2005 Mathematics May Seminar



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Sources


THEATRE, accessed on 4/26/2001 from the World Wide Web, <http://www.tulane.edu/~hughl/Period.Styles/Greece/Epidaurus.theatre.html>

Epidaurus, accessed on 4/25/2001 from the World Wide Web <http://www.weaversuk.com/epidaurus.htm>



Andronicos, Manolis. The Greek Museums Delphi, Ekdotike Hellados S.A. Athens, Greece 1975

The theatre of The Sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidaurus, Hellenistic Ministry of Culture, accessed on 4/23/2001 from the World Wide Web,

The Castle of Palamidi at Nauplion, Hellenistic Ministry of Culture, accessed on 3/23/2001 from the World Wide Web,



Greek Mythology

Matt Palmen


  1. What are myths and where did they originate

  1. Definition and Etymology

  1. myths are traditional tales

  2. mythos was a “word” or “story”

  3. logos and epos was a “teller” of “explainer”

  4. so mythologos was a “storyteller”

  1. Origin

  1. in the West

  2. Greek connotations




  1. The gods and goddesses of Olympus

  1. Zeus

  1. supreme ruler of Mount Olympus

  2. sixth child of Cronus and Rhea

  1. Cronus was the ruler of the Titans

  2. was warned by oracle that his child would overthrow him

  3. after first five were swallowed, Rhea tricked Cronus and saved Zeus

  4. Zeus lived with Mother Earth in Crete

  5. Zeus began to work for Cronus and tricked him into drinking something that caused him to spew his siblings

  6. Zeus along with Poseidon and Hades killed Cronus

  1. after drawing lots, Zeus became ruler of the heavens, Poseidon was ruler of the sea, and Hades ruler of the Underworld

  2. was noble, mighty, glorious and wise, although gullible in the face of love

  3. could be vengeful (story of Prometheus- fire to earth, tied to rock, eagle to pick at liver for eternity, Hercules freed him)

  4. his bird was the eagle

  5. tree was the oak

  6. had a flying horse named Pegasus

  7. throw thunderbolts

  1. Poseidon

  1. ruler of the sea, and god of earthquakes

  2. powerful, second only to Zeus

  3. wife was Aphritite, granddaughter to the titan Oceanus

  4. gave the first horse to man

  5. he is depicted carrying the trident, a three-pronged spear

  6. he is always accompanied by his son, Triton, who is half man, half fish

  1. Demeter

  1. goddess of fertility and the goddess of the harvest

  2. portrayed as serious and dignified

  3. dressed in a plain long robe

  4. in art, often depicted carrying a bundle of grain

  5. she is daughter of Cronus and Rhea, Zeus’ sister

  1. Hera

  1. was the sister and one of the wives of Zeus

  2. nicknamed “cow-faced” but was very beautiful

  3. spent most of her time administering revenge on Zeus’ lovers

  4. was not a loyal spouse

  1. convinced the gods to revolt

  2. when it failed she was seized by Zeus

  3. hung from the sky with golden chains

  4. with anvils around her feet to weigh her down

  1. her animal is the cow

  2. her bird is the peacock and sometimes the cuckoo

  1. Athena

  1. daughter of Zeus

  2. his favorite child

  3. she is said to have no mother, but rather she sprang full-grown and in full armor form her fathers head (Metis was her mother, Hermes realized what was wrong, Hephaestus used the az)

  4. has two representations

  1. in Iliad, she is a fierce and ruthless warrior

  2. in Odyssey and other poetry, she is very powerful, but only fights to defend the State

  1. gave a bridle to man to allow them to tame the horse

  2. invented the trumpet, the flute, the pot, the rake, the plow, the yoke, the ship, and the chariot

  3. of the three virgin goddess, she was chief

  1. called the Maiden Parthenos

  2. temple in Athens is called the Parthenon

  1. is depicted with a helmet, shield, and a spear

  2. was able to use Zeus’ weapons, even his thunderbolts

  3. shield had Medusa’s head on the front

  4. her tree is the olive

  5. her bird is the owl

  1. Aphrodite

  1. goddess of beauty and love, and fertility and desire

  2. two accounts of her birth

  1. in Iliad, she was the daughter of Zeus and Dione

  2. in later myths, she rose from the sea, this is because aphros means foam-risen

  1. when she first arrived to Olympus, all the gods were struck by her beauty

  2. Zeus arranged a marriage for her

  3. she married Hephaestus

  4. she had a magic girdle, made by Hephaestus, that made anyone she wished desire her

