261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction



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BIBLIOGRAPHY: The beat discussion and exposition is 8ch~7rer. C3eschiclUe, i. b71‑b82, 590, Eng. tranal., I. ii. 174‑187, 198, where further literature is given. Con­sult also: W. M. Ramsay, 3t. Paul the Traveller, pp. 308 eqq., New York, 1898; O. Holtamann, Neufeatamentliche Zeitpeaehiehte, TObingen, 1908; and the works on the life of the Apostle Paul.

FELIX AND REGULA: Martyrs, known as the patron saints of Zurich. According to the legend, they came to the neighborhood of Zurich on the advice of St. Maurice, and were persecuted by the emperor Maximian; after suffering frightful tortures, but encouraged to endure by a voice from the clouds, they were beheaded, and then carried their heads in their hands to the place where their bodies were to lie. This legend probably does not antedate the oldest manuscript in which it is given, of the early years of the ninth century, during which a foundation of canons grew up in connec­tion with the church dedicated to the martyrs.

(EMIL EGLI.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The anonymous Paesio is in ASS, Sept.. iii. 783‑774. Consult: Furrer, in Theolopiaehe ZeiGehritt der Schweiz, vi. 1889: O. Beer, Die ZUrcher‑flesispen St. Fenix and Regina, Zurich, 1889. The legend is ed. by A. Liitolf, Die alauberiebotei der Schweiz oor 3t. Gallus, Lu­cerne, 1871; cf. Wattenbach, DGQ, i (1893). 272.

FELIX OF UItGEL. See ADOPTIONIBM.
FELL, JOHN: Dean of Christ Church and bishop of Oxford; b. at Longworth (9 m. w.a.w. of Oxford), Berkshire, June 23, 1625; d. at Oxford July 10, 1686. He was educated at Christ Church (M.A., 1643), and was an enthusiastic Royalist, being ejected from his studentship in 1648, the year after his ordination. At the Restoration he was made canon of Christ Church, in place of the ejected Ralph Button. He became dean four months later (Nov. 30, 1660), and also chaplain to the king. As dean of Christ Church, Fell was active in restoring the ritual banished by the Puri­tans and in rebuilding portions of his college. He was vice‑chancellor of Oxford in 1666‑69, and in 1675 was consecrated bishop of Oxford. Despite his multifarious duties, Fell was a prolific author and editor. Special mention may be made of his Interest of England Stated (London, 1659); Grant­motica ratiortis, slue inatitutiones logicta (Oxford,






RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Felix and P'estua

Felton


1673); and The Vanity of Scoffing (London, 1674). His chief editions are those of Aratus and Eratos­thenes (Oxford, 1672) and Cyprian (1682).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. b Wood. Athena Oxoniensee, ed. P. Bees, iv. 193, London, 1820; Burnet's History o1 My Own Time, Supplement. edited by Miss H. C. Foxcroft, pp. 47, 214, 464, 509 note, Oxford, 1902; DNB, xviii. 293‑295.

FEUER, fel'er or (French) f6"tar', FRAN­gOIS XAVIER DE: Belgian Jesuit; b. at Brus­sels Aug. 18, 1735; d. at Regensburg, Bavaria, May 23, 1802. He entered the order of Jesuits in 1754 and later held professorships at Lux­emburg, Lioge, and Tyrnau, Hungary, whither he had gone on the expulsion of the Jesuits from France. In 1771 he returned to Belgium, residing in Lidge and Luxemburg. In 1794 he removed to Paderborn, and in 1796 to Regensburg. His works, including the Journal de Luxembourg (70 vols., 1774‑94) of which the wrote the greater part, number some, 120 volumes. The works by which he is best known appeared under the name Flexier de Rt:val, probably an anagram. They are, CaMchisme philosophique (Li6ge,1773); Dictionnaire historique et litteraire (8 vols., 1781; frequently re­printed, with additions, under the title, Biographic universelle (new ed., 8 vols., Lyons, 1860); and Coup d'wil sur le congas d'Ems (2 vols., Diissel­dorf, 1789).

