201 religious encyclopedia

Download 3.64 Mb.
Size3.64 Mb.
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   38


in 1831 he was ordained to the priesthood of the Roman Catholic Church, and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy and theology at Genoa, where he manifested great heroism in the care of the sick during an epidemic of cholera in 1835. In 1837 he received an appointment in the Holy Office, only to have his faith gradually but surely undermined by the books which his position compelled him to read. Nevertheless, he gained a high reputation as a pulpit orator, and from 1840 to 1847 was at the head of the parish of Santa Mad­dalena alla Rotonda in Rome; but the doubts already engendered were complicated by his sym­pathy with the movement for the unification of Italy and the overthrow of papal control, and in 1843 he was condemned to ten days' imprisonment in the monastery of San Eusebio. The accession of Pius IX. June 21, 1846, and the policy at first adopted by the new pontiff, filled De Sanctis with hope, which was speedily crushed by the encyclical of Nov. 9, 1846, exalting the cult of the Virgin. De Sanetis was now obliged to conceal his ever‑in­creasing doubts, both family ties and official position combining to prevent him from openly breaking with his church. At this juncture he came in con­tact with a Scotch clergyman named Lowndes, then resident in Malta, who brought him greetings from the ex‑monk Giovanni Giacinto Achilli, who was endeavoring to propagate Protestantism in Malta under British protection (see NEwMAN, JOHN HENRY). A second interview with Lowndes led De Sanctis to gain permission to visit Ancona, whence he surreptitiously sailed for Corfu, soon leaving that island for Malta. Refusing every inducement to return to Rome, he now passed two years preaching in an Italian church in Malta, but with the change of conditions in Italy he ac­cepted an invitation to visit Tuscany, where he preached in Florence, Leghorn, and the vicinity of Lucca until ordered by the police to desist. He then returned to Malta, where, on Nov. 1, 1848, he began the publication of Il Caltollico cristiano, a sheet filled with denunciation of Roman Catholi­cism and defense of Protestantism. In 1849 he married, and in the same year published his La Confessione (Malta, 1849; Eng. transl. by M. H. G. Buckle, London, 1878), and in 1850 he accepted a call to Geneva to preach among the Italian polit­ical refugees, workmen, and ex‑priests. He soon after made a tour of Italian Switzerland, meeting with special success in the Protestant Val Bregaglia. The growth of the Waldensian community in Turin (see ITALY, II., § 1), however, led to the call of De Sanctis to that city in 1853, and he was formally ordained to the Waldensian ministry on Aug. 31 of the same year. ‑ But a split soon arose among the Waldensians, one faction adhering to their original principles, and the other, supported largely by funds supplied by Baptists and Plymouth Brethren, terming themselves "Free Italian Churches" (see ITALY, II., § 2) and claiming that they would quickly turn all Italy to Protestantism. It was with this radical wing that De Sanetis threw in his fortunes, and in 1855, at the Paris conference of the Evan­gelical Alliance, he secured recognition and financial aid for his party. He also visited London in quest

of funds and was cordially received, and after a tour of Piedmont took up his residence at Genoa, where he and his friends established a Protestant school. During this period he employed himself in writing, the chief results being his Si pub leg­gere la Biblia? (3d ed., Florence, 1866); La Re­ligiaree degli avi (1861); La Messa (Turin, 1862); and Discuasione pacifim (1863). He did not, how­ever, approve of the hostility of the "Free Church" to the Waldensians, and in 1863‑64 events forced him to protest publicly against an attack on Roman Catholicism and Protestantism alike in favor of the exclusive claim of the Plymouth Brethren to true Christianity. The result was a fresh split in the "Free Church," and De Sanctis withdrew to Flor­ence, where he was soon appointed professor of apologetic, polemic, and practical theology in the Waldensian seminary, a position which he held until his death.

The list of De Sanctis' writings is a long one.

