2005 Mathematics May Seminar



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T

he London Eye


  • Admission: £12.50

  • Hours: 9:30am-9:00pm daily

  • Largest observation wheel ever to be built (450ft)

  • Bird’s eye view of London, seeing 55 landmarks in 30 minutes



The National Portrait Gallery


  • Admission: Free entry

  • Location: St Martin's Place London WC2H 0HE

  • Phone: 020 7312 2463

  • Hours: 10:00am-6:00pm daily, Thursday and Friday open until 9:00pm

  • Portraits of famous British people in all medias


Tate Modern


  • Admission: Free

  • Phone: 020 7887 8008

  • Location: Bankside London SE1 9TG

  • Hours: 10:00am-6:00pm daily, Friday and Saturday open until 10:00pm

  • National Museum of Modern Art



N

atural History Museum


  • Admission: Free

  • Location: Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD

  • Phone: 20 7942 5839

  • Hours: Monday-Saturday 10:00am-5:50pm, Sunday 11:00am-5:50pm

  • Museum began as a division of the British Museum, but formed it’s own museum that was open to the public in 1881

  • Some of the more popular exhibits include: Wonders, Dinosaurs, Mammal Hall, The Power Within (earthquakes), Earth’s Treasury (precious gems), Creepy Crawlies, and Human Biology



Buckingham Palace


  • Phone: 20 7766 7300

  • Location: Buckingham Palace, London SW1A 1AA

  • Changing of the guards takes place at 11:30am daily



Double-Decker Routemaster Bus Rides


  • Admission: £1.20 fare for a single ride



D

ouble-Decker Sightseeing Bus Tour-The Original Tour (Yellow)


  • Bus tour admission: £16.00

  • Phone: 020 8877 1722

  • www.theoriginaltour.com

  • Tour London from the top of a double-decker bus

  • You can get on and off the bus as you please to learn more about the sites along the way

  • Buses come by stops every 15-20 minutes



The London Dungeon


  • Admission: £15.50

  • Hours: 10:00am-5:30pm

  • Phone: 020 7403 7221

  • www.thedungeons.com

  • Location: beneath London Bridge Station on Tooley Street, Southwark

  • The London Dungeon brings more than 2,000 years of gruesome history vividly back to life

  • “Follow in the bloody footsteps of Jack the Ripper, enjoy a grisly date with Madame Guillotine and experience the ultimate trip... being sentenced to death on a terrifying, one-way ‘Judgment Day’ dark boat ride to meet your maker”


References


  • http://www.gmt2000.co.uk/meridian/place/plco0a1.htm 17 April 2005.

  • http://www.salisburycathedral.org.uk 17 April 2005.

  • http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk 17 April 2005.

  • http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk 17 April 2005.

  • http://www.theoriginaltour.com/tour_information/prices.html 24 April 2005.

  • Humphreys, Rob. The Rough Guide to London. Penguin Books: New York. 2001.

  • Rogers, Malcolm. Museums and Galleries of London. A&C Black: London. 1991.

  • Rosoff and Acker, London Guide. Open Road Publishing: New York. 1995.

  • Sekules, Kate. London. Fodor’s Travel: New York. 1995.

  • Yale, Pat. London. Lonely Planet: Hawthorne, Australia. 1998.


St. Paul’s Cathedral

Jason Tofteland





  • 604 – First St. Paul’s Cathedral is built

  • 1087 – Old St. Paul’s is built after the previous burned down in the city fire

  • 1666 – The Great Fire of London destroys Old St. Paul’s

  • 1675 – 1710 – The new cathedral is built with Wren’s design



The Dome




The Ball and Lantern


Andrew Niblett, Citizen and Armourer of London erected the original ball and cross, in 1708. They were replaced by a new ball and cross in 1821 designed by the Surveyor to the Fabric, CR Cockerell and executed by R and E Kepp. The ball and cross stand at 23 feet high and weigh approximately 7 tons. For safety reasons visitors are no longer admitted to the interior of the ball.

The Golden Gallery


The Golden Gallery is the smallest of the galleries, which runs around the highest point of the outer dome, 280ft (85.4 meters) and 530 steps from ground level.

While the dome and galleries were being built, Wren was hauled up and down in a basket at least once a week to inspect the work in progress. He was 76 by the time this work was completed in 1708 and he watched as his son placed the last stone in position.


The Dome

St. Paul's is built in the shape of a cross, with the dome crowning the intersection of the arms. It is one of the largest cathedral domes in the world, 111.3 meters high. It weighs approximately 65,000 tons and is supported by eight pillars.



The Stone Gallery


  The Stone Gallery is one of the two galleries above the Whispering Gallery that encircle the outside of the dome. The Stone Gallery stands at 173 ft (53.4 metres) from ground level. 378 steps reach it.

