261 religious encyclopedia exile of the Israelites Extreme Unction



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261 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Exile of the Israelites

Extreme Unction


ferred succeeds when the vacancy occurs. Such

rights first come into notice in the twelfth century.

For the purpose of rewarding deserving clergy and

scholars, but also, especially later, in order to pro­

vide an income or a higher income for officials and

favorites of the curia, or to please secular rulers,

the popes began in the period named to ,give letters

of commendation to bishops and chapters regarding

the bestowal of benefices, whether vacant or not.

These soon assumed a mandatory character, and

compliance with them was enforced by special

officials and by the employment of ecclesiastical

censures, the right to issue them having been held

since Innocent III. as a part of the papal powers.

The resistance of the persons regularly entitled to

nominate to such offices brought about the formal

reservation of whole classes of benefices to the pope

(see RESERVATIONS, PAPAL). To the expectancies

described above was added in the fifteenth century

the custom of papal nomination of perpetual coadju­

tors with right of succession, either to avoid long

vacancies or contested episcopal elections, or to

assure a see to a member of a particular princely

house, or, especially in tile Reformation period,

to a person of assured loyalty to the papal system.

Besides expectancies conferred by the popes, an­

other class came up in the thirteenth century, in

cathedral and collegiate foundations, varying ac­

cording to their constitution (see CHAPTER), giving

a right to the first vacancy in a limited chapter,

or (where the number of canons was not limited

but that of prebends was) conferring the title of



canonicus supernumeraries with a right to the first

vacant prebend, or promising both title and prebend

at once. Again, expectancies developed from the

exercise of the jus primariarum precum, according

to which from the thirteenth century the emperors,

the kings of France and England, and later a num­

ber of petty German princes and even empresses

and queens of England, claimed the right on their

accession or coronation to request from each en­

dowed foundation or monastery in their territory

the assignment of a benefice or position, vacant or

to be vacated, to their nominees. This claim,

based at first on custom, was confirmed by papal

indults, and fell into disuse only at the beginning

of the nineteenth century. Many of these develop­

ments were in direct contravention of the ancient

canonical principle which forbade appointments to

ecclesiastical offices before they were vacant, and

even required evasion of the ruling of the Third

Lateran Council of 1179 to the same effect. The

process, however, went on until bishops, founders,

and monasteries were obliged to protect themselves

by special papal indults against the misuse of the

practise. The Council of Trent again forbade all

kinds of expectancies, only allowing the pope to

nominate a coadjutor with right of succession to a

bishop or head of a convent in case of necessity.

This prohibition has, indeed, been interpreted as

referring not to the pope but to other ecclesiastical

dignitaries; but practically, in the altered modern

circumstances, the matter is no longer of impor­

tance. The same thing applies to the Protestant

churches of Germany, which at one time allowed

expectancies to exist in the bishoprics and chapters




that became Protestant at the Reformation or the Peace of Westphalia.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Hinsehius, Kirchenrecht, ii. 65, 69, 84, 255, 474, 639, 65'3, iii. 113, 6 vols., Berlin, 1869‑97; J. H. BShmer, Jus ecclesiasticum protestantium, iii. 8, §§ 9 sqq., 4 vols., Halle, 1756‑63; H. C. de Senekenberg, De jure primarum precum, Frankfort, 1784 ; A. Mayer, Thesaurus noaus juris ecclesiastiei, i. 249, Regensburg, 1791.



EXSUPERIUS (EXUPERIUS), SAINT: Bishop of Toulouse; d. Sept. 28 (?), year not known. His early life is unknown, but from allusions in Jerome's letters (liv. 11, cxix., cxxiii. 16, cxxv. 20) it has been conjectured that in 394 he was a presbyter at Rome; he was bishop of Toulouse in 404, and in 411 was still living. In 406 Jerome dedicated his commentary on Zechariah to him. Jerome pays a glowing tribute to his self‑sacrificing charity during the disturbances in that part of France in 411. From the letters of Pope Innocent I. (Epist., vi.) it appears that in Feb., 405, Exsuperius applied to the pope for advice respecting Biblical and episco­pal matters. He completed the basilica of St. Saturninus, begun by his predecessor, Silvius.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: ASS, Sept., vii. 623‑630; Tillemont, Ml;‑

moires, Vol. x.

