One of these objects titles a set of lyric books by the composer of Pacific Overtures. In another song featuring these items of clothing, the singer describes the feelings of “mapping out a sky” and “watching the rest of the world from a window” while he “finishes” these objects. For ten points, name these accessories that Georges obsessively must complete in Sunday in the Park with George, whose “bowler” and “top” varieties are found on characters in the musical. ANSWER: Hats (accept specific forms of hats)
Two ceremonies on this holiday begin with the words “Ashamnu” and “Al Cheyt” respectively. A kittel is worn by grown men on this holiday, and the phrase “Tzom kal” is used to wish someone well for this holiday’s proceedings. The Ne’ila, or “closing” prayer, is done at the end of this holiday, and the Kol Nidrei prayer begins the prayer services before sunset on this day. This holiday falls on the tenth of Tishrei and serves as the end of the High Holy Days. For ten points, give this holiday, a Day of Atonement in Judaism where observers repent their sins.
ANSWER: Yom Kippur
Under this man's presidency, Florida was incorporated in the US in the Adams-Onis Treaty. This president's term is sometimes known as the "Era of Good Feelings" for its one party, the Democratic-Republicans controlling national politics. For ten points, name this American president, the fourth from Virginia, and who had a namesake doctrine to avoid further European colonization in the Western Hemisphere.
ANSWER: James Monroe
In his first official budget, this man spent the equivalent of $16.7 million dollars to modernize Islamic schools in his country. One campaign song in favor of this man was written by Nepalese singer Udit Narayan and was mocked by rivals in the Aam Aadmi Party. While running for his current post, this man came under fire for his involvement in the 2002 Godhra riots as Chief Minister of Gujarat. The leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, for ten points, name this current Prime Minister of India.
Answer: Narendra Damodardas Modi (prompt on NaMo)
This state elected the first African-American Senator since the Reconstruction Era, Edward Brooke. 3 of the 5 Speakers’ of the House from 1953 to 1987 were from this state, which included John McCormack and Tip O’Neill. One famous debate in this state involved the grandson of Henry Cabot Lodge saying that if his opponent’s last name was different, he wouldn’t be given any serious consideration. For ten points, identify this state whose senators include Ed Markey and Elizabeth Warren.
Answer: The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
6. In 2005, this group lost four members in a raid on James Roszko’s property, the Mayerthorpe tragedy. Justin Bourque killed three members of this group in the 2014 Moncton shootings. Though this group investigated the Angikuni disappearance mystery, it now dismisses it as an urban legend. This group suffered heavy losses putting down the North-West rebellion, which was led by Louis Riel. This group’s uniform is known as the “Red Serge.” For 10 points, name this law enforcement group that protects and serves the people of Canada in their red uniforms and on horseback.
7. Although it isn’t WWII, one film about this conflict featured decorated war hero Audie Murphy as “The Youth.” Another film about this conflict became the inflation-adjusted highest-grossing movie of all time. That film saw Hattie McDaniel become the first African-American to win an Academy Award. Matthew Broderick plays a colonel who commands a “forlorn hope” regiment against heavy fortifications in a film about this conflict, Glory. That film commemorates the 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment that served in this war. For 10 points, name this war that was the subject of the film Gettysburg.
ANSWER: American Civil War [accept War Between the States; accept War of the Rebellion; disapprovingly accept War Against Northern Aggression] 8. An enema of the smoke of this substance was used to resuscitate drowning victims. Though Nicolas Monardes and Anthony Chute touted the health benefits of this substance, King James I wrote that this substance was “hateful to the Nose, harmful to the brain” in A Counterblast to [this substance]. One man who cultivated this substance eventually married the daughter of Powhatan. That man, John Rolfe, introduced the cultivation of this substance to Jamestown. For 10 points, name this substance that is often chewed, snuffed, or more commonly, smoked in cigarettes.
ANSWER: tobacco 9. This man replaced local tax officials with a system of intendants. This man helped negotiate an alliance with Sweden with the Treaty of Barwalde. After the death of Charles de Luynes, this man became court favorite. He ordered the imprisonment and beheading of the Marquis of Cinq-Mars after he tried to get this man executed. This man nearly lost power when the mother of the king demanded that he be removed from power, the Day of the Dupes, which led to the exile of Marie de Medici. His forces won a decisive victory over the Huguenots at La Rochelle. For 10 points, name this powerful minister to Louis XIII, known as the “Red Eminence.”
