!! draft !! Preface 4 introduction 9 chapter one 19



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, accessed August 2010.

655 J. Williams, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

656 K. R. Rutherford, "The evolving arms central agenda: Implications of the role of NGOs in banning anti-personnel landmines", World Politics, Vol. 53 (2000), pp. 74 et seq., p. 77; See also, K. Anderson, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, pp. 91 et seq., p. 105.

657 See the short profile of the ICBL available on the website of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy: , accessed August 2010.

658 Ibid.

659 Regular updates are available at the website of the Cluster Munitions Coalition: , accessed August 2010.

660 For more information, see: , accessed August 2010.

661 See e.g. D. Thürer, “Die Humanisierung des Völkerrechts schreitet voran: Von St. Petersburg bis Oslo – Waffenverbote konkretisieren die Prinzipien der Kriegsführung”, in Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 6 January 2009, p. 5. For more information, see: , accessed August 2010.

662 For instance, Human Rights Watch appeals to Israel to abstain from selling cluster munitions and to sign the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

663 For more details, go to , accessed August 2010.

664 D. Pokempner, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 49.

665 D. Justen, "Der Oslo-Prozess zum Verbot von Streumunitionen. Die Stigmatisierung von ‘Cluster Bombs’ hat begonnen", SWP-Studie, Vol. 30 (2008), pp. 16 et seq.

666 Oslo Conference on Cluster Munitions, Appeal to Governments from the Cluster Munitions Coalition, 21 February 2007.

Available at: , accessed August 2010.; see also, D. Justen, op cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, pp. 17 et seq.



667 The work of the Coalition also contributed to the French and British governments changing their positions; see D. Justen, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 23.

668 Parts of this chapter have been taken from an article published in German: D. Thürer and T. Kempin, “Kriegsberichterstattung und humanitäres Völkerrecht” in D. Thürer, Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundgedanke Gerechtigkeit – Band 2, Zurich, Dike Verlag, 2009.

669 Author’s translation, N. Luhmann, Die Realität der Massenmedien, Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag, 1996, p. 9.

670 By the European Court of Human Rights in several judgments. See, e.g., Markt Intern Verlag and others v. Germany (Appl. no. 10572/83), ECtHR Judgment, 20 November 1989, para. 35 or Observer and Guardian v. the United Kingdom (Appl. no. 13585/88), ECtHR Judgment, 26 November 1991, para. 50.

671 See T. Roithner, Gute Medien – Böser Krieg, Vienna, LIT Verlag, 2007.

672 J. Wilke, "Krieg als Medienereignisse: Zur Geschichte seiner Vermittlung in der Neuzeit", in H.P. Preusser (ed.), Krieg in den Medien, Amsterdam, Rodopoi, 2005, pp. 83 et seq.

673 Cf. B. Rosenberger, Zeitungen als Kriegstreiber? Die Rolle der Presse im Vorfeld des Ersten Weltkrieges, Cologne/Weimar/Vienna, Böhlau-Verlag, 1998.

674 J. Wilke, "Deutsche Auslandspropaganda im Ersten Weltkrieg: Die Zentrale für Auslandsdienst", in J. Wilke (ed.), Pressepolitik und Propaganda. Historische Studien vom Vormärz bis zum Kalten Krieg, Cologne/Mainz/Vienna, Böhlau Verlag, 1997, pp. 97 et seq.

675 Cf. H. Barkhausen, Filmpropaganda für Deutschland im Ersten und Zweiten Weltkrieg, Hildesheim/Zurich/New York, Olmspress, 1982.

676 J. Wilke, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, pp. 100 et seq.

677 D.C. Hallin, "The ‛Uncensored’ War", in J.C. Rowe and R. Berg (eds), The Vietnam War and American Culture, New York, Columbia University Press, 1986; Cf. New York Times v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971), in which the Supreme Court defended the the First Amendment, in this instance as it related to the freedom of the press, against the US government.

678 New York Times co. v. United States, 403 U.S. 713 (1971).

679 P.M. Taylor, War and The Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester/New York, Manchester University Press, 1992.

680 Cf. A. Mercier, "War and media: Constancy and convulsion", International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 87, No. 860 (2005), p. 650.

681 Cf. A. Mercier, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 657.

682 Cf. Too Close for Comfort? The Role of Embedded Reporting during the 2003 Iraq War, Summary Report, prepared by a team of researchers from the Cardiff School of Journalism for the BBC, November 2003.

683 T. Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission of Human Rights, Report E/CN.4/1995/54.

684 The Prosecutor v. Ferdinand Nahimana, Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza and Hassan Ngeze, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Trial Chamber I, Judgment of 3 December 2003, Case No. ICTR-99-52-T. The excerpt is taken from the summary; see para. 99.

685 R. Huguenin-Benjamin, "Can Public Communication Protect Victims?", International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 87, No. 860 (2005), pp. 661 et seq., p. 668.

686 R. Huguenin-Benjamin, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 668.

687 R. Huguenin-Benjamin, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, p. 670.
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