EXTREME UNCTION.

I. In the Roman Catholic Church.

History (§ 1).

Doctrine (§ 2).

Preparation and Administration (§ 3).

II. In the Greek Church.

Extreme unction is one of the minor sacraments of both the Roman and the Greek Churches.

I. In the Roman Catholic Church: Extreme unction is mentioned as the fifth sacrament by Peter Lombard who brings it into close connection with the sacrament of penance. He

r. History. uses two passages as Biblical authori­

ties, Mark vi. 13 and Jas. v. 14‑15.

These passages have, however, little to do with the

sacrament as developed in the Church of Rome.

Extreme unction is not often mentioned in the

early Church. Augustine, Chrysostom, and Ire­

meus speak of it, but do not treat it as a sacrament.

Oil was, however, frequently used by Christians in

private life, chiefly for the anointing of the sick.

Tertullian, for instance, mentions the healing of

Severna, the father of the Emperor Antoninus, with

oil. Popular superstition soon exploited these ex­

periences, and used the oil in the church lamps.

Some bishops, e.g., Chrysostom and Decentius, did

not object, but limited the employment to members

in good standing. Innocent I. also mentions the

anointing of the sick, but not of the moribund; in

case a priest was not available, laymen might per­

form the ceremony. Toward the end of the eighth

century extreme unction entered upon a definite

course of development, and was brought into rela­

tions with remission of sins; it received, conse­

quently, a sacramental character in connection with

penance. The question of the repetition of extreme

unction was raised in the twelfth century. A

popular superstition held that a Christian who,

after participation, had been restored to health was

to be looked upon as one departed: he was not to

touch the ground with bare feet, eat meat, or

cohabit with his wife. When Theodulf of Orl6ans







xxtreme Unction 8zekiel

THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG

recommended that the anointing should take place in the church, he had not in mind either exclusively or chiefly the application to the moribund. Hugo of St. Victor (Summa aenten.tiarum, vi. 15) was the first theologian to treat extreme unction sys­tematically. He deals, however, only with two questions, the institution and the repetition of the sacrament. From that time on, extreme unction received more detailed attention, particularly by Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas. The latter treats it from two points of view: (1) the sacrament itself, its effect, matter, and form; (2) its adminis­tration and use, the recipients, repetition, and parts to be anointed. The principal features of the sacra­ment were thus fixed, and received ecclesiastical sanction at the Council of Florence (1439) through Eugene IV., and its final and definite form at the Council of Trent.

Extreme unction was instituted according to Peter Lombard by the apostles, according to Alex­ander Hales by Christ, according to Bonaventura by the Holy Spirit through the apos­2. Doctrine. tles, according to Thomas Aquinas by Christ, but was promulgated by the apostles. The Council of Trent declares that, according to Mark vi. 13, Christ suggested the sacra­ment, and that James, his brother, promulgated and recommended it. The material which is to be used in extreme unction is olive‑oil consecrated by a bishop: and, according to a decision of Paul V., given in 1655, the oil is not effective unless so consecrated. Gregory XVI. (1842) confirmed and further limited this decision by declaring that not even in case of extreme necessity could a priest consecrate oil for the purpose. The form of the sacrament was settled only after many discussions. With the growing tendency to look upon anointing as sacramental, the form of prayer was changed from the precatory to the declarative, and this was confirmed by the Council of Florence. The specific purpose and effect of extreme unction is somewhat indefinite. The Council of Trent declares that this sacrament completes not only penance, but the whole Christian life. Nevertheless, it does not occupy nearly the important position in the doctri­nal system of the Roman Church taken by baptism, the mass, and penance it is merely an annex to the latter sacrament to which it gives the character of preparation for death. A specific effect has never been attributed to it officially. Peter Lombard gives as the purpose the remission of sins and the alleviation of physical infirmity. Albert the Great declares that extreme unction could purify only from the remnants of sin which prevent the entrance of the soul into eternal rest. Thomas Aquinas de­fines these remnants as a spiritual weakness and lassitude which disqualify man for the full enjoy­ment of the life of grace and glory, and states that extreme unction is a medicine for both. He speaks of physical healing as a secondary effect, taking place when the primary purpose of the sacrament is not hindered but promoted. Bonaventura, on the other hand, teaches that the specific effect of extreme unction is the remission of venial sins which were completely obviated by this sacrament owing to its strengthening effect upon soul and body.

