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Harmony of the Gospels

(Erlangen, 1834); Theologische Eneyklop4die and

Methodologie vom Standpunkte der protestantischen

Kirche (Nuremberg, 1837); and Christ­

Writings. lithe Ethik (Stuttgart, 1842); Eng.

tranal., Edinburgh, 1868). The com­

mentary and the work on ethics marked an epoch in

their respective spheres. The encyclopedia is less im­

portant for its methodological arrangement than for

Harless' clear and energetic views of the Church,

the main points being the close relation of theology

to the Church; the unity of theory and practise

in a common living faith; the living continuity of

the Church from her very foundation as an ideal

factor of history; the emphasis of a common faith

as the basis of Protestant theology; the entire

transformation of this theology by the principle of

justification; the necessity of preserving the prin­

ciples of the Reformation in their purity; the

obscurity caused by the later Protestant scholas­

ticism, which considered the dogmas laid down in

the confessional writings of the Church as the final

conclusion of all dogmatic knowledge; and the

sound reaction against this tendency by the Pietistic

movement. The Christliche Ethik (Eng. tranal.,

System of Christian Ethics, Edinburgh, 1865), is

without doubt Harless' most important work. Its

chief excellences are its scientific structure, the

emphasis and consistent application of the Chris­

tian ethical principle, and the interrelation and

connection of the Biblical factor with the historical

factor in the more general sense of the word.


BiBLiOGBAPR7: Stghelin, in Zeitedritt far kirehliehe Wiesen­

aehaft and Leben, 1880, pp. 88 .qq., 145 eqq.; idem, LOW,

Thomaaius, Harlaes. Drei Lebow‑ and Geschichtsbilder,

Leipsic, 1887; C. Mirbt, in Better far bayerisehe Kirchen­

geschichte, 1898; Langsdorff, A. won Harlese, Leipsie, 1888.


land bishop of Rochester; b. at Maisemore (2 m.

n.w. of Gloucester), Gloucestershire, Aug. 11, 1857.

He was educated at King's College, Cambridge

(B.A., 1881; M.A., 1883), where he was fellow from

1883 to 1889, while from 1890 to 1899 he was fellow

of Corpus Christi College in the same university,

being also dean from 1892 to 1895. He was ordered

deacon in 1881, and ordained priest two years later,

and was domestic chaplain to Bishop Lightfoot of

Durham in 1884‑89, and examining chaplain to

Bishop Westcott of the same diocese in 1889‑95.

He was vice‑principal of the Cambridge Clergy

Training School from 1889 to 1893. In 1895 he

was consecrated bishop of Adelaide, South Austra­

lia, and ten years later was translated to the see

of Rochester. He edited (London, 1890‑93) eight

volumes of the posthumous writings of Bishop

Lightfoot, namely, five volumes of sermons, the

abridged edition of the Apostolic Fathers, Biblical

Essays, and Notes from Unpublished Commentaries.

HARMER, THOMAS: English Independent; b.

in Norwich, probably in Oct., 1114; d. at Wattis­

field (21 m. n.n.w. of Ipswich), Suffolk, Nov. 27,

1788. He was prepared for the ministry by Thomas

Ridgley and John Eames, at the Fund Academy,

Moorfields, and was elected to the pastorate of the

Independent church at Wattisfield in July, 1734.

He led an industrious but unambitious life, preached

every Sunday during fifty‑four years, and exerted

much influence in the dissenting churches of the

eastern counties of England. His principal works

are: Observations on Divers Passages of Scrip­

ture. . . Compiled from . . . Books of Voyages and

Travels into the East (4 vols., London, 1764‑87; 4th

ed. by Adam Clarke, 4 vola., 1808); Outlines o f a

New Commentary on the Book of Solomon's Song

(1768); and Some Account of the Jewish Doctrine of

the Resurrection (1771). His Miscellaneous Works

were edited, with a Memoir, by W. Youngman

(1823), while his manuscript accounts of the dissent­

ing churches of Norfolk and Suffolk were utilized

by John Browne (q.v.) in his History of Congrega­

tionalism, and Memorials of the Churches in Norfolk

and Suffolk (1877).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Besides the Memoir by Youngman, ut sup., and Browne, Hilt. of Cowegationadiam, pp. 199, 471­472, ut sup., consult DNB, mv. 414.

