10th Grade Semester Two Unit Eight: Post Imperialist Africa

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10th Grade Semester Two

Unit Eight: Post Imperialist Africa

Stage 1: Desired Outcomes

Topic / Unit Title: Post Imperialist Africa

  • Can Africa heal the wounds of imperialism?

NYS Content Standards

Standard : 2 Key Idea 1

Standard : 2 Key Idea 2

Standard : 2 Key Idea 3

Standard : 2 Key Idea 4

Common Core Skills

  • RH 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

  • W 1, 3, 4, 9

  • SL 1, 2, 3, 4, 6

  • L 1, 4, 5, 6


  • Discuss why African nations were able to gain independence after WWII

  • Discuss movements in Kenya and Ghana as case studies

  • Assess whether violence or non-violence was more successful for gaining independence

  • Assess the extent to which nationalism played role

  • Discuss problems that developed after independence i.e. Rwanda

  • Explain how and why apartheid was formed after South Africa gained independence

  • Discuss the effects of apartheid on black South Africans

  • Explain how South Africans protested against apartheid i.e. Sharpeville, Soweto

  • Assess the role of Nelson Mandela in the movement

  • Discuss how other nations protested against apartheid and the effectiveness of these protests

  • Explain how the truth and reconciliation commission tried to bring about peace

Essential Questions:

  • Why did many African nations gain independence after WWII?

  • To what extent are individual leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta and Kwame Nkrumah responsible for successful independence in Africa?

  • Why do modern African nations have a range of problems such as poverty, civil war, and corruption?

  • How is tribalism an impediment to nationalism in modern Africa?

  • Why was an apartheid system enacted in South Africa after its independence from Great Britain?

  • How were the Africans treated under the apartheid system? How did Africans fight back?

Stage 2: Assessments and Tasks

Common Core Literacy Task

  • DBQ or Thematic Essay Tasks on Apartheid

  • Scaffolding Questions from Documents

  • Write a newspaper article reporting on protests in South Africa

  • Create anotated timeline of events on the development of events on apartheid

Performance Task(s) – Other Evidence

  • Discuss all questions and results of Jigsaw activity on current issues in Africa

  • Create a political cartoon about apartheid

  • Decide the guilt or innocence of criminals under apartheid

  • Create posters on African nationalism with regard to specific leaders, nations, and movements

  • Jigsaw activity on current challenges in Africa today

Accommodations: Scaffolds and Differentiation


  • Modify primary source texts (variety, complexity, length)

  • Incorporate alternative materials (visual, video, audio, internet)

  • Provide supplementary resources for supports

  • Group with a purpose


  • Model skills, task and/or product

  • Utilize graphic organizers / note taking template

  • Provide individual or group intervention and support

  • Re-enforce vocabulary / concept development

  • Provide choice / variety of activities or tasks

  • Group with a purpose


  • Assign specific, purposeful assessments to individuals or groups

  • Allow students to choose from a variety of assessments

  • Provide scaffolds / supports (outlines, templates, models)

  • Provide extension activities to expand thinking or understanding

  • Group with a purpose

How will students reflect upon and self-assess their learning?

  • Exit Tickets, Answering essential questions (above), Student responses, Literacy Tasks

Stage 3: Learning Plan

Aim: Is imperialism the cause of Africa’s problems today? OR Did the collapse of imperialism improve the lives of Africans?

  • Identify/define: Pan Africanism, Organization of African Unity(OAU), tribalism, economic underdevelopment, Negritude movement, federal system, martial law, dissident.

  • Describe the problems Africans faced in Nigeria, Zaire, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe after independence.

  • Assess the extent to which tribalism slowed nationalists efforts in many African nations.

  • Evaluate the prospects for achieving Pan Africanism.

  • Evaluate whether the collapse of imperialism improved the lives of Africans.

  • Suggested sources: C. Odumegwo Ojukwo, Speeches and Writings(The Human Record),

  • World Bank Statistics, Imperialism in Africa (links) at (http://www.jlhs.nhusd.k12.ca.us/classes/socialscience/imperialism/imperialism.htm#anchor427452)

Aim: Should governments be able to force races to live separately?

  • Identify/Define: Boers, “Afrikaners,” Bantus, Zulus, apartheid, African National Congress, Nationalist Party, Pass Laws, Group Areas Act, homelands, racial segregation.

  • Describe South Africa’s polices of racial segregation and explain how these policies affected the fundamental freedoms of blacks and non-whites in South Africa.

  • Discuss how these policies affected race relations in South Africa.

  • Assess whether it is possible for races to live separately but equally.

  • Evaluate whether governments should be able to force races to live separately.

  • Suggested sources: Nelson Mandela, The Rivonia Trial Speech to the Court, Brief Timeline & Summary of the Apartheid system at (http://www.geocities.com/vegar-no/apartheid.htm), The History of Apartheid in South Africa at (http://www-cs-students. Stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html), Cybersources for teachers at (http://www.solutions.ibm.com/talkingwalls/main/corner/nelsonmandela/sites.htm)

Aim: Can South Africa heal the wounds of apartheid? OR Is apartheid over in South Africa?