The Council of Trent repeated all the positive doc­trines of the theologians, and added the doctrine of unction with the Holy Spirit as the specific effect. These differences concerning the effect and purpose of extreme unction were unsatisfactory, and attempts were made at greater precision. The Roman Catechism assumes two effects, the remis­sion of venial sins, and the removal of spiritual weakness and of any remaining traces of sin. Bel­Iarmine,finally, attempts a precise definition of the " remnants of sin "; they are mortal or venial sins which man might commit, after penance and the Eucharist; or sins which were not atoned for prop­erly, because sick persons had unwittingly received in an improper manner, and, therefore, without the due effect.

The olive‑oil used in extreme unction is conse­crated during the mass on 11laundy Thursday. Each deanery receives a certain amount for dis­tribution among the parishes. The oil which is not used up within a year, is burned in

3• Prepara‑ the sanctuary lamp; if there be danger tion and that the supply will be exhausted

Athninis‑ before the end of the year, small quan‑

tration. titles of unconsecrated oil may be




added. Only a priest or higher dig­

nitary may administer this sacrament. Even the

pope can not authorize deacons and laymen to do

so, although Innocent I. implies that they may in

case of necessity. The administrator acts as a

representative of the whole Church; and for this

reason it is desirable that several priests be present

to take part in the ceremony. The regulations

concerning the degree of sickness which entitles a

person to receive the sacrament vary, but agree in

the particular that the probability of recovery is

excluded, and that the recipient must be conscious.

The oil is to be applied to the eyes, ears, hands,

nose, and mouth, and to the abdomen and the feet

of males, but not of females. The sacraments of

penance and of the Eucharist should as a rule

precede extreme unction.

II. In the Greek Church: The usage of the Greek Church differs widely from that of Rome both in methodsof administration andindoctrine. Thereit is simply an anointing of the sick, and its purpose is the restoration of health, physical and spiritual. The place of administration is the church, if pos­sible. The ritual is elaborate, and requires seven priests if they are procurable. The oil is conse­crated on each occasion by the senior priest, and each priest repeats the full ceremony while seven selections are read each from the Epistles, Gospels, and collects. On Maundy Thursday the feast of euchelaion (" oil of prayer ") is observed, in which the whole congregation joins and is anointed. The frequent use of the sacrament is recommended.

The Neatorians never use extreme unction; the

Armenian Church has discontinued l ~it.

(F. i1ATTENBUaCH.)
BIBLIOGRAPHY: On the Roman sacrament consult: RL, ix. 712‑725: E. Martbne De antiqau ecekaia•, ritibus i.. chap.

7, Antwerp, 1738; A. J. Binterim, DenkvxArdig,~n, vi.