His principal productions, in addition to those

already mentioned, are as follows: Il Celibato dei

preti (n.p., 1850) ; Popery and Jesuitism at Rome in

the Nineteenth Century (London, 1852); Lettera a

Pio mono, vescovo di Roma (Turin, 1854); Il Primato

del papa (Florence, 1861); Osservozioni dottrinali e

storiche (1865); Compendio di eontroversie tra la

parola Dio 6 la teologia romance (4th ed., 1870); ll

Papa non b successore di san Pietro (4th ed., 1887);

Il Purgatorio perchb non b ammesso dagli evan­

gelici (1898); and the most important of all, Roma

pqpale (1865). (PAOLO CALVINO.)


SANDAY, WILLIAM: Church of England; b. at Holme Pierrepont (20 m. n.e. of Nottingham), Nottinghamshire, Aug. 1, 1843. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford (B.A., 1865), and was ordered dea­con in 1867 and ordained priest two years later. He was fellow of Trinity College, Oxford (1866‑73); in charge of Navestock, Romford (1869‑71), lec­turer of St. Nicholas, Abingdon (1871‑72); vicar of Great Waltham, Chelmsford (1872‑73); rector of Barton‑on‑the‑Heath, Warwickshire (1873‑76); principal of Hatfield Hall, Durham (1876‑83); Dean Ireland's professor of the exegesis of Holy Scripture in the University of Oxford and tutorial fellow of Exeter College, Oxford (1883‑95); and since 1895 he has been Lady Margaret professor of divinity and canon of Christ Church, Oxford. He was also examining chaplain to the bishop of Durham (1879‑.81), select preacher at Cambridge in 1880, 1892, and 1903, Whitehall preacher in 1889‑90, and Bampton lecturer in 1893. He has been honorary fellow of Exeter College since 1898; chaplain in ordinary to the king, and a fellow of the British Academy since 1903. Besides being joint editor of the Variorum Bible (London, 1880); Old Latin Biblical Texts, ii. (in collaboration with Bishop John Wordsworth; 1886); Studia Biblica et Ecclesiostica (Oxford, 1891); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (in collaboration with A. C. Headlam; London, 1886; 5th ed., 1909); and editing the translation of select writings of



Hilary of Poietiers for the Library of Nicene and Post‑Nicene Fathers (New York and Edinburgh, 1898); he has written The Authorship and Historical Character of the Fourth Gospel (London, 1872); The Gospels in the Second Century (1876); the sections on Romans and Galatians in Bishop C. J. Ellicott's Handy Commentary (London, 1878); Appendices ad Novum Testamentum Stephanieum (1889); The Oracles of God (1891); Two Present Day Questions (1892); Inspiration (Bampton lectures; 1893); The Conception of Priesthood in the Early Church and in the Church of England (1898); An Examina­tion of Harnack's "What is Christianity?" (1901); Criticism of the New Testament (1902); Divisions in the Church (1902); Sacred Sites of the Gospels (in collaboration with P. Waterhouse; 1903); Out­lines of the Life of Christ (Edinburgh, 1905); The Criticism of the Fourth Gospel (London, 1905); The Life of Christ in Recent Research (1907); and Christologies, Ancient and Modern (1910).

SANDEMANIANS, san‑de‑m66'ni‑ans or man'i‑ans (GLASSITES): A sect founded in Scotland c. 1730 by John Glas (q.v.). The basal idea of the founder was the restoration of the apostolic Church, realizing the complete independence of each local church from every other and from the State. Chief em­phasis was laid upon the Lord's Supper, while feet‑washing, the kiss of charity, the lovefeast, and a limited community of goods were introduced; games of chance, eating of blood and things strangled, and the use of the lot were forbidden, and church government was placed in the hands of bishops, elders, and teachers. The name came from the son‑in‑law of Glas, Robert Sandeman (b. at Perth, Scotland, 1718; d. at Danbury, Conn., Apr. 2, 1771), who was appointed an elder in the new organization, exercised his ministry at Perth, Dundee, and Edinburgh, and sailed in 1764 to America, where he founded churches. The denom­ination is now nearly or quite extinct.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Works of John alas, especially his Treatise on the Lord's Supper, Edinburgh, 1743, reprinted, London, 1883; the literature under GLAs, JOHN; J. Bel­lamy, Essay on the Nature and Glory of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, i. 85‑125, London, 1781, reprint 1841; A. Fuller, Strictures on Sandemanianism, in his Complete Works, ib. 1853; J. B. Marsden, Hist. of Christian Churches and Sects, ii. 297 sqq., ib. 1858; J. E. Ritchie, Religious Life of London, ib. 1870.