  5. her tree was myrtle along with the rose, lily, crocus, and narcissus

  6. her animal was the swan, dove, sparrow, and dolphin

  1. Hephaestus

  1. god of forge and fire, or a blacksmith

  2. son of Zeus and Hera

  3. of the gods he was the most physically ugly

  4. he was also lame, there are two accounts

  1. Hera was upset at having an ugly child and threw him off Olympus and into the sea, breaking his legs

  2. Zeus caught Hephaestus trying to free Hera from the chains and in anger Zeus throw him off Olympus himself.

  1. made dwellings and furnishings for the gods

  2. made their weapons and armor

  3. was a kind and peace-loving

  4. god of the ceremony, where he formally admits children into the city

  5. worshipped by all blacksmiths

  1. Ares

  1. god of war

  2. Homer called him murderous, bloodstained, the incarnated curse of mortals

  3. was also a coward

  4. took delight in sacking towns and slaughtering humans

  5. no real personality, just a symbol of war

  6. is generally represented with a suit of armor, a helmet, a poised spear, and a shield

  7. his bird was the vulture

  8. his animal was the dog

  1. Artemis

  1. Was the goddess of the forest and all the wild things, also the Huntsman-in-chief to the gods

  2. was the twin sister to Apollo

  3. daughter to Zeus and Leto

  4. hunted with silver arrows

  5. one of the three virgin goddesses

  6. presides over childbirth

  7. her dark side is a fierce and vengeful warrior

  8. associated with the moon

  9. is also called Hecate and Selene, the three names make of the goddess of three forms: Selene in the sky, Artemis on earth and Hecate in the lower world.

  10. Temple of Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

  1. Apollo

  1. god of light, and truth

  2. the only god with almost no darkness

  3. oracle at Delphi is a link between man and god

  4. was the Healer-god

  1. first taught men medicine

  2. and art of healing

  1. important job to pull the sun across the sky in his golden chariot

  2. depicted beardless with a head crowned with laurel leaves and either a bow or lyre in his hand

  3. his animals where the dolphin and crow

  4. a statue of him, called the Colossus of Rhodes, is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

  1. Dionysus

  1. god of the vine

  2. invented wine and spread the art of tending grapes

  3. dual natured:

  1. brought joy and divine ecstasy

  2. brought brutality, thoughtlessness and rage

  1. son of Zeus and Semele

  2. only god to have a mortal parent

  3. Semele was burnt when she saw the true glory of Zeus

  4. Zeus rescued Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh until he was ready to be born

  5. Dionysus followers worshipped him in the woods, because that was where he grew up

  6. was one of the few that was able to bring the dead out of the Underworld

  7. brought his mother back from the Underworld and up to Mount Olympus

  1. Hermes

  1. son of Zeus and Maia, daughter of Atlas

  2. appears more often then any other god or goddess

  3. was the messenger of Zeus

  4. was the bringer of dreams, the governor of tongue, and the guide of intelligent speech

  5. shrewdest and most cunning of all the gods, called the Master Thief

  6. god of Commerce and market, patron of traders, merchants and thieves

  7. also the Divine Herald, who was the guide of the dead to the underworld

  8. his appearance is one with winged sandals and winged cap

  9. had a magic wand, Caduceus, which was given to him by Apollo

  10. invented the lyre, the pipes, the musical scale, astronomy, weights and measures, boxing, gymnastics, and the care of olive trees

  1. Questions

  1. Of the god and goddesses, which one most resembles you and which one would you want to be like?

  2. Which god or goddesses would you not want to be?

  3. Do you really believe the idea of Greek Mythology?

  1. Work Cited

A. Graf, Fritz. “Greek Mythology: an introduction.” Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

B. Graves, Robert. “The Greek Myths.” New York: Penguin Books, 1992.

C. Mythography. Loggia.com April 20, 2000. http://www.loggia.com/myth/gods.html

Mythweb. Fleet Gazelle. April 14, 2000. April 20, 2000. http://www.mythweb.com/index.html




Rome, Italy Matt Dimich
A Quick History

  • Over 3000 years of history

  • Rome started as a tiny village in central village.

  • Now a top ranking city in arts, fashion and cuisine.

  • According to Legend

    • Rome was founded in 753 BC

    • Romulus and twin brother Remus were abandoned on the Palatine Hill and suckled by a she-wolf. Romulus, thereafter founded Rome atop the Palatine Hill, naming it after himself.