BIHLIodHAPHY: Notice our to vie et tee oxvrapea de Mr. t'AbbE de Fetter, Lidge, 1802; KL, iv. 1322‑23; C. A. Balder, Lexicon . . . baieriacher SchriftsteUer, 4 vole., Augsburg, 1824‑25.

FELLTHAM, OWEN: English author; b. at Mutford, Suffolk, c. 1602; d. at Great Billing (3 m. e.n.e. of Northampton), Northamptonshire, 1668. He was probably chaplain to the family of the Earl of Thomond, at Great Billing, and is known chiefly by his Resolves, Divine, Moral, Political (London, 1620?), a collection of 100 short essays. This work, subsequently greatly aug­mented, passed through numerous editions.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An extended notice will be found in DNB. xviii. 30.3‑304.

FELTEN, PETER JOSEPH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Difren (18 m. e. of Aachen) Feb. 9, 1851. He studied in Bonn, Miinster, Wiirzburg (D.D.,1876), and Louvain. He was ordained priest in 1874, was professor of St. Cuthbert's College, Durham, England, 1877‑‑86, curate at Suchteln, 1886‑88, associate professor of New‑Testament exe­gesis at the University of Bonn 1888‑92, full pro­fessor since 1892. He has written Papst Gregor der Neunte (Freiburg, 1886); Robert Grosaeteste, Bischof van Lincoln (1887); Apostelgeschichte ubersetzt and erkldrt (1892); and Die Grandung and Ttitigkeit des Vereins vom Heiligen Karl Barromwua (Bonn, 1895).

FELTON, HENRY: English clergyman; b. in the parish of St. Martin‑in‑the‑Fields, London, Feb. 3, 1679 d. at Barwick‑in‑Elmet, near Leeds, Yorkshire, Mar. 1, 1740. He was educated at West­minster school, Charterhouse, and Saint Edmund Hall, Oxford M.A., 1702 ; B.D., 1709; D.D., 1712), of which he was made principal in 1722. On his admission to priest's orders in 1704 he left the university to preach in and about London. During 1708‑09 he was pastor of the English




Church in Amsterdam. On his return he became

domestic chaplain to the . duke of Rutland, retain­

ing this office under three successive dukes. In

1711 he was presented to the rectory of Whitwell,

Derbyshire, and in 1736 to that of Barwick‑in­

Elmet, Yorkshire. He was an eminent preacher

and his tracts and sermons received considerable

attention. His principal works are, A Dissertation



on Reading the Classics (London, 1711; 4th ed.,

1757), very popular in its day; The Resurrection o f



the Same Numerical Body and its Reunion to the

Same Soul (Oxford, 1725), an Easter sermon

preached at Oxford to refute Locke's idea of per­

sonality and identity; The Christian Faith Asserted

against Deists, Arians, and Soeinians (Oxford,

1732), Lady Moyer lectures delivered at St. Paul's

in 1728‑29, forming his greatest work; and Ser­

mons on the Creation, Fall, and Redemption of Man

(London, 1748), published, with a sketch of Felton,

by his son.

BIBLIoasAPHY: DNB, xviii. 305.