HARMONIIUS: Syrian hymn‑writer of the first

half of the third century. He was a son of the

Gnostic Bardeaanes (q.v.), whose heretical views

he shared. According to‑ Sozomen, he received a

Greek education (Hilt. eccl., iii. 16; cf.. Theodoret,

Hist. eccl., iv. 29, and Hwr., i. 22). He originated

the Syrian hymnology, and his hymns were long

popular. In the fourth century Ephraem Syrus

sought to crowd them out by writing orthodox

hymns in the same meters and to the same airs.

Ephraem (" Sermons against Heretics," liii., Opera

Syr., ii. 554 B) regarded Bardesanes as the composer

of the objectionable hymns; but the hymnal attrib­

uted by him to Bardesanes was probably com­

posed by Harmoniua. G. KROGER.

BiBLIOGRAPH7: Consult, besides the literature under BAR‑

DESANEs, DOB, ii. 845‑848; Ceillier Auteurs saeris, i. 455, 488; Harnack, Litteratur, i. 174, 184, 187. ‑


I. Harmonies as Interwoven Gospels.

No Harmonies before Tatian ($ 1).

Tatian's Diatessaron and its History (§ 2).

The Diatessaron Originally Greek (1 3).

Reconstruction of the Diatemsron through the Ver­sions (¢ 4).

Modern Works of the Kind (§ 5).

II. Harmonies in Parallel Arrangement.

Axamonius and Augustine (§ 1).

Clericus and the Griesbaoh School (4 2).

Rushbrooke and Later Harmonists (1 3).

[Under the name of "harmony of the Gospels" as commonly applied in English are embraced two classes of works: (1) those which combine into a continuous narrative more or less completely the accounts of the four Evangelists or of the Synop­tists, the different accounts being interwoven (to these is sometimes given the name " Diatessaron "); (2) those in which the text of the Gospels is arranged in parallel columns, the sections which deal with the same episodes being placed together. In the usage of German and some other scholars a distinction is made between " harmony " and " synopsis," the former name being used for the interwoven narra­tive, the latter for the parallel arrangement. A few works unite the two forms. See GosPEL "D Tao GOBPErA.]

Sarmony of the Gospels THE NEW SCHAFF‑HERZOG 162

I. Harmonies as Interwoven Gospels: From the early Church the only work of this character known

is the celebrated Diatessaron of Tatian. r. No Har‑ The chance remark of Jerome that monies Theophilus of Antioch had collected before the words of.the four Gospels in one Tatim work refers to a commentary by

Theophilus which embraced all four without sharp distinctions between them. The remark of Ambrose, which may be derived from Origen, to the effect that many heretical teachers collected out of the four Gospels that which suited their form of teaching, hardly proves the existence of a number of old harmonies, but rather refers to the Apocryphal Gospels, which got some of their material from the canonical Gospels, such as the Gospel of Marcion, based on Luke and containing excerpts from Matthew and John. And to this class of composition the work of Ammonius, known only from the letter of Eusebius to Car­pianus, does not belong, in which he is said to have taken Matthew as a basis and added the parallels from the other Gospels. While the de­scriptions do not permit dogmatizing upon the character of this work, it can hardly have been anything other than a handbook for exegetes and especially for harmonists, and it belongs to the class of books called by the Germans synopses.

The oldest trustworthy report of the Diatessaron of Tatian is contained in Eusebius (Hilt eccl., IV., xxix. 6), bpt the character of the description im­plies that its use was limited to certain circles and that it was not studied by Eusebius. This limita­tion in circulation is confirmed by Epiphanius, and still more definitely by Jerome when he says that out of all the productions of Tatian, only the Contra gentes remained, and omits mention of the Diates­earon. In Palestine during the fourth century even to the most learned authors the Diatessaron was but the title of an unknown book. If Hegesippus can

be held to have referred to the Diates­2. Tatian's Baron under the term " the Syriac Diatessaron (Gospel)," according to Eusebius (Hiat. and Its eccl., IV., xxii. 7) this is the earliest

