ĐỂ thi chọN ĐỘi tuyển hsg 2 CẤp tỉnh lần năm họC: 2018-2019


THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION



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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century and 19th century Great Britain. It commenced with the introduction of steam power (fuelled primarily by coal) and powered, automated machinery (primarily in textile manufacturing).
The technological and economic progress of the Industrial Revolution gained momentum with the introduction of steam-powered ships, boats and railways. In the 19th Century it spread throughout Western Europe and North America, eventually impacting the rest of the world.
CAUSES
The causes of the Industrial Revolution were complex and remain a topic for debate, with some historians seeing the Revolution as an outgrowth of social and institutional changes wrought by the final end of feudalism in Great Britain following the English Civil War in the 17th century.
The Enclosure movement and the British Agricultural Revolution made food production more efficient and less labor-intensive, forcing the surplus population who could no longer find employment in agriculture into the cities to seek work in the newly developed factories.
The colonial expansion of the 17th century with the accompanying development of international trade, creation of financial markets and accumulation of capital is also cited as a set of factors, as is the scientific revolution of the 17th century.
The importance of a large domestic market should also be considered an important cause catalyst of the Industrial Revolution, particularly explaining why it occurred in Britain. In other nations (e.g. France), markets were split up by local regions often imposing tolls and tariffs on goods traded among them. The restructuring of the American domestic market would trigger the second Industrial Revolution over 100 years later.
EFFECTS
The application of steam power to the industrial processes of printing supported a massive expansion of newspaper and popular book publishing, which reinforced rising literacy and demands for mass political participation. Universal white male suffrage was adopted in the United States, resulting in the election of the popular General Andrew Jackson in 1828 and the creation of political parties organized for mass participation in elections.

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