FELTON,JOHN: English Roman Catholic layman (d.1570). He was born of an old Norfolk family, in­herited large means, and lived in the dissolved abbey of Bermondsey, near Southwark, on the Surrey side of the Thames (in present London). He was an ardent Roman Catholic, and his wife had been a maid of honor to Queen Mary. She was a child friend of Queen Elizabeth, and remained on friendly terms with her. When the papal bull excommu­nicating Elizabeth arrived in England he procured copies from the Spanish ambassador and circulated them. One of them he affixed to the gate of the palace of the bishop of London, then in St. Paul's churchyard, between two and three in the morning of Thursday, May 25th, 1570 (Corpus Christi Day). The bull is dated in Rome Feb. 25th, 1570. In the list of bulls it is called Regnans in excelsis, from its opening words. After a brief introduction, in which mention is made of the " One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church, out of which is no salvation," it asserts that heresy was introduced into England by Henry VIII., purged away by Mary, but reintro­duoed by Elizabeth. It then specifies Elizabeth's offenses in abolishing the mass and other rites and ceremonies of the Roman Church, permitting heret­ical books to be circulated, and in depriving the Roman Catholic clergy of their positions and im­prisoning many of them. It then goes on to say: " We make it known that Elizabeth, and as many as stand on her side in these matters, have run into the danger of our curse and to be cut off from the unity of the body of Christ. We also make it known that we have deprived her of that right which she pretended to have in the kingdom aforesaid, and also from all and every authority, dignity, and priv­ilege of hers. We declare that all, whosoever by any occasion have taken oath to her, are forever discharged of such oath, and also from all fealty and service which was due to her by reason of her government, and we deprive the said Elizabeth of all legal claim to reign and of the allegiance of the abovesaid. We charge and forbid all and every one of her nobles, subjects and people, and others afore­said, not to be so hardy as to obey her, or her will

Fenofau the Tables

Fdnelon THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG B98



or commandments, upon pain of a similar curse upon them." Then follows the‑order for the pro­mulgation of the bull. Naturally such a bull was a great offense to all loyal subjects of Elizabeth, and he who had had the hardiness to promulgate it was considered a traitor. The culprit was quickly found out, arrested without opposition the next day, and conveyed to the Tower. On Friday, Aug. 4th, he was condemned at Guildhall on the charge of high treason, and sentenced to death. He remained in Newgate prison till Tuesday, Aug. 8th, when he was drawn on a hurdle to St. Paul's churchyard, hanged on a gallows opposite the bishop of London's palace, beheaded, quartered, and par­boiled. He met his fate with courage, and won an honorable place among the Roman Catholic martyrs under Elizabeth. This position was officiallyestab­lished on Dec. 29, 1886, when Pope Leo XIII. pro­claimed his beatification.

BIBLIoQ$APHY: For his trial see Cobbett's Complete Collec­tion of State Trials, i. 1086‑87, London, 1809 eqq. For the text of the bull am Bishop John Jewel's Works, ed. for the Parker Society, iv. 1131‑32, with Jewel's racy comments and partial translation of the bull in his dis­course entitled, A View of a Seditious Bull Sent into England from Pius Quintus, Bishop of Rome, the same, pp. 1133‑60. For Felton's beatification consult The Tablet (London) for.Jan. 15th, 1887, pp. 81‑‑82.


FENCING THE TABLES: A Scotch‑Presby­terian term for the address made at the table before the administration of the Lord's Supper, because in it the character of those who may and may not partake is described.
FENEEBERG, MICHAEL NATHANAEL: Ro­man Catholic; b. of peasant parents at Ober­dorf (37 m. n.w. of W ilrzburg), Bavaria, Feb. 9, 1751; d. at VShringen (40 m. s.w. of Stuttgart), W ilrttemberg, Oct. 12, 1812. He was educated by the Jesuits at Augsburg, and joined the order on the advice of his friend the famous Johann Michael Sailer (q.v.). After completing his studies at Ingolatadt and Regensburg, he became teacher at the Regensburg Gymnasium in 1775, then engaged in practical church work in his native village. In 1785 he was appointed professor of rhetoric and poetry in the Augsburg diocesan gymnasium at Dillingen. Being on intimate terms with Sailer, Weber, and Zimmer, who taught at the University of Dillingen, he labored in Sailer's spirit, aiming mainly at true and sincere piety without empha­sizing any confessional tendency. Sailer's views awakened the hostility of the Jesuits and their friends, and in 1793 a trial implicating the most prominent teachers of the University was held, at which Feneberg bravely defended his friends. Although the teachers were not condemned, Fene­berg left Dillingen and took charge of the parish of Seeg. He held convictions regarding justifica­tion which approached rather closely to Evangelical teachings. The tendency of his view shows itself most prominently in the fact that he laid stress on personal communion with God, and especially with Jesus Christ as personal redeemer, with entire elimination of the Church. Feneberg, however, was so little conscious of his opposition to the dogma of the Roman Church that he honestly believed


