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, accessed August 2010.

689 On the treatment of prisoners of war, see A. Rosas, The Legal Status of Prisoners of War: A Study in International Humanitarian Law Applicable in Armed Conflicts, Helsinki, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1976, Chapter 4.

690 Art. 129 of the Third Geneva Convention: “Each High Contracting party shall take measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present Convention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article.”

691 See the recommendation and press release issued by the Conseil Supérieur de l'Audio-visuel on 18 and 24 March 2003 respectively. Available at and , accessed August 2010.

692 R. Huguenin-Benjamin, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 668.

693 W. Lippmann, Liberty and the News, New Brunswick and London, Transaction, 1995 (first published 1920), p. 41.

694 Case of Jersild v. Denmark (Application no. 15890/89), Judgment of 23 September 1994.

695 See the press release of 11 December 2002 from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugolsavia: , accessed August 2010.

696 The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Judgment of 11 December 2002 (IT-99-36-AR73.9).

697 See the 2006 annual report of Reporters Without Borders and the information on its webside , accessed August 2010: in 2006, 81 journalists were killed in various parts of the world, 84 had been killed by November 2007, making 2007 the deadliest year since 1994, during which 103 journalists died. By late November 2007, 132 journalists had been imprisoned while about 870 had been arrested and held for a time. Physical assaults had doubled since 2001. In all in 2007, over 1,400 in a number of countries were beaten, threatened with death, abducted or harassed, frequently during election campaigns.

698 Article 13 of the 1907 Hague Convention respecting the laws and customs of war on land stipulates that “individuals who follow an army without directly belonging to it, such as newspaper correspondents and reporters, sutlers and contractors, who fall into the enemy’s hand and whom the latter thinks expedient to detain, are entitled to be treated as prisoners of war, provided they are in possession of a certificate from the military authorities of the army which they were accompanying.”

699 The text quoted in footnote 581 was included in the 1929 Geneva Convention on prisoners of war (Art. 81).

700 A. Wilke presents a clear summary of the codification process regarding war correspondents in “Der völker- und gemeinschafsrechtliche Schutz der Tätigkeit des Auslandkorrespondenten”, Berlin, 1994.

701 Recommendation No. R (96) 4, of the Council of Europe, Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Protection of Journalists in Situations of Conflict and Tension of 3 May 1996, p. 27.

702 See also M. Koskenniemi, "'The lady doth protest too much’: Kosovo and the turn to ethics in international law", The Modern Law Review, Vol. 65, No. 2 (2002), pp. 172 et seq.

703 P. Allott, The Health of Nations: Society and Law beyond the States, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 421.

704 Slaughter, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found. See also A. Fischer-Lescano, Globalverfassung - Die Geltungsgründe der Menschenrechte, Weilerswist, Velbrück Wissenschaft, 2005, p. 13 et seq.

705 P. de Senarclens, L’humanitaire en catastrophe, Paris, Presses de Sciences Po, 1999.

706 J. Kellenberger, “Speaking Out or Remaining Silent in Humanitarian Work”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 86 (2004), pp. 593 et. seq.; M. Lorenzi, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 23.

707 V. Havel, “Politics, morality, and civility”, in D.E. Eberly (ed.), The Essential Civil Society Reader, Lanham, Rowman, 2000, p. 402.

708 Cf. Y. Sandoz, „International Humanitarian Law in the Twenty-First Century“, Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 3 et seq.

709 See William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, Act III, Scene 1: “Cry havoc and let slip the dogs of war.”

710 A. Einstein, “The Einstein-Freud Correspondence (1931-1932),” in O. Nathan and H. Norden (eds), Einstein on Peace, New York, Simon and Schuster, 1960, pp. 186 et seq.

711 See J. Glover, Humanity: A Moral History of the Twentieth Century, London, Cape, 1999.

712 ICC, The Prosecutor v. Ahmad Muhammad Harun ("Ahmad Harun") and Ali Muhammad Ali Abd-Al-Rahman ("Ali Kushayb"), Case No. ICC-02/05-01/07.

713 ICC, The Prosecutor v. Omar Hassan Ahmad Al Bashir, Case No. ICC-02/05-01/09.

714 ICTY, The Prosecutor v. Radovan Karadžić, Indictment, 19 October 2009, IT-95-5/18-PT; cf. “Radovan Karadžić in Tribunal’s Custody”, ICTY Press Release, The Hague, 30 July 2008.

