1. Leisure Definitions
Butler’s tourism model
1. Exploration: A new destination, with very few visitors. Usually adventurous travellers that have minimal impact.
2. Involvement: If the tourists like the new destination and the destination is happy to receive tourists, then there may be investment in tourist infrastructure and involvement by locals. Tourist numbers grow slowly.
3. Development: Tourism becomes big business with further investment and involvement by TNCs. Holidays become more organised with package holidays arriving.
4. Consolidation: The area becomes reliant on tourism. Advertising and marketing attempts to maintain and increase tourism levels. Facilities like beaches, swimming pools and golf courses may become the domain of tourists causing some local resentment.
5. Stagnation: There is some local opposition to tourists, there is no new investment, tourists become tired of the same destination and growth stops.
6. Rejuvenation: Tourism is relaunched through advertising, tourists arrival from new markets increase, new transport links are opened or the tourism become more sustainable with local involvement.
6. Decline: There is no relaunch, locals remove their support, TNCs leave and tourism begins to decline.
Factors affecting participation and success in golf/football
Football is global sport because traditionally played: spread with British Empire
Large government investment by Sports Minister in England for stadiums/equipment to develop football talent: football success is part of national identity
Football can be played in state-provided parks whereas golf courses are privately-owned and expensive.
More wealthy countries do better at golf because leisure time and affluence (membership in golf club) needed to hone talent.
Female success in golf is dominated by East-Asians as opposed to with males where it’s whites: cultural norm of male-domination not ingrained with introduction of golf.
London 2012 Olympics
Problems with location?
London is already a developed city, so selecting London may have taken the opportunity of other cities like Istanbul or Havana to develop.
London is one of the world's most expensive cities to visit and live. Many potential spectators will be put off by the expense.
Some businesses had to be closed and relocated to make way for the Olympic village.
There have been questions marks, whether London's transport network can cope with the influx of visitors.
There is the risk that the Olympics might attract a terrorist attack. In fact the day after London won the Olympics, it experienced a major terrorist attack.
Costa del Sol, Spain context
Initial primary attractions were climate, long coastline, and distinctive culture
Exemplary of post-1945 growth in tourism: became centre for package tours and uncontrolled development
How Spain case study relates to Butler’s Model
Stagnation stage: less growth because no longer fashionable (boring and mainstream/carrying capacity reached)
Decline/rejuvenation: attractiveness declines, international operators move out can occur – but attempts to modernize and invest e.g. attempts to clean up beaches (EU Blue Flag beaches), development of quality accommodation
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