  • Identify/define: Nelson Mandela, Bishop Tutu, F.W. de Klerk., Inkatha Freedom Paryt, sanctions, African National Congress, Afrikaans, Black Consciousness Movement, National Party, Sharpeville Massacre, Pass Laws, Sowetto.

  • Discuss how the black South Africans reacted to apartheid.

  • Explain how the collapse of apartheid in South Africa was accomplished through both local and international sanctions.

  • Assess the impact of the truth and reconciliation hearings on both races in South Africa.

  • Discuss the challenges that lie ahead for South Africans.

  • Evaluate whether South Africa can heal the wounds of apartheid.

  • Evaluate whether apartheid is over in South Africa.

  • Suggested Sources: Truth & Reconciliation Commission Homepage at (http://www.truth.org.za/). South Africa “Can A Country Overcome Its History”-Anneberg/CPB Exhibit at (http://www.learner.org/exhibits/southafrica/).

  • Cybersources for teachers at (http://www.solutions.ibm.com/talkingwalls/main/corner/nelsonmandela/sites.htm

Teacher Reflection for Future Planning

  • Analyzing assessments, including exit tickets, exam and essay data, performance tasks, etc.

Regents Thematic Essays

June 2003

Theme: Conflict
Differences among groups have often led to conflict.

Task: Identify two ethnic, religious, political, and/or cultural conflicts and for each:

• Discuss the historical circumstances that led to the conflict

• Analyze the effect of this conflict on two groups involved

You may use any examples from your study of global history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the persecution of Christians during the Roman Empire, the Reign of Terror, the Armenian massacres, the forced famine in Ukraine, the Holocaust, Apartheid in South Africa, the Killing Fields of Cambodia, the conflict in Northern Ireland, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, and the Tiananmen Square rebellion. You are not limited to these suggestions. Do not use any conflict that occurred in the United States.

January 2004

Theme: Change [Individuals Who Have Changed History]

The beliefs and achievements of individuals have changed global history. These beliefs and achievements have had positive and negative effects on society.

Task: Identify two individuals who have changed global history and for each:

  • Explain one belief or achievement of that individual

  • Discuss the positive and/or negative effects of the individual’s belief or achievement

You may use any individual from your study of global history except Nicholas Copernicus, Sir Isaac Newton, and Norman Borlaug. The individuals you identify must have had a major role in shaping global history and must not be from the United States. Some individuals that you might consider include Hammurabi, Confucius, Aristotle, Alexander the Great, Muhammad, Johannes Gutenberg, Queen Isabella, Leonardo da Vinci, John Locke, Catherine the Great, Simón Bolívar, or Nelson Mandela.

June 2004

Theme: Turning Points

Turning points are major events in history that have led to lasting change.

Task: Identify two major turning points in global history and for each:

• Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the turning point

• Explain how each turning point changed the course of history
You may use any example from your study of global history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the Neolithic Revolution, the Crusades, the Renaissance, the Encounter, the French Revolution, the Russian Revolution of 1917, World War I, creation of the modern state of Israel, Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa, and the fall of the Berlin Wall.

Multiple Choice

1 What was an immediate result of the Great Leap Forward (1958)?

(1) independence of Kenya from Great Britain

(2) the breakup of the Soviet Union

(3) the relocation of Bosnian refugees

(4) increased famine in China

2 Which country was the site of ethnic tensions and a civil war between the Hutu and Tutsi in the 1990s?

(1) Sudan

(2) Kenya

(3) Tanzania

(4) Rwanda

3 The primary goal of both the Indian National Congress in India and the Mau Mau movement in Kenya was to

(1) establish military rule

(2) colonize lands overseas

(3) remove foreign control

(4) achieve social equality

4 Ho Chi Minh and Jomo Kenyatta were leaders of movements that were attempting to achieve

(1) nuclear disarmament

(2) self-determination

(3) pan-Africanism

(4) collective security

5 The original goal of Pan-Africanism was to

(1) demand democratic reforms

(2) encourage ethnic rivalry

(3) promote a united Africa

(4) divide Africa into separate countries

Base your answer to question 6 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.

...We have triumphed in the effort to implant hope in the breasts of the millions of our people. We enter into a covenant [agreement] that we shall build the society in which all South Africans,both black and white, will be able to walk tall, without any fear in their hearts, assured of their inalienable right to human dignity—a rainbow nation at peace with itself and the world....

— Nelson Mandela, excerpt from Inaugural Address
6 These words were delivered in 1994 by the newly elected president of South Africa to praise his countrymen’s rejection of

(1) nationalism

(2) Pan-Africanism

(3) apartheid

(4) democracy

7 One way in which Aung San Suu Kyi, Lech Walesa, and Nelson Mandela are similar is that they all

(1) supported the use of violence to achieve goals

(2) inspired revolutions against autocratic monarchs

(3) led movements to end oppression of their people

(4) based their actions on the teachings of Karl Marx

8 F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela received the Nobel Peace Prize for their work to end the

(1) foreign control of the diamond mines

(2) discriminatory policy of apartheid

(3) anarchy in Somalia

(4) Boer War

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