715 See D. Kennedy, The Dark Sides of Virtue: Reassessing International Humanitarianism, Princeton/Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2004, pp. XXV et seq.

716 ICJ, Case Concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Judgment of 26 February 2007, ICJ Reports 2007.

717 M. Bothe, “International legal aspects of the Darfur conflict,” in A. Reinisch and U. Kriebaum (eds), The Law of International Relations: Liber Amicorum Hanspeter Neuhold, Utrecht, Eleven International Publishing, 2007, pp. 1 et seq.

718 L. Cameron, “Private Military Companies: their Status under International Humanitarian Law and its Impacts on their Regulation”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 88, No. 863 (2006); D. Thürer and M. MacLaren, “Military outsourcing as a case study in the accountability and responsibility of power”, in A. Reinisch and U. Kriebaum (eds), The Law of International Relations: Liber Amicorum Hanspeter Neuhold, Utrecht, Eleven International Publishing, 2007, pp. 391 et seq.; see supra Chapter VI.

719 See H. Münkler, Der Wandel des Krieges: Von der Symmetrie zur Asymmetrie, Weilerswist, Velbrück Wissenschaft, 2006.

720 R. Smith, The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World, London, Allen Lane, 2006, p. XIII.

721 T. Pfanner, “Asymmetrical Warfare from the Perspective of Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Action”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 87, No. 857 (2005), pp. 149 et seq.

722 See for a ius ad bellum-analysis e.g. M. Schmitt, “Responding to Transnational Terrorism under the Jus ad Bellum: A Normative Framework,” in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines – Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, Leiden/Boston, Martinus Nijhoff, 2007, pp. 157 et seq.

723 See D. Thürer, “Humanitäres Völkerrecht und amerikanisches Verfassungsrecht als Schranken im Kampf gegen den Terrorismus“, Zeitschrift für Schweizerisches Recht, 2006, pp. 157 et seq.; D. Thürer, "Guantánamo: ein 'Legal Black Hole’ oder ein System sich überschneidender und überlagernder 'Rechtskreise’?", Schweizerische Zeitschrift für internationales und europäisches Recht, Vol 14 (2004), pp. 1 et seq.

724. See, e.g., J. C. Yoo and J. C. Ho, “The Status of Terrorists”, Virginia Journal of International Law, Vol. 44 (2003-2004), pp. 207 et seq.; M. Sassòli, “Combatants,” in R. Wolfrum (ed.), The Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008, online edition available at: , accessed August 2010; J. Pejic, “’Unlawful/Enemy Combatants:’ Interpretations and Consequences,” in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines – Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2007, pp. 335 et seq.

725 As the general framework of the law on prisoners of war see A. Rosas, The Legal Status of Prisoners of War, Turku/Ǻbo, Institute for Human Rights, Ǻbo Akademi University, 1976/2005.

726 US Supreme Court, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, et al., Judgement, 29 June 2006, No. 05-184.

727 Op.cit., supra note 708, p. 67.

728 Op. cit., supra note 708, p. 72.

729 Op. cit., supra note 708, p. 72.

730 Military Commissions Act 2006, chapter 47A, sub-chapter I, para. 948 B (f); see also, A.H. Garrison, “Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, military commissions, and Acts of Congress: A summary”, American Journal of Trial Advocacy, Vol. 30 (2006-2007), pp. 339 et seq.

731 See, e.g., K. Dörmann, “The legal situation of ‘unlawful/unprivileged Combatants’”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 85, No. 849 (2003), pp. 45 et seq.; G. Rona, “International Law under Fire: Interesting times for International Humanitarian Law: Challenges from the ‘War on Terror’”, Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, Vol. 27, No. 2 (2003), pp. 65 et seq. Likewise, the MCA seems to be in violation of the US Constitution, especially with regard to the right of habeas corpus, as the Supreme Court recently ruled: see US Supreme Court, Boumediene v. Bush, President of the United States, Judgment of 12 June 2008, No. 553 U.S. (2008).

732 J. Pictet (ed.), Commentary on the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, Geneva, ICRC, 1956, p. 51.

733 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Delalic, Judgement, 16 November 1998, Case No. ICTY-96-21, para. 271; see also High Court of Justice of Israel, The Public Committee against Torture in Israel, et al. v. The Government of Israel, et al., Judgement, 13 December 2006, Case No. HCJ 769/02, para. 28.

734 This Article can be considered customary international law and, therefore, applicable to US military actions; see, e.g., Dörmann, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 70.
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