3, pp. 217 eqq., Mains, 1831; J. C. N. Augusti, i)enk_ %OkeLfen. ix. 455 sqq., Leipaio, 1828; J. H. Blunt,

Sacraments and Sacramental Ordinances London, 1867;

idem. Dictionary of „al and Historical Theology, pp



958 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA ~ kime Qaolrioa

771‑773, ib. 1870; F. Probst, Sakramente and Sakra­mentalien, pp. 373 sqq., Tiibingen, 1872; J. H. Oswald, Die dogrratische Lehre von den heiligen Sakramenten, ii. 257 sqq., Munster, 1877; M. Heimbucher, Die heilipe Oelung, Regensburg, 1888; P. Schanz, Die Lehre von den heiligen Sakramenten, pp. 639 sqq., Freiburg, 1893; W. E. Addis and T. Arnold, Catholic Dictionary, pp. 363‑366, London, 1903.

For the G•eek Church consult: W. Gass, Svmbolik der priechiechen Kirche, pp. 292 eqq., Berlin, 1872; F. Katten­buseh, Lehrbuch der verglefichenden Kunleaeionakunde, i. 434 sqq., Freiburg, 1892; A. von Maltzew, Die Sakra­mente der orthodox‑kalholiachen Kirehe, pp. eoexxtiii. eqq.,,. 450‑553, Berlin, 1898; K. Beth, Die orientalische Chria‑



tenheit der Mittelmeerldnder, pp. 316 sqq., Berlin, 1902.


EYLERT, RUHLEMANN FRIEDRICH: Evan­gelical bishop of Prussia; b. at Hamm (20 m. s.e. of Munster) Apr. 5, 1770; d. at Potsdam Feb. 8, 1852. After completing his theological education at Halle in 1794, he became pastor in his native town, and in 1806 was appointed preacher to the court and garrison at Potsdam. Eleven years later he became bishop of Prussia and a member of the council of state as well as of the ministry for religion and education. Far more important than 'his official activity, however, was the influence which he exercised on Frederick William III. The development of Eylert was from rationalism toward orthodoxy, although he never reached a sure dog­matic position. He was deeply interested in the agenda and in the movement for union, and re­mained in active service until his resignation in 1844. Eylert was a prolific writer, his chief works being as follows: Betrachtungen caber die trostvollen Wahrheiten des Christentums bei der letzten Tren­nung von den Unsrigen (Dortmund, 1803); Homilien iiber die Parabeln Jesu (Halle, 1806); Predigten 4'sber Bediirfnisse unsers Herzens and Verhdltnisse unsers Lebens (1813); Ueber den Wert and die Wirkung der fur die evangelische Kirche beatimmten Liturgie and Agende (Potsdam, 1830); Das gate Werk der Union. (1846); and, above all, Charak­terziige and historische Fragmente aus dem Leben Friedrich Wilhelm 111. (3 vols., Magdeburg, 1843­1846; Eng. transl. Characteristic Traits and Do­mestic Life of Frederick William III., King of Prus­sia, by J. Birch, London, 1844). He also collabo­rated with J. H. B. Daseke in publishing the Magazin von Fest‑, Gelegenheits‑ and anderen Pre­digten (4 vols., Magdeburg, 1816‑20).

(AUGUST THOLUCKt.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Neuer Nekrolog der Deutachen, Weimar, 1852; ADS, vi. 458.

EZEKIEL. I. The Prophet.



II. The Book.

Divisions and Contents (§ 1). Literary Peculi4rities (§ 2).

Symbolic Actions (§ 3).

Other Characteristics (§ 4). Theological Character (§ 5). Relation to the Priest Code (§ 6). L The Prophet: Concerning Ezekiel, the earliest exilic prophet, his book teaches (i. 2, 3, iii. 15, xxix. 17, xl. 1) that he was the son of Buzi, of priestly de­scent (through the Zadokites), that he lived by the river Chebar not far from Tel‑Abib among the cap­tives whom Nebuchadrezzar had deported with King Jehoiachin, and that he labored there as prophet from the fifth to at least the twenty‑seventh year