Pulpit orator and polemist; b. in Saxony in 1797; d. at Wittenberg Apr. 28, 1859. In early life he was repelled by the current rationalism, and as a minor official of St. Paul's Church in Leipsic, in the first part of his career, he began to preach with emphasis the Gospel of the Crucified One. In 1822 he was called to Wichlinghausen in Wupperthal, where he exerted his activities in the same direction, trans­lating into German, in collaboration with C. H. F. Bialloblotzky, Pusey's Enquiry into the Probable Causes of the Rationalist Character lately Predominant in the Theology of Germany (Elberfeld, 1829), and following this up with his own Theologisches Grut­achten (Barmen, 1836), which was preceded and followed by several volumes of sermons and by Beleuehtung (1836) aimed at the Prediger‑Bibel of

Eduard Hillamann (1835), which last brought him into court on charges of libel. He also attacked Droste‑Visehering (q.v.) in Ueber den Frieden unter der Kirche and den Staaten and Das Papatthum in seiner heudgen Gestalt, in seinen Ursprt4ngen and endlichen Ausgangen (Elberfeld, 1845). To this period belongs also his treatise on Gal. iii. 20 (1840) and Der Romanismus, seine Tendenzen and seine Methodik (Essen, 1843). About this time he ac­cepted the ideas of Johann Tobias Beck (q.v.), and placed the beginning of the parousia (see MILLEN­NIUM, MILLENARIANIsM) in 1847. In 1854 he ac­cepted a call to Wittenberg, where he came to occupy the positions of city preacher, superintend­ent, and director of the preachers' seminary till his death. He continued to issue sermons, occasional and others, the most significant based upon the Revelation of John.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F. W. Krummacher, Immanuel Friedrich Sander, Cologne, 1880.

SANDERS, FRANK KNIGHT: Congregationalist; b. at Batticotta (a village near Jaffna, 190 m. n. of Colombo), Ceylon, June 5, 1861. He was educated at Ripon College, Wis. (A. B., 1882); was instruc­tor in Jaffna College, Ceylon (1882‑86), and con­tinued his studies at Yale (1886‑89). He was then successively assistant in Biblical literature (1889­90), instructor in Semitic languages (1890‑91), and assistant professor of Biblical literature on the Woolsey foundation (1891‑93)‑‑all at Yale. In 1893 he was appointed Woolsey pro­fessor of Biblical literature in Yale, a position which he retained until 1901, when he resigned it to become professor of Biblical history and archeology and dean of Yale Divinity School, both which offices he held until 1905, when he became secretary of the Congregational Sunday­school and Publishing Society. He has been presi­dent of Washburn College, Topeka, Kan., since 1908. He has edited in collaboration with C. F. Kent The Historical Series for Bible Students (10 vols., New York, 1897‑1906) and The Messages of the Bible (12 vols., 1898 sqq.), and together with the same scholar has written The Messages of the Earlier Prophets (New York, 1898) and The Messages of the Later Prophets (1899). He has also written Outlines for the Study of Biblical History and Literature (in collaboration with H. T. Fowler, New York, 1906); A Student's Life of Christ (1906); Historical Notes on the Apostolic Leaders (1907); and Higtorkal Notes on the Life of Christ (1907).
SANDERSON, JOSEPH: Presbyterian; b. at Ballybay (60 m. n.w. of Dublin), County Monaghan, Ireland, May 23, 1823; graduated at the Royal College, Belfast, 1845; emigrated to America, 1846; was classical teacher in the Washington Institute, New York, 1847‑49; studied theology and became pastor of the Associate Presbyterian Church, Provi­dence, R. I., 1849; at New York, 1853‑69; acting pastor of Saugatuck Congregational Church, Conn., 1872‑78; assistant editor of the Homiletic Monthly, New York, 1881‑83; editor of the Pulpit Treasury, New York, after 1883; and from 1895, secretary of the Church Extension and Sustentation Committee, New York Presbytery. He is the author of Jesus on