he possessed the old Catholic faith. In 1797 he

was subjected to a trial, but‑was allowed to go back

to his old parish. In 1805 he removed to Vohrin­

gen. There he completed a translation of the New

Testament (ed. and published by M. Wittmann,

afterward bishop of Regensburg, Nuremberg, 1808),

which for a long time was much used by German

Roman Catholics. (A. HAUCK.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. M. Bailer. Aus Penebxrps Leben in Sdmmt­ticks Werke, vol. xxxix., Bulzbach, 1841; C. von Schmid,

Erinnerunpen Gus rneinem Leben, 4 vols., Augsburg 1853‑

57; V. Thalhofer, Beitrage sur Geachichts des Attermysti‑

cismus im Bisthum Augsburg, pp. 68‑69, Regensburg,

1857; $L, iv. 1324‑27.

FENELOH, FRANVOIS DE SALIGNAC DE LA MOTHE.

Early Life (§ 1).

Reputation for Tolerance Unearned (§ 2). Missionary Labors (§ 3).

Tutorship of Duke of Burgundy (¢ 4). Championship of Mme. Guyon (¢ 5).

Conduct of His Diocese (§ 6).

TdIdmaque (§ 7).

Estimate of His Character (1 8).

Franqois de Salignac.de la Moths F6nelon, the French prelate and educator, was born at the castle of Fdnelon in PErigord (the modern department of the Dordogne), Aug. 6, 1651; d. at Cambrai Jan. 7, 1715. He was the younger son of the Marquis of F6nelon, and was brought up in an atmosphere of strict piety. Under the guidance of a private tutor he laid the foundation of an excellent knowl‑

edge of the classics and after a short

:. Early stay at the University of Cahors he

Life. went to Paris, where he devoted him‑

self to the study of philosophy and theology at the Jesuit CoWge du PWsis. Made an abU when only fifteen, he achieved distinction by his oratorical gifts; he later entered the semi­nary of St. Sulpice, where he spent five years in strict retirement, devoted primarily to the study of the Greek Fathers. He became a priest in 1675 and was soon made supervisor of the Nouvelles Converties, an association of women, chiefly of noble rank, whose object was to instruct women newly converted to Roman Catholicism, or those inclined toward conversion, in the principles of the Roman Catholic faith.

In his attitude toward Protestants F6nelon does not seem to have earned the epithet of " tolerant " which has been bestowed upon him not only by Roman writers but also by Protestant historians. He was certainly not free from the prejudices of his Church and his time. In his Dissertation sur la tol6rance he asserts that the Roman Church as opposed to the Protestants can not logically extend

toleration to dissidents, and in his

a. Reputa‑ sermon Pour la profession religieuse Lion for Tol‑ dune nouvelle convertie he character‑

erance izes schism as the worst of crimes.

Unearned. Speaking of his old friend Mme.