of this captivity (593‑571 B.c.). The statement of Josephus (Ant. X., vi. 3) that he was still a boy when carried into captivity is not probable, since he was well acquainted with the temple and its service. The river Chebar must not be confused with the Habor of II Kings xvii. 6, xviii. 11 (the modern Khabur), which empties into the Euphrates (q.v.) near Carchemish, on which the exiles of the Northern kingdom were settled; it must be sought in Babylonia and is probably the canal Kabaru, not far from Nippur. Ezekiel enjoyed the authority of a prophet among the exiles, and they often sought his counsel though it was generally contrary to their desire, and in secret they gave vent to their wrath (ii. 6). He exercised a pastoral care among his people and formed a spiritual center for those who were cut off from their land and its temple (viii. 1, xiv. 1 sqq., xx. 1, xxiv.18, xxxiii. 30‑31).

II. The Book: The prophecy of Ezekiel, the third of the books of the major prophets in the arrangement of the English Version, was no doubt put in systematic form by the prophet himself; it divides into two main parts which correspond to the two periods in which Ezekiel prophesied. The first (i.‑xxiv.) closes with the beginning of the

siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadrezzar :. Divi‑ (588 B.c.); the second (xxxiii.‑xlviii.)

sions and begins after the destruction of the

Contents. city (586 B.c.). The interval is filled

in by prophecies against foreign na­tions not arranged in strict chronological order (xxv.‑xxxii.). Each main part opens with utter­ances upon the importance and responsibility of Ezekiel's office. The contents vary in a character­istic manner. As long as Jerusalem was standing, the announcement of coming judgment predomi­nated; what had been God's kingdom was to fall utterly; when that had come to pass, the work of reconstruction was to begin. " While in the first half Ezekiel buried the material hope of Israel, which rested on the continued existence of Jerusa­lem and the Temple, in the second he rebuilt in spirit land and people, city and temple " (Kloster­mann). Pronouncement of judgment on the world­nations formed the transition to the establishment of the theocracy in Israel; the episode belongs therefore to the second part.

The literary peculiarities of Ezekiel's book are connected with his position as an exile during its composition. He differed from the earlier prophets, even from his older contemporary Jeremiah, by being removed from the actual theater of history, thus being denied an immediate influence in the

developments of his time, and this 2. Literary affected the form of his oral and writ‑

Peculiari‑ ten speech. His prophecies were no ties. casual addresses to fit passing events,

but were worked out in quiet medita­tion and prepared with literary art, for which he had an evident liking. Not that the short, striking, oracular utterance is wholly wanting; but Ezekiel more often discusses his subject at leisure and his deliverance develops deliberately before his pro­phetic eye (compare the detailed description of his first vision‑chap. i.‑with the brief sketch of the similar vision in Isa. vi.). He is not satisfied with




THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG




Ezekiel

a few characteristic strokes, but rather aims at a perfect picture which affects the spectator less by its immediate power and warmth than by its gran­deur and harmonious finish. The frequency of the visions attests also his inclination toward quiet meditation. That he could not come into imme­diate contact with the concrete objects may, fur­thermore, have helped to cause the figurative descriptions which are peculiar to him. His con­temporaries complained of his figurative speech (xx. 49), and the enigmatie character of his writing has always tried the patience of Jewish as well as Christian interpreters, while it has yielded the richer material to mysticism. Figurative utter­ance is found in Ezekiel in various forms‑now as simple metaphor, now approaching the parable (xv.; xxii. 18 sqq.), now as true allegory (xvii.). He delights especially in personifying nations and countries or in representing them under the image of animal or plant. Thus he portrays Judah (Jerusalem) and Samaria as prostitutes (xvi., xxiii. 1 sqq.); the house of David as a lion's den (xix. 1 sqq.), or a vine (xix. 10 sqq.; cf. xvii. 6), or a cedar (xvii. 3); Egypt as a cedar (xxxi. 3 sqq.), or a crocodile (xxxii. 1 sqq.); the Chaldean power as a great eagle full of feathers of diverse colors (xvii. 3). After giving the meaning of his cryptic utterances, he again takes up the allegoric form. He shows himself a master in describing the great and sublime, and some portions of his book are specimens of the most beautiful and the most ten­der lyric poetry‑e.g., the elegies, characteristic of him as of Jeremiah, in which he laments the lot of the foreign powers (xix. 1 sqq., xxvi. 17 sqq., xxvii. 2 sqq., xxviii. 12 sqq., xxxii. 2 sqq.). To consider Ezekiel only a writer, however, who did not actually deliver his addresses, is not admissible; but it is true that the written form was of special importance to him, particularly as his spoken words could benefit only a small part of his people.