the Holy Mount (New York, 1869); Memorial Trib­utes (1883); The Story of Saint Patrick (1895) ; and Man's Seal to God's Word (1902).
SANDYS, EDWIN:. Church of England, arch­bishop of York; b. near Hswkshead (24 m. n.w. of Lancaster), Lancashire, 1516; d. at York July 10, 1588. He was educated at St. John's College, Cam­bridge; was converted to Protestantism; elected master of Catherine Hall, 1547; became vicar of Caversham, 1548; canon of Peterborough, 1549; prebendary of Carlisle, 1552; and vice‑chancellor of Cambridge, 1553. He was imprisoned in the Tower for espousing the cause of Lady Jane Grey, escaped, and went into voluntary exile until Eliza­beth's accession; became bishop of Worcester, 1559; of London, 1570; and archbishop of York, 1576. He took part in the preparation of the Bishops' Bible (see BIBLE VER$IONs, B, IV., § 4) in 1565; translated Hosea, Joel, Amos, and Malachi in the version of 1572; and assisted in the revision of the Liturgy, 1559. A volume of Sermons (London, 1585; 1616) contains in its newer issue (by T. Whitaker, 1812) a life; this volume was reedited with life for the Parker Society by J. Ayre (Cambridge, 1841).

BxsmroosArar: William Thomas, Survey of the Cathedral­Church of Worcester; with an Account of the Bishops, pp. 210‑214, London, 1736; C. H. and T. Cooper, Athena Cantabrigienaes, ii. 24, 543, ib. 1861; F. G. Lee, The Church under Queen Elizabeth, ib. 1896; W. Clark, The Anglican Reformation, New York, 1897; W. H. Frere, The English Church . . . (1668‑1625), London, 1904; H. N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, ib. 1907; DNB, 1. 283‑286.

SANDYS, GEORGE: English poet and pars, phrast; b. at Bishopthorpe (2 m. s. of York) Mar. 2, 1577‑78; d. at Boxley (32 m. s.e. of London), Kent, Mar., 1644. He was educated at Oxford; traveled in the East, 1610‑12; was in Virginia, 1621‑24, as colonial treasurer; nominated to the colonial council, 1624, 1626, and 1628, building there "the first water‑mill, the first iron‑works, and the first ship," but, involved in quarrels and disappointed in not securing the appointment of secretary in 1631, returned to England; and was for some years an attendant of Charles I., and ended life in scholarly retirement. He published a much‑valued Relation of a Journey (London 1615) ; translated Ovid's Metamorphoses (1626), partly at Jamestown, Va.; and G. Grotius' Christ's Passion (1640); and para­phrased the Psalms, Job, Canticles, Ecclesiastes, and Lamentation (1636‑11). In James Montgomery's opinion "his psalms are incomparably the most poetical in the English language, and yet they are scarcely known." Fragments of one or two of them may be found in some of the hymn‑books. The paraphrases were nearly inaccessible until H. J. Todd's Selections from the Metrical Paraphrases on the Psalms and Other Portions of Holy Scripture by G. Sandys with a Memoir (1839) appeared. The Complete Poetical Works (1872) was published with Memoir by R. Hooper in Library of Old Authors (London, 1856‑72).

BYBLIOGRAFHY: Besides the Memoirs named in the text, consult: Julian, Hymnology, pp. 918, 994; DNB, 1. 290­293.