History. testimony to the existence of that

work, and .it involves the conclusion that the language was Syriac; but that Hegesip­pus, writing in Greek, should have cited the Syriac translation of a Gospel harmony which must have followed its Greek original is highly improbable. But the testimonies in the Syrian region to the existence of the Diatessaron are abundant, and from direct knowledge, as when Theodoret, bishop of Kyros (or Kyrrhos), removed about 200 copies of the work from the orthodox churches and substituted the canonical Gospels. Completer knowledge has been recently gained through the discovery of the Armenian translation of the commentary of Ephraem Syrus, made accessible to larger circles by the Latin translation of J. Aucher (ed. G. M6singer, Venice, 1876; cf. J. H. Hill, Dissertation arc the Gospel Commentary of S. Ephraem, Edinburgh, 1896). The legends of the Christianizing of Edeasa, older than Eusebius, mention the Diatessaron as the chief sacred book alongside the Old Testament. Aphraates calls it

" the Gospel of our Savior." In the Syriac trans­lation of the Hist. eccl. of Eusebius, known to have existed as early as Ephraem Syrus' time, the " Diateasaron " of IV., xxix. 6 is translated by " the mingled (Gospel)," showing that in its home that was the name by which it was known, while in distinction from this the other Gospels were known as " the separated (Gospels)," as a canon of Rabbula of Edeasa (412‑435) makes clear. In the fifth century there was a definite rejection of the Diateasaron and exclusion of it from use in service, and that without distinction of party affiliations of the bishops who directed the movement. But from near Mosul to the bish­opric of Kyros the Diatessaron must have been for the churches long the service‑book in the Gos­pels, while the translations of the separate Gospels were used in the studies of the theologians, a con­dition which prevailed at least till about 370 A.D., when Ephraem Syrus lectured ,upon the Diates­saron with only occasional references to the canoni­cal Gospels. Similar evidence comes from other writers. Mar Abba, a disciple of Ephraem, had an " Exposition of the Gospel " the fragments of which appear to show that it was based on Tatian'a work. From the fifth century the relations of the two forms of the Gospels were reversed; the separated Gospels were in use in the churches, the Diatessaron, was referred to only by the learned.

Apart from the two translations already men­tioned, the history of the Diatessaron seems to have run its course entirely in the region of Syria. And it is to be noted that in its original form it was Greek, and was translated into the Syriac. The lack of any testimony for its existence among the Greek churches and the way in which Greek writers refer to it confirm the conclusion already reached. That Tatian, the writer of an apology in Greek, if he was in any event the author of the Diatessaron. could have written it only in Greek is

3. The an opinion founded upon ignorance of Diatessaron historical facts. Tatian, " born in the

Originally land of the Assyrians," had the Syriac

Greek. as his mother tongue. After long years

of travel in the West he returned to the

East and settled down and gave his countrymen

the Gospel, not in the form of four books, but, as

he himself called his volume, in the form " The

Gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God through four."

That the Greek apologete Tatian gave the Diatea­

saron in Syriac is an improbable supposition, and

against it is the discrimination he makes between

Matt. x. 10 and Luke ix. 3 on the one hand and

Mark vi. 8 on the other, " a rod and not a staff."

But the Diatessaron became a household book in

the Syrian Church. Whether it was the ,oldest

Gospel, which was later displaced by a translation

of the four Gospels, is a question for further exam­


A reconstruction of the Diatessaron from the translations in other languages can not be dispensed with, for no sure traces exist of the Greek. From a sermon wrongly attributed to Gregory of Nyasa and to Severus, but really by a certain Hesychius, probably the presbyter of Jerusalem (c. 438), a man interested in the matter of harmony of the Gospels,

163 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Harmony of the Gospels

it appears that he knew nothing of a Greek harmony.