    • Today the she-wolf remains the symbol of Rome

  • Historic Account

    • Hilly regions around the Tiber were inhabited by various hill tribes as early as the 8th century BC.

    • Hill dwellers were eventually dominated by the Etruscans, who built the settlement that would one day be Rome.

    • Frustrated with the Estruscans’ dominance over their affairs, in 510 BC, the Romans rose up and overcame their oppressors to establish a republic.

  • Rome emphasizes and is really proud of her history.

  • Class System

    • Slaves

      • Owned by other people. They had no rights at all

    • Plebeians

      • They were free people. But they had little say at all.

    • Equestrians(sometimes called knights)

      • Their name means the 'riders', as they were given a horse to ride if they were called to fight for Rome. To be an equestrian you had to be rich.

    • Nobles of Rome

      • They were called 'patricians'. All the real power in Rome lay with them.

Quick Facts

  • The Roman Republic was a very successful government. It lasted from 510 BC until 23 BC - almost 500 years. In comparison the United States of America only exist since 1776 - less than 250 years.

  • This is why they emphasize history!

  • One of Rome’s biggest challenges was the battle against Carthage which was destroyed in 146 BC

  • Most famous Emporer was Julius Caesar

    • 49BC Caesar conquered Rome itself which he then ruled as a dictator

    • Murdered in the Senate in Rome

    • July is named after him.

    • Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar was written about his famous death

  • Augustus Rome's first emperor. He also added many territories to the empire.

  • Claudius He conquered Britain.

  • Nero He was insane. He murdered his mother and his wife and threw thousands of Christians to the lions.

  • Titus Before he was emperor he destroyed the great Jewish temple of Solomon in Jerusalem.

  • Trajan He was a great conqueror. Under his rule the empire reached its greatest extent.

  • Hadrian He built 'Hadrian's Wall' in the north of Britain to shield the province from the northern barbarians.

  • Diocletian He split the empire into two pieces - a western and an eastern empire.

  • Constantine He was the first Christian emperor. He united the empire again chose his capital to be the small town Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople.

  • Romulus Augustus He was the last emperor of Rome, nicknamed Augustulus which means 'little Augustus'.

  • Justinian He was the last 'great' emperor. He conquered many territories, created the 'Justinian Code' and built the fantastic church Santa Sophia.

  • Constantine XI The last emperor of Constantinople. He died defending his great city against the Turks.

  • Five Empires

    • From City to Empire
      (755 BC to 27 BC)


    • Imperial Regime
      (27 BC to 102 AD)


    • Imperial Peace
      (102 AD to 192 AD)


    • Troubled Century
      (192 AD to 280 AD)


    • Restoration and Fall
      (280 AD to 476 AD)



Roman Forum

  • Built: -100 to 300

  • Building Type: city center 

  • Construction System: bearing masonry, cut stone

  • Climate: Mediterranean

  • Context: urban

  • Style: Ancient Roman

  • Notes: The assembly of buildings at the core of ancient Rome, from the time of Augustus.

  • Contents

    • Augustan:

    • The Temples

    • Saturn,

    • Concord,

    • Castor and

    • Pollux,

    • Divine Julius

    • Basilicas of

    • Julia

  • Aemilia

  • The Curia

  • The Rostra


Colosseum

  • Begun by order of Vespasiano in 72 A.D.

  • Finished by his son Titus, eight years later

  • It was called Colosseum because of the gigantic statue of Nero that was erected nearby

  • Elliptical in shape

  • Circumference of 527 meters

  • The major axis of 188 meters

  • The minor one of 156 meters

  • The maximum height 57 meters

  • The total length of the stands is 30,000 meters

  • The seats numbered 68,000, standing places 5000

  • Amazing view of the Forum from the top

  • Thousands of men and animals were massacred here

  • In the fifth century the emperor Onorius prohibited the gladiatorial games and successively the Colosseum belonged to the Frangipane, who used it as a castle-fortress, and then to the Annibaldi.

San Giovanni in Laterano

  • San Giovanni in Laterano is the Roman cathedral.

  • The Pope is its bishop.

  • It was built according to the desires of the pontefex Melchiade in the fourth century on a piece of land belonging to the Planzi Laterani family.

  • It was first consecrated to Christ the Redeemer and only later to Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist.

  • Often damaged by earthquakes and fires, it has repeatedly been rebuilt and embellished.


