1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?



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Main Themes:


1. Why was the Renaissance a turning point in the development of Western civilization? Why was it a "rebirth"?

2. How was the Renaissance in Italy different from that in Northern Europe? How was it the same?

3. How did the Catholic Church lose the dominant position it had had during the medieval period in the Renaissance?
I. The Renaissance as the bridge between the medieval and the modern world.





MEDIEVAL WORLD

RENAISSANCE WORLD

philosophy:

scholasticism.

humanism.

economics:

manorialism.
barter economy.

merchant princes of Italy.
money economy.
beginnings of Commercial
Revolution.

politics:

feudalism.

city-states of Northern Italy.
rise of modern nation-states in
Northern Europe.

the arts:

stylized, religious themes.

harmony, balance, proportion.
modeled after ancient Greece
and Rome.
classicism revised.

religion:

domination of Catholic Church.

individual interpretation of the
Scriptures.
classical literary criticism.
groundwork laid for Prot. Reform.

II. Major Upheavals of the Lat 14c-Early 15c


A. Period of "creative breakup"
(The Calamitous 14c -Barbara Tuchman)

B. Hundred Years' War  the rise of the modern nation-state.

C. Black Death  economic and social upheaval.

D. Avignon papacy and the Conciliar Movement  breakup of papal power.

III. Italian Renaissance:

A. "pagan" humanism


 revival of interest in the Greek and Roman classics.
 enjoyment of worldly pleasures.

 vernacular literature  Dante, Petrarch, Boccacio, etc.

B. l'uomo universale  concept of the universal, "Renaissance Man"
 Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier

 Leonardo Da Vinci - The Last Supper, Mona Lisa, the Vitruvian Man


 Michelangelo - David, Pieta, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
 Isabella d'Este

C. great Italian cities

 Florence  the "heart" of Italian Renaissance culture/birthplace of the Reniassance
 Venice  the main center of Italian Renaissance trade.
 Rome  still spiritual capital of Christendom (corrupt popes - ex., Alexander VI)

D. Italian politics  Machiavelli's The Prince


 the "merchant" princes (Medici family).

 despots (Caesare Borgia).


 machiavellianism and virtu.

E. Art  Quattrocento and the High Renaissance

 the different artistic styles of the two periods?

how did these styles and the artistic themes of the paintings and sculpture reflect the


philosophy of Renaissance humanism?

IV. The Northern Renaissance:

A. "Christian" humanism
 Desiderius Erasmus --> In Praise of Folly
 Thomas More --> Utopia
 Rabelais --> Gargantua
 Cervantes --> Don Quixote
 Michel de Montaigne --> Essays (skepticism)
 a trace of mysticism
 criticisms of the Church, but WITHIN the Church.

B. Gutenberg  printing press  What were its effects on the spread of humanist ideas?

C. vernacular writing  Shakespeare, Cervantes, Rabelais.

D. the arts:


 differences in artistic style between Northern Europe and Italy??
 the Flemish School --> Jan van Eyck, Hans Holbein

V. The Decline of the Renaissance Church:

A. general symptoms of failure?

B. the rise of national churches in England, France, Spain, Italy, and the Germanies (as a


result of the breakdown in old feudal ties and obligations).

C. Conciliar movement.



D. indulgences controversy.


ADDITIONAL TERMS TO KNOW:

scholasticism
humanism
virtu
l'uomo universale
courtier
Quattrocento
sfumato
contrapposto




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