While the Dome and galleries were being built, Wren was hauled up and down in a basket at least once a week to inspect the work in progress. He was 76 by the time this work was completed in 1708 and he watched as his son placed the last stone in position.



The Whispering Gallery


  The Whispering Gallery runs around the interior of the Dome and is 259 steps up from ground level. It gets its name from a charming quirk in its construction, which makes a whisper against its walls audible on the opposite side.

Cathedral Floor




1) The Nave


The Nave is the long central section of the Cathedral that leads to the Dome. It is a public and ceremonial space, designed for congregations at large services.

The Great West Door is nine meters high. It is now used only on ceremonial occasions.

There are three chapels at this end of the Cathedral - All Souls' and St Dunstan's in the north aisle and the Chapel of the Order of St Michael and St George in the south aisle.

2) The North Aisle


The North Aisle is located to the left of the Great West Door entrance. Areas of interest include The Chapel of All Souls, The Chapel of St Dunstan and Wellington's monument.

The Chapel of All Souls

Situated on the ground floor of the northwest tower, this chapel was dedicated in 1925 to the memory of Field Marshal Lord Kitchener (1850-1916) and the servicemen who died in the Great War of 1914-18 (World War I). It is also known as the Kitchener Memorial Chapel.

Among the chapel's artifacts are sculptures of the military saints St Michael and St George, a beautiful pietá - a sculpture of the Virgin Mary holding the body of Christ - and an effigy of Lord Kitchener. The silver-plated candlesticks on the altar are made from melted-down trophies won by the London Rifle Brigade.

The Chapel of St Dunstan

This chapel, consecrated in 1699, was the second part of Wren's building to come into use, after the Quire. In 1905, it was dedicated to St Dunstan, who was a Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury 1,000 years ago. Before this it was known as the Morning Chapel, because the early morning office - a daily service - was said here.



Wellington's monument

A monument to one of Britain's greatest soldiers and statesmen, the Duke of Wellington, is on the north aisle. Wellington died in 1852 but his monument was not completed until 1912, when the figure on horseback was unveiled.



The South Aisle


The Chapel of St. Michael and St George is situated on the south aisle. The chapel was originally the consistory court - the place where the bishop sat in judgment over the clergy, or priests. It became a temporary studio for the construction of Wellington’s monument between 1858 and 1878.

 

The North Transept


The short, central arms of the Cathedral's ground plan are called transepts. William Hollam Hunt’s painting The Light of the World dominates the north transept. It dates from around 1900 and is the third version that Hunt painted. The figure of Christ knocking on a door that opens from inside suggests that God can only enter our lives if we invite Him in. Regular services are held here in the Middlesex Chapel. The flags are the color of the Middlesex Regiment - the empty pole belongs to a flag that was lost during World War II. The urn-like Italian marble font dates from 1727.

 

The South Transept


Admiral Nelson's monument shows Britain's greatest naval hero - who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 - leaning on an anchor. His monument features a handsome lion, a symbol that means the person commemorated died in battle. Other memorials commemorate the landscape painter JMW Turner and the explorer Captain Robert Scott, who died returning from the South Pole in 1912. There are three death's heads over the entrance to the crypt, where the dead are laid to rest.

 

The Quire


The Quire is at the east of the Cathedral's cross-shape. This is where the choir and clergy - the priests - normally sit during services. The Quire was the first part of the Cathedral to be built and consecrated. The choir stalls on both sides of the chancel feature delicate carvings by Grinling Gibbons, whose work is seen in many royal palaces and great houses. The Bishop's throne, or cathedra, is on the south side. A cathedral takes its name from the Bishop's chair.

The Organ

The organ was installed in 1695 and has been rebuilt several times. Its case by Grinling Gibbons is one of the Cathedral's greatest artifacts. The third largest organ in the UK, it has 7,189 pipes, five keyboards and 138 organ stops.



The High Altar

Originally, the Cathedral had a simple table for an altar. The present high altar dates from 1958 and is made of marble and carved and gilded oak. It features a magnificent canopy based on a sketch by Wren. It replaces a large Victorian marble altar and screen, which were damaged by a bomb in World War II.



The North Quire Aisle


The wrought-iron gates were designed by the French master metalworker Jean Tijou, who was responsible for most of the decorative metalwork in the Cathedral.

The sculpture of Mother and Child is by Henry Moore, who is commemorated in the Crypt. The Memorial to Modern Martyrs honors Anglicans who have died for their faith since 1850.



The South Quire Aisle


This aisle contains a statue of the Virgin and Child, which was once part of the Victorian altar screen, and the effigies of two Bishops of London. There is also a marble effigy of John Donne - a Dean of the cathedral and one of Britain's finest poets, who died 1631. It is one of the few effigies to have survived the Great Fire of London - scorch marks can be seen on its base.