Santa Maria in Maggiore

  • One of the four patriarchal basilicas of Rome

  • Built at the request of Sisto II in 432

  • Was given a tall belltower in the fourteenth century

  • The eighteenth century facade, with its doorway and loggia, is the work of Ferdinando Fuga

  • Inside, the central nave is as long as it is wide, and is divided into lateral naves of 40 columns, 36 in marble and 4 in granite.

  • The "Cosmati" floor is the reconstruction of a twelfth-century original.

Sant’Ignazio

  • St. Ignatius of Loyola dies

  • Church is built and dedicated between 1626 and 1650 by Orazio Grassi.

  • The Jesuits serve the church

  • Extraordinary illusionistic ceiling frescoes

  • Executed ca. 1692-4 by Jesuit mathematician Fra Andrea del Pozzo

  • Mathematician learning and treatises Art

  • Interior is the shape of a Latin Cross

  • The fresco paintings of the nave vault is the greatest work of Fr. Andrea Pozzo S.J., painted in 1685.

  • It depicts the Glory of Ignatius, with St Ignatius being welcomed by Christ and the Blessed Virgin as he enters Paradise.

  • The effect of perspective creates the illusion of looking up at the sky through open colonnades.

  • Pozzo also painted the trompe l'oeil ceiling, a false dome in the nave, on a canvas that is 17 metres wide.

  • The original intention was to build a dome, but this was too expensive.

  • To get the best possible effect of the illusion, stand at the spot marked by a bronze plaque in the floor of the nave.

  • Near by in the Chiesa di San Luigi dei Francesi

    • Caravaggio’s “Calling of St. Matthew”

  • Sclupture of Moses in the Basilica di San Pietro in Vincoli.

Circus Maximus

  • The holding capacity for the Circus Maximus was a quarter of a million people!

  • This was about one quarter of Rome’s population.
    The Circus Maximus was a track used primarily for horse-racing, although it was used on occasion for hunts or mock battles.

  • It had 300,000 seats and was famous throughout the ancient world.

  • Built in the 6th century B.C. during the time of the Tarquins, the history of the Circus Maximus is troubled.

  • It was twice destroyed by fire and on at least two occasions the stands collapsed, killing many people.

Capuchin crypt

  • The most know part of the monastery after all is the Crypt situated in its basement.

  • It was founded in the middle of the 17th century and its authorship is ascribed to the popular builder Moric Grimm.

  • The Crypt was probably created by adapting cellars of houses former situated in the position of monastery.

  • It is approved by difference floor level in various rooms of the crypt.


Travel Guide
Travel around Rome and to and from the Airport


  • The Leonardo da Vinci airport, situated at Fiumicino, is about 36 km from Rome.

  • A train line connects the airport to the air terminal, near the Roma Ostiense train station.

  • The terminal is, in turn, connected via moving platform to the contiguous subway station Pyramid ("Piramide") (line B).

  • The train leaves every 20 minutes from 5:30 to midnight.

  • It is also possible to reach the city using buses that stop just outside the airport. They go to the air terminal of via Giolitti, situated alongside the Termini Station.

  • How to get around in Rome
    ATAC, the Roman urban transport society, manages the subways, trams, and buses.

  • There are two subway lines.

  • The first, line A, crosses the city from the western side (via Tuscolana - via Appia) to the Vatican section;

  • The second, line B, connects the eastern zone (Rebibbia) with the EUR (Exposizione Universale di Roma), crossing line A near Termini Station.

  • At the ATAC offices one can purchase the Romapass, a card that allows three days of travel throughout the entire transport network.

  • At the offices one can request a free card that indicates subway, tram, and bus routes.

  • Part of the historical center is criss-crossed by the electric minibus 119, which leaves from Piazza Augusto Imperatore.


Some taxi services are:

  • the Cooperative Autoradiotaxi Romana, tel. 3570

  • Radiotaxi La Capitale, tel. 4994

  • Radiotaxi Cosmos, te. 88177.

  • Metro information on the web http://www.metroroma.it/Metroroma/


Subway
Line A - Welcome to Line A, the ‘orange’ line which currently carries 450,000 people a day.
Gates open daily at 05:30am and close usually at 11:30pm, except Saturday evenings when closing time is at 0:30am.
Just to let go on the works that will renew the Line, from the 10Th of January 2005 until the next three years, the last train is at 9:00pm from terminal Anagnina as like from terminal Battistini. So for the next 36 months, two new bus lines named MA1 and MA2 are added, and they will cover the entire Line A route.
That two shuttles supplied by Trambus, are on duty from Monday to Friday including  holidays from 9:00pm to 11:30pm, and on Saturday until 0:30am
‘Orange’ trains provide 486 rides a day. During rush-hour trains pass every 3,30 minutes, whereas they pass once every 5-6 minutes during the less crowded hours of the day.
Line A has 27 stations, which cover Rome from Southeast to Northwest.