Guyon he says " If it be true that she has attempted to disseminate the damnable teach­ings of Molinos, they ought to burn her and not admit her to communion, as the Bishop of Meaux has done.." Finelon employed pacific means, nevertheless, in his missionary work, and through his fine oratorical powers, his instructive cate‑




897


RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA


chetical addresses, and his eminently gracious personality, he succeeded in winning over large numbers from the Protestant faith; not that he omitted, indeed, to make use of the promise of pensions and other worldly rewards to facilitate conversion. Against obstinacy, moreover, he fre­quently resorted to force. Certain " stiff‑necked " members of the institution directed by him he caused to be imprisoned as criminals of state, and others were punished by incarceration in the loath­some HBpital GEneral. The results of his ten years' experience as director of the Nouvelles Converties he embodied in his work De l',sducd­tion des fines [new ed., Paris, 1885, Eng. transl., The Education of Daughters, e. g. Dublin, 1841] a book characterized by deep psychologic in­sight into the mental life of the child, and one that has retained value to the present time. Start­ing out from the principle that education must content itself with following and supplementing the workings of nature, he lays it down that the exercise of love directed toward the confidence of the child, and the indirect form of imparting knowledge, are the true methods of the teacher, in opposition to the system of threats, punishments and cate­gorical drill. At the same time he insists upon the importance of a solid grounding in religion, espe­cially in Biblical history. In addition to instruc­tion in religion, languages and history, the young girl should also be prepared for the various duties of domestic life.

After the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Fdnelon was one of the noted ecclesiastics sent into the provinces " to effect the conversion of the few Huguenots remaining in the country. His labors lay in the districts of Saintonge and Aunis. When he took leave of the king, he begged to be allowed




to dispense with the usual military


3. Mission‑ escort, saying that, after the example

arp of the Apostles, he wished to accom­



Labors. plish a work of peace and love.


Instead of combating heresy by acri­monious debate, he sought rather to attain his aim by the skilful and attractive exposition of the teachings of the Gospel, by the dissemination of Roman versions of the New Testament and missals, and by requiring the attendance of all children at Catholic schools. On the whole, how­ever, he seems to have met with little success; and, impatient at the obstinacy of the heretics, he writes in Feb., 1686 to the secretary of state Sei­gnelay: "The representatives of the king must in no way cease to keep a firm hand on those people, whom the slightest sign of conciliation renders so presumptuous;" then giving information of the different routes by which the Huguenots were es­caping abroad, he insists that the frontiers shall be guarded closely; " to render their sojourn in the country as tolerable as possible and their flight as dangerous as possible is the task." F6nelon's sys­tem of converting heretics, like that of the Roman Church of his time, was that the clergy should labor among them by means of preaching and loving persuasion but invoke against the stub­bornly recusant the " salutary pressure " of the worldly authorities.


V aing the Tables

I "Zdl.

F


After six months' labor in the missionary field, FSnelou returned to his post at the Nouvelles Converties. His remarkable gifts had attracted attention before this, and in 1689, when the duke of Beauvilliers became governor to the grand­children of Louis XIV., Fdnelon was made precep­tor to the princes, the eldest of whom, the duke of


Burgundy, became his especial charge. 4. Tutorship For eight years Fdnelon gave himself of Duke of up with absolute devotion to the edu­Burgundy. cation of the young duke, who, com‑


bining unusual talents with a charac­ter in the highest degree stubborn, insolent, and pleasure‑loving, offered an excellent opportunity for the exercise of FSnelon's splendid pedagogic talents. To train this child into a wise king (roi philosophe), a second St. Louis, was his aim. In combating the vices and supplementing the defi­ciencies of the lad, he displayed a remarkable resourcefulness that is evidenced especially in the different works he wrote for the young duke. His Contes et fables, his Dialogues des moms, his D4mon­stration de l'existence de Dieu, and his Direction pour la conscience d'un roi, all had a didactic purpose, which is present also in the most famous of his works, Les aventures de Telkmaque. F6nelon suc­ceeded in gaining an absolute influence over his pupil and in transforming him into a learned, affable, and modest youth. F6nelon's praise was in every mouth for the wonder he had wrought. He enjoyed the highest favor at the court, and as a reward for his services Louis XIV. made him, in 1695, archbishop of Cambrai. Yet his obliga­tions to the king did not prevent him from speaking out boldly in criticism of the policy of Louis XIV. In a letter, the authenticity of which has been demonstrated by the discovery of the original, Fdnelon attacks the monarch's vanity, worldliness, and love of power with a boldness that amounts to absolute temerity.


