till the accession of Queen Mary. He was deprived of his bishopric in Mar., 1554, condemned as a heretic a year later, and was burned at Car­niarthen on Mar. 30, 1505. To a bystander who commiserated him he remarked, " If you see me once to stir while I suffer the pains of burning, then give no credit to those doctrines for which I die." He made good his assertion, for lie did not move till a blow on the head felled him in the midst of the flames.



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