ANSWER: Cardinal Richelieu [or Armand Jean du Plessis]
10. A parody of this painting by Gordon Parks shows Ella Watson standing in front of an American flag holding a broom and a mop in either hand. This painting’s background shows the Dibble House, which has a pointed arch window on the second floor. The woman on the left of this painting wears a large red button with an image of a man in relief on the front of her collar; that woman was modeled after this artist’s dentist Nan. The man on the right of this painting looks straight at the viewer while holding a pitchfork. For 10 points, name this oft-parodied painting of a Midwestern farmer and his wife by Grant Wood.
ANSWER: American Gothic
2nd Quarter 1. In 2007, citizens protested the decision by the national organization MEXT to reword textbooks describing this battle. Local schoolchildren at this battle formed the “Iron and Blood Volunteer Units.” The world’s largest battleship made its appearance at this battle; that ship, the Yamato was sunk during Operation Ten-Go. It saw a major usage of kamikaze attacks, and atomic bombs were dropped on Japan shortly afterwards. For 10 points, name this 1945 battle in the Pacific Theatre that resulted in huge losses for both sides.
ANSWER: Battle of Okinawa [accept Operation Iceberg]
BONUS: Following the Battle of Okinawa, atomic bombs were dropped on which two Japanese cities?
ANSWER: Hiroshima and Nagasaki [accept in either order]
2. In an opera based in this country, one character sings “News has a kind of mystery” after the descent of a giant plane in the first act. In another work set in this country, Prince Calaf sings, “Vincero! Vincero!” after defeating a princess’ three riddles; that aria is “Nessun Dorma.” In another opera situated in this country, one character dances the foxtrot with another man in the “Chairman Dances.” For 10 points, name this country, the setting of such operas as a certain John Adams opera and Turandot.
BONUS: China featured its own distinctive opera style, one that reached it fully maturity during this dynasty. This musical-sounding dynasty was conquered by the Mongols and succeeded by the Yuan dynasty.
ANSWER: Song dynasty
3. This player’s fiancé was captured on television swearing at this player’s opponent, Tomas Berdych, during the semifinals of the 2015 Australian Open. He is notably coached by former female tennis star Amelie Mauresmo. This player won the gold medal at the 2012 London Olympics, avenging his Wimbledon loss against Roger Federer. He won his first grand slam in 2012 at the US Open, defeating Novak Djokovic in five sets. For 10 points, name this Scottish tennis player, the first British man to win a Grand Slam tournament since Fred Perry in 1936.
ANSWER: Andy Murray
BONUS: While not the Australian Open, Murray has never won a title at this Grand Slam tournament, the only one of which to be held on clay courts.
ANSWER: French Open [accept Roland Garros]
4. At its conclusion, John Bly and Charles Rose were the only two people executed for their roles in it, even though this event’s leader was merely pardoned. This event prompted a future president to remark, “A little rebellion now and then is a good thing.” A leader of this movement, Job Shattuck, marched a force to prevent tax collectors from doing their jobs. General Benjamin Lincoln defended the Springfield Armory during this event. Name this revolt, for 10 points, led by a disgruntled Revolutionary War veteran that led to the revision of the Articles of Confederation.
ANSWER: Shays’ Rebellion
BONUS: Daniel Shays was a hero of what Revolutionary War battle, where the famous order, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes” was given?
ANSWER: Battle of Bunker Hill [or Battle of Breed’s Hill] 5. Aleksandr Asarin predicted the doom of this geographic location shortly before its decline began. In 1994, the ASBP was initiated by five countries to rescue this location, and a dam was constructed across Berg Strait. A bioweapons lab was built on a peninsula in this location; it was later abandoned in 1992, but not before the surrounding residents were infected by an accidental release of smallpox in 1971. Its rapid shrinkage is largely due to previous Soviet irrigation plans. For 10 points, identify this shrinking body of water between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
ANSWER: Aral Sea
BONUS: The Soviet government diverted the Aral Sea’s water in an effort to grow what crop, which they referred to as “white gold?”
ANSWER: cotton 6. A professor from this university was recently arrested for stealing twenty-one neighborhood lawn signs. A student from this school came under fire for a piece he published in this school’s “Tory” newspaper. That student, Tal Fortgang, wrote a controversial article for this school later republished by Time about how his “faith and education” from his parents were his “privilege.” What is this Ivy-league school, for 10 points, that shares a name with a 1777 Revolutionary War battle in New Jersey?
ANSWER: Princeton University
BONUS: What Princeton mathematics professor was featured in the film, A Beautiful Mind, which centered on his developing schizophrenia?