From his splendid position at court F4nelon fell suddenly as a result of the part he played in the conflict over the mystical doctrines of Mme. Guyon. When these were declared heretical by an in esti­gating commission which included Bossuet and Noailles, Fdnelon, dissenting from the majority in certain important reservations, published the Explication des max"" del saints, in which Mme. Guyon's fundamental principles were formulated in a sober and guarded manner. All

g. Cham‑ love of God, F6nelon laid down, which




pionship of was conditioned only by the fear of Mme. Punishment or by the desire of earthly Guyon. happiness was only an extremely im­perfect copy of the pure unselfish love which consists in the adoration of God for his own sake. " Even though God‑indeed an impossible supposition‑‑should destroy the souls of the just or abandon them for eternity to the temptations and pains of this life or condemn them for all eternity to the pains of hell, these souls would none the less love him and serve him faithfully." The style in which this work is written is dry, dogmatic, without grace or unction; and as the principles laid down are frequently followed by contradictory expla­nations and qualifications, it contains much that is



7anelon THE NEW SCHA FF HERZOG $98

Ferdinand a


subtle and obscure. It created great excitement, almost every one taking part for or against it. Bossuet attacked it violently; Fdnelon answered with self‑restraint and dignity. Although Fdne­lon had the support of the Jesuits, and in secret, that of Le Tellier, confessor of Louis XIV., most of the clergy adhered to Bossuet, upon whose side, too, the monarch ranged himself. F6nelon was ban­ished to his see city of Cambrai, whereupon he appealed to the pope for judgment upon his book. After a long delay and urgent pressure from Louis XIV., decision was rendered, declaring several passages of his work erroneous (not heretical). Fdnelon publicly proclaimed the papal decision and caused as many copies of his book as he could obtain to be burned. It is open to question, how­ever, whether his submission was sincere. That he held fast to his opinions at a later date is manifest from a letter to Le Tellier in which, speaking of his conflict with Bossuet, he says " He who was in error has conquered and he who was free from error is overcome." As a matter of fact the papal judg­ment, rendered so unwillingly and in so mild a form, did F6nelon no harm, but gained him sym­pathy and increased love and admiration.

It is in the last period of his life, during eighteen

years of labor in his diocese (1697‑1715) that

Fdnelon showed himself in the noblest light.

Devoted to his pastoral duties, he made himself

thoroughly acquainted with conditions in every

part of his jurisdiction, giving himself up espe­

cially to the task of training worthy

6. Conduct priests and removing for this purpose of His the diocesan seminary from Valen‑

Diocese. ciennes to Cambrai where it enjoyed

his personal supervision. A master

of pulpit oratory himself, he combated the pre­

vailing taste for declamation, laying down as the

threefold object of the preacher to convince,‑ paint,

and persuade. During the war of the Spanish

Succession (1702‑13) his diocese was repeatedly

the scene of hostilities. In 1709, when the country

around Cambrai was laid waste by the enemy,

F6nelon turned his palace into a refuge for the in­

habitants of entire villages, and gave his personal

care to the sick and wounded. He placed his

episcopal income at the disposal of the government

for the relief of famine. The nobility of his con­

duct did not fail to impress even the foe, and Prince

Eugene and the duke of Marlborough established

guards for the protection of his personal property

during the occupation of the country by the allies.