Once again, Ezekiel's position, his exclusion from all share as an active participant in the events of his time, was accountable for the symbolic actions with which he accompanied his discourses and made them impressive. His whole person was called on to serve his oracles in most varied panto­mime. Dumbness (iii. 26), motionless constraint

(iv. 4‑8), eating and drinking (iv. 9 3. Symbolic sqq.), cutting of the hair (v. 1 sqq.),

Actions. stamping with the foot and clapping

of hands (vi. 11), sighing (xxi. 11), and trembling (xii. 17) were all made " signs." What happened to the prophet was emblematic of the fate of his people (xxiv. 14 sqq.); in his own person he represented also that of his king (xii. 3 sqq.). Partly because of the triviality of such symbolic signs it has been denied that they were actually employed, and they have been regarded as mere literary devices. But considering Oriental skill in interpreting such symbols and the readiness of the Israelites to attach importance to the acts of a prophet, actual performance is the more natural assumption, though vii. 23 and xxiv. 3‑5 are prob­ably parables. In other cases a mere recital of what happened to the prophet would have lacked significance and contributed little as illustration.

264


But what an impression it must have made when people found him in the condition described in iv. 1 sqq. with hostile look directed for weeks on Jerusalem and with arm uplifted against itl The picture was a most eloquent epitome of the fate of the city. Klostermann attempts to make the long immobility of the prophet more intelligible by finding here the symptoms of severe catalepsy. Dumbness, indeed, seems to have been imposed on the prophet, to judge from expressions which can not be referred to mere silence (cf. iii. 26‑27, xxiv. 27). Such a disease might be considered a means rod‑ordained for prophetic purposes.

To the solemnly ceremonial style of Ezekiel belongs also the stereotyped recurrence of certain solemn formulas. The sayings are generally in­troduced by " thus saith the Lord Yahweh " (117 times according to Zunz) or ` the

¢. Other word of Yahweh came unto me."

Character‑ The prophet is always addressed by

istics. God and the angels with the elsewhere

unusual name " son of man "; and

many other recurring phrases give the book a



uniform cast. Like Jeremiah, Ezekiel draws fre­

quently from former prophets. His muse is in­

spired by the entire sacred literature of the past,

especially by the " Mosaic " law, but also by sacred

history and tales of prehistoric times (cf., e.g., Gen.

ii. 8 and Ezek. xxviii. 13; Gen. i. 28 and Ezek.

xxxvi. l l ). Beside this is his artistic realism, which

everywhere produces concrete forms from the

material furnished by the historical, archeological,

and literary store of the theocracy. He was no

mere " scholar," as he has been called, but rather a

creative genius who made his knowledge of the

past useful for new ideas. His sentences are in­

volved, often diffuse, and his language is more

Aramaized than that of Jeremiah; but the clumsi­

ness of expression in Ezekiel's book is partly due

to corruption of the text, which in many passages

can be corrected from the Septuagint.

Passing to the spiritual significance and theolog­ical character of Ezekiel , he has marked points of contact with Jeremiah, who remained in Jerusalem. Both declare with all emphasis the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth to be unavoidable and near at hand, destroying relentlessly the illusory hopes of the patriots and strongly condemning the fraudulent policy of the princes who were trafficking with Egypt. The Levitical character of Ezekiel's prophecies, which portray the city of

g. Theo‑ God and its cultus under a new




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