In the sixteenth century O. Nachtigall found some

Greek fragments which he thought belonged to

the harmony of Ammonius (Evangelicae historice

ex 1111 Evangelistis continuata narratio, ex Am­

monii Alexandrini fragmentis, Basel, 1550); but

these may have depended upon the Syriac and

may have been by a Greek writer, just as the

Instituta regularia of Junilius in Constantinople

depended upon the lec;,ures of the Syrian

Paul of Nisibis. The Arabic Diatessaron is not

a simple translation from the Syr­

4. Recon‑ iac, but depends in part upon the

struction Gospel text of the Peshito. The

of the translator, or perhaps better the editor,

Diatessaron has permitted himself to make impor­

Through the tant alterations; and in view of the

Versions. fact that it was often difficult to find in

the original the passages from which

the elements of the Diatessaron were taken, the

consequence is that, instead of the artistic Diates­

saron, there is a rough Arabic work. Little use

could be made of the Arabic translation were there

not a Latin translation also, which latter is as closely

related to the Syriac as is the Arabic, and which

exists in the Codex Fuldensis, made under the direc­

tion of Victor of Capua, c. 546 A.D. About the

lineage of this " One Gospel from Four " nothing

was known by Victor; it fell into his hands by

chance. But Victor clearly did not think that it

originated in the Latin Church; he knew only that

Eusebius had mentioned two works of the kind in

the Greek, and he thought he had a translation of

one or the other of these. That it was not an exact

and independent translation of a work in a foreign

tongue was evident from its agreement with the

text of the Vulgate. If it was based on a foreign

harmony, it had been worked over to accord with

the text of Jerome. As a result, this corresponded

exactly with the work done in the Arabic translation

of the Syriac, and the individual features of the

Diatessaron were lost. It has been shown that

while, as a whole, the Latin depends upon Tatian's

Diatessaron, the original form of the Latin has not

come down unchanged. It can not have depended

upon a Greek harmony, since in the Greek Church

up to the time of Victor neither Tatian's nor any

other harmony was known. The presence of the

original of the Latin translation is accounted for

by the many Syrian Christians in the West in the

fifth century. Victor's manuscript came to Fulda,

probably into the hands of Boniface, and became

the exemplar of all codices which contain this text.

From it was made the, German Tatian belonging to

820‑830 A.D., now found in Codex 56 of St. Gall.

In the Middle Ages the Latin Tatian was much used,

and there are extant commentaries on it by Zacha­

rias of Chrysopolis and Peter Cantor. Other har­

monies were circulated in the latter half of the

Middle Ages, the relation of which to the Victor

manuscript needs investigation. One in particular

(Codex Monac. Lat. 10,025, of the thirteenth cen­

tury) has interesting relationship both to the Syriac

and the Arabic, and it also seems to be independent

of the text of Victor. The original of the Victor text

has not been found; but that it had considerable

circulation is proved by the existence of texts inde­pendent of the Victor type in Dutch. It is from manuscripts of this type that the text published by O. Nachtigall (ut. sup.) was derived.

The Monotessaron of John Gerson (Opera, iv. 83‑202, Antwerp, 1706) must be discriminated from this type as altogether modern. Since Augustine's unfinished De consensu evangeliorum this was the first attempt of the kind. The text is divided into 150 (151) rubrics, and in that in which the Sermon on the Mount fell the author engages in a critical discussion, and remarks on the concordantia dis­sonantia of the Gospels, considering them aids to faith. From harmonizing in the strictest sense Gerson is free. A work of independence, pains, and learning, and having important results upon further efforts, was that of Andreas Osiander of Nuremberg, Harmonise evangelicce libri quattuor, . . . Basel, 1537. In the dedication Osiander

named as his three predecessors Euse‑

5. Modern bius, Augustine, and Gerson, and, be­

Works of sides these, two Evangelia dia tessaron

the Kind. in manuscript in the monastery at

Heilbronn, and the work of Zacharias

of Chrysopolis, which last is a commentary on the

Latin Tatian. While in this place Osiander appears

to have passed by Ammonius, he mentions him in

the preface alongside the others. What he regretted

in all these works was a lack of reverence for the

text of the Gospels in that this was changed in order

and in letter, even arbitrarily. It was his desire to

express in his work the full purport of the original

text and to have shine through it all the original

inspiration. If Christ himself (Matt. v. 18) had

said that not one jot of the law of Moses was to fall,

much more was every word and letter of the Gospels

to be taken into account. From no consequence of

this principle did Osiander shrink. He regarded as

accounts of different events the cleansing of the

Temple as given in the Synoptics and in John, and

even distinguished between two events as narrated

in Matt. xxi. 12; Luke xix. 45; and Mark xi. 15.