In the Jansenist controversy F6nelon took an active part as an opponent of the teachings of the bishop of Ypres. He requested the pope to obtain from the king the dismissal of all dignitaries who should refuse to subscribe to the anti‑Jansenist formula, and their excommunication in case of obstinate opposition. He gave unconditional sup­port to the bull Un~genitus directed against the Jansenists. On the other hand, to the Protestants of the country he maintained, according to some authorities, an attitude that went to the extreme of tolerance. His pastoral duties still left him time for literary activity. As a member of the French Academy his advice was called for in the work on




the great dictionary. As a judge in the conflict between the Ancients and the Moderns, he praised the classic writers because they depicted nature with power and grace, carried out their characters consistently, and attained harmony. At this time he brought together the different fragments of the T dldmaque into an orderly whole. The book achieved a tremendous success, not only in France, where it was speedily prohibited, but throughout Europe. F6nelon has been accused unjustly of intending this romance as a satire upon the government of Louis XIV., a view against which the author

7. T61d‑ vehemently protested. Nevertheless

maque. the book itself contains echoes and

images of the time. The work is

written in a highly attractive style and reveals a

sound knowledge of antiquity. What detracts

from it is the blending of Greek mythology with

Christian doctrine and ethics, of antiquity with

modern times, a process resulting in a general

impression of unreality. Although the king had

forbidden all intercourse between F6nelon and the

duke of Burgundy, the two remained in constant

communication through common friends. On im­

portant occasions the young duke turned for advice

to his old teacher, and when the death of the Dau­

phin (1711) made the duke heir to the throne, a

new career seemed about to open for F6nelon.

But if he entertained hopes of playing the part of a

Mazarin or a Richelieu, the death of the duke in

the following year dashed them to the ground. On

hearing the fatal news he remarked " My ties are

now severed‑nothing more binds me to earth."

The last years of his life were passed in partial

retirement and devotion.

Fdnelon's numerous literary, theological and

political writings offer abundant testimony to the

versatility of his talents and the wide extent of his

knowledge. Similarly many‑sided does his charac­

ter appear. By nature mild, he was stern to him­

self and often severe to those who

8. Estimate differed from him in belief. With a of His strong bent for mysticism, he neverthe‑

Character. less possessed remarkable insight into

practical affairs and. conditions. In­

sisting as a theologian upon " a pure and unselfish

love for God " and revealing as archbishop a spirit

of noble sacrifice and of devoted service toward the

poor and the suffering, he aspired at the same time

to power and dominion. An earnest champion of

authority and established doctrine in the Roman

Catholic Church and an opponent of all religious

innovations, he showed himself, in the field of

politics and social science an advocate of ideals

bordering on Utopianism. In an age when abso­

lutism was regarded as almost a divine principle,

F6nelon was the first to speak of popular rights and

the popular welfare. In this manner his ideas

represent an anticipation of the eighteenth cen­

tury, whose philosophers, notably D'Alembert,

praise him highly. On the whole, in spite of certain

defects, we may decidedly place him among the

noblest characters and most talented writers of his

day. (J. EHNIt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: An edition of Wnelon'e works, with Vie

by Y. M. M. de Querbaeuf, was published. 9 vols., 1787‑




299




1792; another, containing his correspondence, was issued, in 19 vols., ib. 1826‑28; the Vies des ancienR Philo8ophee


and the T&maque have been translated often into most European languages; M. Masson edited the unpublished letters of Fdnelon to Madame Guyon, Freiburg, Switzer­land, 1907. Lives have been written by L. F. de Baus­set, Paris, 1809, Eng. transl., London, 1810; [H. L. Far­rer,l ib. 1877 (an excellent work); E. de Broglie, Paris, 1884; P. Janet, ib. 1892, Eng. transl., London, 1893; R. Mahrenholz, Leipsic. 1896; Viscount $t. Cyrea, Lon­don, 1901; H. Druon, Paris, 1905. Consult also: E. O. Douen, L'Intolerance de Fdneion, Paris, 1872; G. Bizos, Fdnelon 6ducateur, Paris, 1886; E. K. Sanders, Fdnelon, his Friends and Enemies, London, 1901; M. Cognac. Fene­Ion, directeur de conscience, Paris, 1902. See also literature under GUYON, JEANNE MARIE BONIER DE LA MOTRE.



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