The Apse


Currently the Apse is home to the American Memorial Chapel. It honors American servicemen and women who died in World War II, and was dedicated in 1958. The roll of honor contains the names of more than 28,000 Americans who gave their lives while on their way to, or stationed in, the United Kingdom during World War II. It is kept in front of the chapel's altar. The three chapel windows date from 1960. They feature themes of service and sacrifice, while the insignia around the edges represent the American states and the US armed forces. The lime wood paneling incorporates a rocket - a tribute to America's achievements in space.
The Crypt
Nelson's Tomb

Admiral Nelson lies at the centre of the Crypt, directly beneath the middle of the Dome. His monument includes a call to national prayer that he wrote while in view of the enemy before the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

Nelson was killed in the battle, but was well prepared for this eventuality and had his coffin with him. It was made from the mast of a French ship sunk in one of his earlier victories and he kept it propped behind his desk.

His body had to be preserved for the journey home, so it was soaked in French brandy. At Gibraltar, it was transferred - still in the coffin - into a lead-lined casket and steeped in distilled wine. When the pickled remains reached England, they were put in two more coffins before being buried in the crypt, beneath Cardinal Wolsey's 16th century sarcophagus.

 

Wellington’s Tomb

Wellington rests on a simple casket made of Cornish granite. Although he was a national hero, he was not a man of glory in his victories. 'Nothing except a battle lost can be held so melancholy as a battle won,' he wrote in a dispatch of 1815, the year in which he defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.

The Duke was known as The Iron Duke and as a result of his tireless campaigning, has left a colorful list of namesakes - Wellington boots, the dish Beef Wellington and even a brand of cigars. He also coined some memorable phrases. He gave the expression ' . . . and another thing' to the English language and declared 'The battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton.'

The banners hanging around Wellington's tomb were made for his funeral procession. Originally, there was one for Prussia, which was removed during World War I and never reinstated.

 

Sir Christopher Wren's Tomb

Sir Christopher Wren, architect of St Paul's is buried in the south aisle at the east end of the Crypt. Beside Wren's tomb is a stone bearing his architect's mark. The tombs and memorials of his family surround him. In the same section of the Crypt are many tombs and memorials of artists, scientists and musicians. They include the painters Sir Joshua Reynolds and Sir John Everett Millais; the scientist Sir Alexander Fleming, who discovered penicillin; the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan (of Gilbert and Sullivan); and the sculptor Henry Moore.

 

OBE Chapel

At the east end of the Crypt is the OBE Chapel. It was dedicated to the Order of the British Empire in 1960. The glass panels feature the present sovereign, scenes from the Commonwealth, commerce and the royal founders of the Order. Banners hanging from the ceilings represent members of the Royal Family.

TUBE


Using the Underground (origin assumed to be Russell Square)


  1. Science Museum:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Heathrow) all the way to South Kensington, and exit there.


  1. Westminster Abbey:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Heathrow) to Leicester Square; transfer to the black Northern line (in the direction of Morden) to Embankment Station; transfer to the yellow Circle line or the green District line (in the direction of South Kensington) to Westminster Station.


  1. St. Paul’s Cathedral:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Heathrow) to Holborn; transfer to the red Central line (in the direction of Stratford) to St. Paul’s.


  1. Changing of the Guards, Buckingham Palace:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Heathrow) to Green Park.


  1. Leicester Square, Theatre District:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Heathrow) to Leicester Square.


  1. Tower of London:

Take the purple Piccadilly line (in the direction of Cockfosters) to King’s Cross St. Pancras; transfer to the yellow Circle line in the clockwise direction to Tower Hill.
Seminar’s Academic Content

Written Assignments




  1. Student Photo Journal:

Student groups will be responsible for daily updates of photos and text, using CCAngel. Include pictures of our group, sites, architecture, local color, and accompanying text explaining the day’s activities. Egypt: Sandra, Angie, and Jennifer; Greece: Sarah, Megan, Lindsey, and Kevin; Italy and Switzerland: Lauren, Kristen, Aaron, Matt, and Lindsay; Paris and London: Abbey, Katie, Baret, and Dane.


  1. Personal Journal:

Please keep a daily journal on the trip of your personal experiences and impressions. At the end of the trip I will verify that you have maintained this journal.


  1. Essay on Dava Sobel’s Longitude:

Please read the short nonfiction book Longitude.. In response, write a full paragraph explaining the basic mathematics that connects the search for longitude at sea and the keeping of accurate time. Then, in about a page and a half, critique the book, or comment on the content of the work.


  1. Final Essay on Mathematics Appreciation:

Over the course of the semester and the month of May, how have you come to see mathematics in another light? This can range from the study of patterns; the geometry of Renaissance painting; the use of numbers in measurements of currency, time, and quantity; foundations of architecture and structural design; standardization of notation, and so on to name but a few examples. Be creative, be honest, and be thoughtful and informed.





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