And so throughout, slight differences in statement

seemed to justify him in regarding the narratives

as dealing with different events. Similarly his rule

that each of the Gospel texts must stand in its own

order involved him in difficulties solved in the same

manner. And in this way he thought he had accom­

plished new results in a real Harmonia evangelica.

This name was kept by those who, with as great

regard for Scripture, were not carried to an excess

of unnaturalness. This was the case with Calvin,

in whose commentary on the separate Gospels and

in his Commentarii in harmonium ex Matthaeo, Marco

et Luca (1555) the material is divided into 222 sec­

tions. In this the genealogies of Matthew and Luke

are referred to Joseph, the Sermon on the Mount

of Matthew and Luke are worked together, and a

similar plan rules throughout. In the work an

unfavorable opinion is pronounced upon the work

of Osiander. With a milder expression of opinion

of Osiander's work was the Harmonia quatuor

evangelistarum, by M. Chemnitz, published after his

death by P. Leyser and continued by J. Gerhard

(Frankfort, 1593‑1611, improved and issued Frank­

fort and Hamburg, 1652). The Greek text is accom‑

Harmony of the Gospels


panied by a translation in Latin and a learned com­

mentary. Parallels follow each other. Regard for

the text involves often a doubling of the text and

comment. There is evident all the way along a

wide separation in idea from that of the Tatian

Diatessaron. It is no longer a history of Jesus that

is sought, in the words of the Gospel, but a learned

investigation of the different reports of the Evangel­

ists in order to secure a well‑grounded history of

Jesus. John Lightfoot undertook a harmony ar­

ranged in four columns (part 1, London, 1644).

The design was carried out, however, by J. Clericus,

in his Harmonia evangelica, Amsterdam, 1699, in

which the text was in four columns, and at the foot

an account interwoven from the four of the life of

Christ. (T. ZAHN.)

The principle of the Diatesearon or interwoven Gospel

has been employed somewhat extensively. How constantly

and variously this has been the case is illustrated by the

following list of works, which is merely representative, not

at, all exhaustive: Johan Hind, The Storie of Stories; or,

the Life of Christ according to as fours holy Evangelists, with

a Harmonie of them London 1652; [John Locke,] Hiat. Of

our Saviour Jesus Christ, Related in the Words of Scripture,

ib. 1705; R. Willan, The Hilt. of as Ministry of Jesus

Christ, Combined from the Narrationa of as Four Evangel­

ists i. 1782, and often; J. White, Diateesaron; sive inlegra

hiatoria . . Jesu Christi Grace, ex iv. evanpeliia . . . con­

feeta. Subjunpitur evangeliorum harmonia braroia, Oxford,

1799, and often O. G. Kilchler, Vita Jesu Christi Grace,

Leipsic, 1835; 6. T. Bloomfield, Epitome evangelica; being a

Selection from the Greek Testament, forming a connected Nar­

rative of . . the Life and Ministry of Christ, London, 1846;

P. Lachhae, Concorde des gvangilea, Paris, 1854. In particu­

lar, the demand that the life of Christ be studied from the

sources apart from the deliverances of the councils and from

church dogma has resulted in the last quarter of a century

in a large number of lives of Christ told in the form of the

combined narratives of the Gospels. Representative works

of this character in English are: W. S. White, The Hint. Of

our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Being the four Gospels

combined in one continuous Form, Lincoln, 1884; J. Mostyn,

The Four Gospels in One, London, 1889; A. T. Pierson, The

One Gospel; the four Evangelists in one complete Record,

New York 1889; J. G. Butler, The Fourfold Gospel, ib.

1890; C. C. James, The Gospel Hitt. of Jesus Christ in a

Connected Narrative, London 1890; Earthly Footprints of

our Risen Lord. . Introduction by J. Hall, New York, j

1891; R. W. Rawson, Gospel Narrative, or Life of Jesus

Christ . . . and Epitome and Harmony of the Goepela, Lon­

don, 1892; J. Strong, Our Lord's Life; a continuous Narra­

tive in the Words of the Four Gospels, New York, 1892; W.