direction ANAGNINA (Line A)

BATTISTINI

  

CORNELIA

  

BALDO DEGLI UBALDI

  

VALLE AURELIA

  

CIPRO - MUSEI VATICANI

  

OTTAVIANO S.PIETRO

  

LEPANTO

  

FLAMINIO

  

P.ZA DI SPAGNA

  

BARBERINI

  

REPUBBLICA

  

TERMINI

  

VITTORIO EMANUELE

  

MANZONI

  

S. GIOVANNI

  

RE DI ROMA

  

PONTE LUNGO

  

FURIO CAMILLO

  

COLLI ALBANI

  

ARCO DI TRAVERTINO

  

PORTA FURBA - QUADRARO

  

NUMIDIO QUADRATO

  

LUCIO SESTIO

  

GIULIO AGRICOLA

  

SUBAUGUSTA

  

CINECITTA

  

ANAGNINA

  

direction BATTISTINI



Line B - Welcome to Line B, the ‘blue’ line, which carries over 300,000 passengers a day. Gates open daily at 05:30am and close at 11:30pm, except Saturday evenings when closing time is postponed to 0.30am.
‘Blue’ trains provide 337 rides a day. During rush-hour trains pass every 4-5 minutes, whereas they pass once every 6 minutes during less crowded hours of the day.
Line B has 22 stations, which cover Rome from South to Northeast.

direction LAURENTINA (Line B)

REBIBBIA

  

PONTE MAMMOLO

  

S.M. SOCCORSO

  

PIETRALATA

  

MONTI TIBURTINI

  

QUINTILIANI

  

TIBURTINA

  

P.ZA BOLOGNA

  

POLICLINICO

  

C. PRETORIO

  

TERMINI

  

CAVOUR

  

COLOSSEO

  

CIRCO MASSIMO

  

PIRAMIDE

  

GARBATELLA

  

BASILICA S.PAOLO

  

MARCONI

  

EUR MAGLIANA

  

EUR PALASPORT

  

EUR FERMI

  

LAURENTINA

  

direction REBIBBIA



Rome – Lido

Welcome to the Rome-Lido line, the regional railway, which carries over 90,000 passengers a day from Rome to Ostia. Service starts daily at 05:18am and ends at 11:30pm, providing up to 12 rides per hour during rush-hour.


The full length of the line is 28,359 km, has 13 stops and the total trip is approx. 37 minutes long.

direction CRISTOFORO COLOMBO

ROMA PORTA S.PAOLO

  

BASILICA S. PAOLO

  

EUR MAGLIANA

  

TOR DI VALLE

  

VITINIA

  

CASAL BERNOCCHI

  

ACILIA

  

OSTIA ANTICA

  

LIDO NORD

  

LIDO CENTRO

  

STELLA POLARE

  

CASTEL FUSANO

  

CRISTOFORO COLOMBO

  

direction ROMA PORTA S.PAOLO


Rome – Pantano

Welcome to the Rome-Pantano line, the regional railway, which carries 35,000 passengers a day. Service starts daily at 05:30am and ends at 09:30pm, providing trips every 6 minutes during rush-hour.


The full length of the line is 17.8 km, has 25 stops and each trip is approx. 30 minutes long.



direction GROTTE CELONI (Pantano)

LAZIALI

  

S. BIBIANA

  

PORTA MAGGIORE

  

PONTE CASILINO

  

S. ELENA

  

VILLINI

  

ALESSI

  

FILARETE

  

TOR PIGNATTARA

  

BERARDI

  

CENTOCELLE - BALZANI

  

STAZIONE CENTOCELLE

  

TOGLIATTI

  

GRANO

  

ALESSANDRINO

  

TORRE SPACCATA

  

TORRE MAURA

  

W. TOBAGI

  

GIARDINETTI

  

S. ANTONIO

  

TORRENOVA

  

TORRE ANGELA

  

TORRE GAIA

  

GROTTE CELONI

  

direction LAZIALI

Rome - Viterbo

Welcome to the Rome-Viterbo line, the regional railway, which carries 75,000 passengers a day from Rome to Viterbo. This line is divided into two sections: an urban section, from Piazzale Flaminio to Prima Porta, and an extra-urban section from Prima Porta to Viterbo.




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