SANFORD, ELIAS BENJAMIN: Congregation­alist; b. at Westbrook, Conn., June 6, 1843. He received his education at Wesleyan University (A.B., 1865; A.M., 1869) and Yale Divinity School; served as pastor at Cornwall (1869‑71), Thomaston (1873‑81), and Westbrook, all in Connecticut (1882­1895), during this period being a contributor to religious publications on subjects of importance; he was corresponding secretary of the Open and Institutional Church League (1895‑1900); was the organizer of the National Federation of Churches (see CHuRcH FEDERATION) and general secretary of the same since its founding (1900). At his sugges­tion this organization took action that secured the appointment of delegates from the highest judica­tories and national conferences of thirty denomina­tions representing the larger part of the Evangelical church membership of the United States. These delegates came together in an inter‑church confer­ence held in New York, Nov. 8‑15, 1905, and adopted the plan of federation described in the ar­ticle referred to above. Since 1903 Dr. Sanford as corresponding secretary has had in charge the cor­respondence and office details, under direction of the executive committee, of the several conferences. He is the author of History of Connecticut (Hartford, 1881); Concise Cyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1890); Church Federation. Report of Inter‑Church Conference on Federation (New York, 1905); and Federal Council of the Churches. Report of the First Meeting of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America (Philadelphia, 1908).
SANHEDRIN, san'he‑drin, SANHEDRIM: The term usually applied to the highest Jewish judica­tory in Jerusalem at the time of Christ. The New Testament in the Greek usually employs the term synedrion to designate the court in which the ju­dicial process against Jesus Christ was carried on (Matt. xxvi. 59; Mark xiv. 55, xv. 1; Luke xxii. 66), before which the apostles (Acts v. 21, 27, 34, 41), especially Peter and John (Acts iv. 15), Stephen (Acts vi. 12, 15), and Paul (Acts xxii. 30, xxiii. pas­sim, xxiv. 20), had to answer for their faith in the Risen One. In John xi. 47 the term is applied to a session of this court. [In the English version the term "council" is usually applied to this court, and generally with additional phrases, such as "elders, scribes and the whole council," "° elders, chief priests, and scribes," "council and senate."] In the pas­sages cited above the reference is to one court alone. But the plural form in Matt. x. 17; Mark xiii. 9; cf. Matt. v. 22, refers to smaller judicatories. These bodies had the right to make arrests (Matt. xxvi. 47 sqq.; Mark xiv. 43 sqq.; cf. Acts v. 18, ix. 2), to pronounce decision and to punish, except that capital punishment required the confirmation of the Roman procurator, by whom it seems to have been executed (John xviii. 31); the only case of capital punishment mentioned in connection with this judicatory in the New Testament is that of Jesus. Acts ix. 2 indicates that the mandates of the great sanhedrin was recognized wherever Jews dwelt‑the high priest's directions reached at any rate to Damascus. The great sanhedrin was com­posed of elders (see ELDERS IN ISRAEL), Scribes



(q.v.), and the most eminent members of the high­priestly families. Joseph of Arimathea is called a counselor (Mark xv. 43; Luke xxiii. 50; Gk. bouleutes; boula occurs in Josephus, Ant., XIX., iii. 3 for the council itself). The high priest Caiaphas appears as president in the process against Jesus (Matt. xxvi. 3, 57) and the high priest Ananias (Acts xxiii. 2, xxiv. 1) in the time of Paul.

The traditional Jewish view was that a supreme court was created in the time of Moses, and that the great sanhedrin was its legitimate successor; but, though learned and diligent attempts have been made in modern times to defend this view, success has not attended them. Even if Jehoshaphat erected a supreme court which lasted till the exile (a doubtful fact; II Chron. xix.), such a judicatory did not exist in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, or it would have left some traces in the reports con­cerning the activities of these men. At the head of the community then were the "elders of the Jews" (Ezra v. 5, vi. 7, 14), also known as "princes" (Ezra ix. 1, 2, x. 8; Neh. ix. 38). From these "princes" was formed an aristocratic senate, at the head of which stood the hereditary high priest; and this body was known as the gerousia (from Gk. ger6n, "old man"), which appears under this name first in a writing of Antiochus the Great (Josephus, Ant., XII., iii. 3). The letter of Jonathan the Maccabee to the Spartans (I Mace. xii. 6) begins: "Jonathan the high priest, and the gerousia (senate) of the nation," etc., while I Mace. xii. 35 speaks of "the elders of the people" as called together. But there is no testimony as to the exact significance of the gerausia under the Maccabean kings, though it is probable that it continued to exist. Such contin­uance would easily explain the division by Gabinius (57‑55 B.c.) of the Jewish territory into five dis­tricts ruled by synedria or synodoi (Josephus, Ant., XIV., v. 4; War, I., viii. 5), a division set aside by Caesar in 47, when to the sanhedrin at Jerusalem was given general jurisdiction over the entire land (cf. Josephus, Ant., XIV., ix. 3‑5), before which Herod appeared and on which he afterward took bloody vengeance, although the sanhedrin continued to exist under his rule (Josephus, Ant., XV., vi. 2). Under Roman rule through procurators the sanhe­drin had naturally great importance, receiving recognition even from Jews not in Palestine. Be­cause of the singular significance, after the exile,of the law for Jewish life, the importance of the san­hedrin as the highest theological and national court of justice continually increased, and before it were decided causes which affected the entire civil life of the Jews.