ANSWER: John Forbes Nash
7. Early in his career, he served as a lieutenant for the brutal governor of Hispaniola, Nicolas Ovando. Friar Bartholomew de la Casas attempted to notify the Spanish government about the Higuey massacre, which this man was responsible for. This man had a tenuous relationship with Hispaniola’s next governor, Diego Columbus. Because he discovered an area in Easter, this explorer named it after the Spanish word for Easter, which meant “flowery.” For 10 points, name this Spanish conquistador who searched for the mythical Fountain of Youth.
ANSWER: Juan Ponce de Leon
BONUS: What was the first major European settlement in the continental United States, established in Florida?
ANSWER: St. Augustine
8. Among Muslims, he was known as “The First Teacher.” He claimed how the pursuit of eudaimonia was contingent on virtue. In his work the Poetics, he defined hamartia as a character's flaw, which he felt should produce a purging of emotion called catharsis. This philosopher used the examples of cowardice and recklessness in order to demonstrate that the state of happiness is only achieved by finding the middle ground between two excesses, his “golden mean.” Despite receiving numerous death threats, he served as a tutor for a son of Philip II. For 10 points, name this Greek philosopher and author of Nicomachean Ethics and was a student of Plato.
BONUS: Aristotle wrote what famous work on ethics, which consists of ten separate books?
ANSWER: Nicomachean Ethics
3rd Quarter SHORT MEN
While these men weren’t the tallest, their legacies certainly dwarf others’. This man...
1. Instigated a war with Ethiopia to demonstrate his country’s superiority and was known as Il Duce.
ANSWER: Benito Mussolini
2. Implemented the New Economic Policy and led the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War.
ANSWER: Vladimir Lenin
3. Ascended to power as leader of the Soviet Union after the assassination of Leon Trotsky.
ANSWER: Josef Stalin
4. Wore high heeled shoes in order to look taller and more regal as the “supreme leader” of North Korea.
ANSWER: Kim Jong-il [prompt on Kim, do not accept Kim Jong-un]
5. Gave a speech to the House of Commons referencing “blood, toil, tears, and sweat.”
ANSWER: Winston Churchill
6. Declared that power was his “mistress” and defeated the Third Coalition of the Russia, Austria, and the Holy Roman Empire.
ANSWER: Napoleon Bonaparte
7. Made use of his father’s invention, the sarissa, to conquer the Achaemenid Empire.
ANSWER: Alexander the Great [or Alexander III of Macedon]
8. Drove out the French-installed Maximilian I and served as the first indigenous president of Mexico.
ANSWER: Benito Juarez TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD
Answer the following about the First Transcontinental Railroad. The Transcontinental Railroad...
1. Was partially built by immigrants from what Asian country?
2. Was completed under which president?
ANSWER: Ulysses S. Grant
3. Was financed by what group, including Mark Hopkins and Collis Huntington?
ANSWER: the “Big Four”
4. Was finished in this state’s Promontory Point.
5. Was finished by a golden spike, driven into the ground by what businessman, philanthropist, and financier of the railroad?
ANSWER: Leland Stanford
6. Was constructed, along with the Union Pacific Railroad Company, by what other company, which built the western portion of the railway?
ANSWER: Central Pacific Railroad
7. Was originally planned to be built on land acquired from Mexico in what treaty negotiated by the namesake U.S. minister?
ANSWER: Gadsden Purchase
8. Saw what vice president of the Union Pacific Railroad Company get rich through dubious practices, such as manipulating stock loopholes and building unnecessary tracks?
ANSWER: Thomas C. Durant
In China’s history prior to the 1949 Communist Revolution, what...
1. Series of routes was where ideas and goods flowed between China and the West?
ANSWER: Silk Road
2. Emperor constructed the Terra Cotta Army?
ANSWER: Qin Shi Huangdi [accept Qin Shihuang]
3. Boy emperor was the last emperor of China?
ANSWER: Henry Puyi [or Aisin-Gioro Puyi]
4. Philosopher during the Spring and Autumn Period had his teachings recorded in The Analects?
ANSWER: Confucius [accept Kongzi or Kong Fuzi]
5. Religion was founded by Lao Tzu?
6. Meritocratic system selected government positions, where participants had to write the eight-legged-essay?
ANSWER: civil service exam [accept imperial exam]
7. Invention, along with gunpowder, paper, and printing, was part of the Four Great Inventions?
ANSWER: the compass
8. Period of tumultuousness followed the fall of the Han Dynasty?
ANSWER: Three Kingdoms Period
One candidate in this election said that “A recession is when your neighbor loses his job. A depression is when you lose yours.” Independent John Anderson managed to get 6.6% of the vote in this election. The winning candidate in this election quipped “There you go again” in a debate. The losing candidate in this election was hurt by a speech in which he claimed that the United States was suffering from a “crisis of confidence”; that incumbent was also hurt by stagflation in the economy and the Iran Hostage Crisis. For 10 points, name this election in which incumbent Jimmy Carter was soundly defeated by Ronald Reagan.