Pittenger, Interwoven Gospels and Gospel Harmony, ib. 1893;

A. E. Hillard, A Continuous Narrative of the Life of Christ

in the Words Of as Four Gospels, London, 1894; W. H.

Withrow, A Harmony of as Gospels; being as Life.of.Jesus

in the Wrds of the Four Evangelists, New York, 1894; The

Life and Teachings of Jesus Christ, a Continuous Narrative

Collated from the Gospels, ib. 1898‑ Anna M. Perry, The

Life of our Lord in the Words of the Four Evangelists,

ib. 1901; W. E. Barton T. G. $oares, and H. Strong,

His Life; a complete Story in as Words of as four Gospels,

1906. Consult also E. A. Abbott, Indices to Diateasarica, New York, 1908.
II. Harmonies in Parallel Arrangement: The

oldest precursor of modern harmonies in the form of

three‑ or fourfold arrangement is the

r. Ammo‑ work of Ammonius of Alexandria (q.v.),

nius and who published an edition of the Gospel

Augustine‑ of Matthew, on the margin of which he

noted the relation of the other Gospels

to Matthew. According to his own statement, this

work induced Eusebius to write a similar one, but

on a different method. He divided the four Gospels

into sections (perikopai or kephalaia), assigning to

Matthew 355 sections, to Mark 233, to Luke 342, and to John 232. Beside each number Eusebius added in red ink a second number that referred to the canons or tables in front of the work, of which he had made ten for the purpose of finding the parallel or related passages. The first canon con­tained the numbers of those sections for which Eusebius found parallels in all four Gospels; the second the parallels in Matthew, Mark, Luke; the third those in Matthew, Luke, John; the fourth those in Matthew, Mark, John; the fifth those in Matthew, Luke; the sixth those in Matthew, Mark; the seventh those in Matthew, John; the eighth those in Luke, Mark; the ninth those in Luke, John; the tenth the pericopes in each Gospel without parallels in the others. If one looked in this canon for the respective number of the section, he found parallel to it the number of the related section from the other Gospels. Augustine's De conaensu evan­gelistarum ltbri quattuor had chiefly an apologetical and harmonistic purpose, but it was used as a text of the Gospels, revised by Jerome, and was provided with the sections and canons of Eusebius. From Augustine until J. Clericus' (Le Clerc) Harmonia evangelicd (Amsterdam, 1699), the material of the Gospels was treated preponderatingly from the view‑point of the interwoven narrative.

Clericus was the first in whom the interest in the fourfold or comparative arrangement became

distinctly prominent. Another work

s. Clericus representing the transition from the

and the interwoven Gospels to the fourfold

Griesbach arrangement was by Nicolas Toinard,

School. Evangeliorum Harmortia Grteco‑Latino

(Paris, 1707), which, although compiled for chronological and historiographical purposes, gives so much attention to the comparative presenta­tion of the texts that one is reminded of Rushbrooke (see below). The first real parallel arrangement is that of J. J. Griesbaeh‑Synopsis evangeliorum (Halls, 1776, and often), which grew out of the need for a proper basis for exegetical lectures on the Gos­pels. Griesbach felt that if Matthew, Mark, and Luke were interpreted in their order, many repeti­tions would be necessary; while, on the other hand, many peculiarities of Mark and Luke would be unconsidered if, after the interpretation of Matthew, there were treated only that material from the second and third Gospels which is not contained in Matthew; and, further, that it was not sufficient to interpret only one of the three Gospels. There­fore he printed the text of the first three Evangelists in such a way that the common subjects stood side by side and the parallels could be at once considered. He did not include the fourth Gospel in this arrange­ment. The work of Griesbach became the norm for the following time. Anger in his Synopsis evangeliorum Matthcei, Marci, Lucw (Leipsie, 1852) made a valuable addition by including parallels from the Apocryphal Gospels. Other synoptical works are: G. M. L. de Wette and F. Likcke, Synop­sis ewngeliorum (Berlin, 1818, 2d ed., 1842; on the basis of Griesbach); J. Gehringer, Synoptische Zusammenstellung lea grwchischen Textea der vwr Evangelien (Tabingen, 1842); J. H. Friedlieb, Qttatuor evangelia sacra in harmonium redacts

155 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Harmony of the Gospels

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