Jewish tradition is summarized in the Talmudic tract Sanhedrin, the data from which supplement well the scanty data obtainable from other sources. It makes clear that the membership was seventy­one, and it seems probable that the lesser sanhe­drin had a membership of twenty‑three. The place of session seems according to some reports to have been a hall inside the fore‑court of the temple (Sanhedrin, xi. 2), but was really outside the court and to the west, as described by Josephus (below)

members are called bouleutai, "counselors," and the body itself bolds, "council." Josephus calls the

place of assemblage boule or bouleuterion (War, V., iv. 2, VI., vi. 3). The tract Chagiga, ii. 2, makes two Pharisees, heads of schools, normally the president and vice‑president, and J. Levy and D. Hoffmann (see bibliography) have defended this view. But the testimony of the New Testament and of Josephus is decisive that the high priest was always the presiding officer. (H. L. STltnc$.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: The Jewish sources are the tracts San­

hedrin and Makkoth in Mishna, Tosephtha, and Talmud.

The Mishns text with Lat. tranal. and notes is in the

Amsterdam ed. by Surenhuysen, iv. 205‑291, published

1702; with Germ. tranal. in D. Hoffmann's Miachnajot,

iv. 145‑219, Berlin, 1898; the Palestinian form with Lat.

introduction is in Ugolini, Thesaurus, xxv. 1‑338, Fr.

transl. in M. Sehwad, Le Talmud de Jkrusalem, vols. x.‑xi.,

Paris, 1888‑59; the Babylonian Talmudic tract San­

hedrin is in Ugolini, ut sup., xxv. 339‑1102; both forms

with Germ. tranal. are in L. Goldschmidt, Der babylon. Talmud, vii. 1‑610, Berlin, 1903.

Consult: A. Biiehler, Daa Synedrion in Jerusalem,

Vienna, 1902; J. Selden, De aynedriia, London, 1650‑55;

Ugolini, Thesaurus, xxv. 1103‑1234; A. T. Hartmann,

Die enge Verbindung des A. Ta. mit dem Neuen, pp. 166­

225, Rostock 1831• L. Herzfeld, Geschichte'des Volkea

Israel, ii. 380‑396, Leipsic, 1855; J. Levy, in Monataschrii/t fur Geschichte and Wisaenaehaft des Judentums, 1855, pp. 266‑274, 301‑307, 339‑358; J. M. Jost, Geachichte des Judenthuma, i. 120‑128, 270‑285, 403 sqq., ii. 13 sqq., 25 sqq., Leipsic, 1857‑58; J. Langen, in TQ, 1862, pp. 411­463; A. Kuenen, Over de SamenRelling van hel Sanhedrin, Amsterdam, 1866; J. Derenbourg, Hiat. de la. Palestine, pp. 83‑94, 465‑468, Paris, 1867; D. Hoffmann, Der oberate Gerichtahof in der Stadt des Heiligthuma, Berlin,

1878; Stapfer, in Revue de th6ologie et de philosophie, 1884, pp. 105‑119; H. Gritz, Geschichte der Juden iii. 100 sqq., Leipsie, 1888; Blum, Le Synhedrin ou grand conseil de J&uaalem, Strasburg, 1889; I. Jelski, Die innere Einr(eht­ung des groasen Synedriona zu Jerusalem, Breslau, 1894; A. Hausrath Neuteatamentliche ZeitgescichEe, i. 63‑72, Heidelberg, 1873, Eng transl., Hiat. of N. T. Times, London, 1895 M. Sulzberger, The Am ha‑Aretz, the An­cient Hebrew Parliament; a Chapter in the constitutional History of ancient Israel, Philadelphia, 1910; Scharer, Geaehichte, ii. 188‑214 Eng transl., Il., i. 163 sqq.; DR. iv. 397 102; BB, iv. 484014; JE, xi. 4114.

Download 3.64 Mb.

Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   38

The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page