ANSWER: Election of 1980
In a sub-range of this mountain range, a group of jagged peaks known as the Minarets are located in the Ritter Range. Jedediah Smith used the Ebbetts Pass to cross this mountain range. The (+)O’Shaughnessy Dam allowed one river in this range to provide a reservoir of drinking water; however, that reservoir flooded the Hetch Hetchy Valley, which was opposed by naturalist (*) John Muir. This range was where a party of pioneers were trapped for an entire winter and had to eat each other for survival, the Donner Party. For 10 points, name this mountain range in Eastern California.
ANSWER: Sierra Nevada 3. A fulminate of this substance that was an explosive was used in percussion caps. Before the advent of digital photography, the (+)photographic industry was the biggest consumer of this substance. Working with this substance was the profession of (*) Paul Revere. China was the last country to base its currency off of this substance. In the United States, usage of this substance to back currency at a 16:1 ratio with gold was supported by William Jennings Bryan. For 10 points, name this gray metal with chemical symbol Ag.
ANSWER: silver [or Ag before read]
4. John Philip Sousa composed a march named for this institution that includes octave doubling in its first seven measures. This institution infamously claimed that President Woodrow Wilson “entered” his future wife Edith Galt in a typo. This institution won a Pulitzer Prize for publishing a story about a 8-year-old boy who aspires to be a drug dealer called “Jimmy’s World,” but was later humiliated when it was found that Janet Cooke had fabricated it. Benjamin Bradlee, an editor of this newspaper, supported the investigative efforts of Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward. For 10 points, name this newspaper that uncovered the Watergate scandal.
ANSWER: The Washington Post
5. One man who conquered this country and declared himself dictator was Baron Roman von Ungern-Sternberg. This country was where Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov won his first victory, the Battle of Khalkhin Gol. Xu Shuzheng forced one leader of this country to acknowledge his country’s submission by kowtowing. It’s not Tibet, but this country declared independence from China after the Xinhai Revolution, though China reoccupied this country briefly from 1919 to 1921. The Bogd Khan was declared ruler of this country after its independence. For 10 points, name this country long influenced by China and Russia due to its position between them.
ANSWER: Mongolia 6. Two answers required. These two nations fought each other at the Battle of Les Avins. A territory ceded in the Seven Years’ War from one nation to the other was returned with the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The death of Charles the Bewitched led to fears that these two nations would be united under one dynasty under Philip V. These two nations’ allied fleets were defeated by Horatio Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar, though they fought each other in the Peninsular War. For 10 points, name these two countries who ended a war between them with the Peace of the Pyrenees, whose namesake range separates these two countries.
ANSWER: France and Spain [accept France and Espana; do not accept only one answer] 7. The building that this event took place in is currently part of NYU’s campus and is called the Brown Building. Louis Waldman described this event in his memoirs. In the trial following this event, Kate Alterman’s testimony was put in jeopardy when she repeated it several times without any changes in wording, suggesting that she memorized it. Clara Lemlich led a protest after this event called the Uprising of the Twenty Thousand. Many people died in this event because the doors of the Asch Building were locked and the building lacked safety precautions. For 10 points, name this 1911 disaster in which a fire killed many female garment workers.
ANSWER: Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
8. One ruler with this name attempted to ally with the French in order to capture British-held territories in India, his namesake “Indian March.” That ruler started an alliance that was ended by the British at the Battle of Copenhagen, the Second League of Armed Neutrality. Though not a Duke of Parma, another ruler with this name was born Alessandro Farnese and approved a group started by Ignatius of Loyola. That ruler with this name convened a council which defined the seven sacraments and started the Counter-Reformation. For 10 points, identify this name of the pope who convened the council of Trent, who shares his name with an Apostle from Tarsus.
ANSWER: Paul [accept more specific answers such as Paul I, Paul III, and Paul of Tarsus] Tiebreak 1. This country was formally made independent from the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Westphalia, though it had enjoyed independence previously. Confederated cantons make up this nation including Bern, and Uri. This nation has four official languages, their Latin name "Confoederatio Helvetica" is often used instead. For ten points, name this Alpine European country, famous for its neutrality.