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, accessed August 2010.

207 Statement by J. Forster at the Panel on the Convention against Enforced Disappearance, 61st session of the United Nations Human Rights Council, Geneva, 26 September 2007.

Available at:


208 See M. Bothe, “Effective control: A situation triggering the application of the law of belligerent occupation” (manuscript); A. Roberts, “Transformative military occupation: Applying the laws of war and human rights,” American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100 (2006), pp. 580 et seq.; A. Roberts, “Transformative military occupation: Applying the laws of war and human rights”, in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines – Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2007 (quoted: Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein), pp. 439 et seq.; R. Wolfrum, “The Adequacy of International Humanitarian Law Rules on Belligerent Occupation: To what Extent may Security Council Resolution 1483 be considered a Model for Adjustment?”, in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, pp. 497 et seq.; D. Thürer and M. MacLaren, “’Jus Post Bellum’ in Iraq: A Challenge to the Applicability and Relevance of International Humanitarian Law?”, in K. Dicke, S. Hobe, K.-U. Meyn, A. Peters, E. Riedel, H-J. Schütz and C. Tietje (eds), Weltinnenrech,: Liber amicorum Jost Delbrück, Berlin, Duncker & Humblot, 2005, pp. 753 et seq.; D. Thürer, “Current Challenges to the Law of Occupation, 6th Bruges Colloquium, Bruges 2005.

209 And, finally, there is the question of whether the term occupation is applicable – as such or in modified form – to the administration of foreign territories: for instance, the UN in Timor or in Kosovo. These questions are equally relevant when the transformative goals of occupation have been set under the UN Security Council’s mandate (i.e. Kosovo and Timor).

210 ICJ, Case Concerning Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Uganda), Judgment of 19 December 2005, ICJ Reports 2005.

211 In various instances, international humanitarian law grants, expressis verbis, individual rights although, characteristically, they are framed in objective obligations: for example, Article 7 of Geneva Conventions I to III and Article 8 of Geneva Convention IV provide as follows: “[Protected persons] may in no circumstances renounce in part or in entirety the rights secured to them by the present Convention, and by the special agreements referred to in the foregoing Article, if such there be.”

212 This was a prominent feature of the development of European Community law: the Court of the European Communities, which regarded itself as a motor of European integration, has, since the van Gend and Loos case, deduced the right of persons and enterprises from objective constituting the “Common Market”. By enabling private actors to claim rights through judicial systems, the Court established the figure of “market citizens” as motors of integration. The same intensive pull(?) of integration is not visible within the universal order, but – over time – similar tendencies of coherence may come into play here too.

213 B. Staehelin, “Recent advancements in IHL implementation by National Committees”, in ICRC, Report of the Second Universal Meeting of National Committees on International Humanitarian Law, Geneva, 2007, p. 29.

214 See, e.g. J. Moreillon, “Du bon usage de quelques Principes fondamentaux de la Croic-Rouge, in C. Swinarski (ed.), Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva/The Hague, ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 913 et seq.; “D. Thürer, La pyramide de Dunant: Réflexions sur ‘l’espace humanitaire’”, Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge, Vol. 89, Sélection française, 2007, Geneva, p. 51 et seq.

215 See H. Arendt, Macht und Gewalt, 10th ed., Munich/Zurich, Piper, 1995, p. 9.

216 O. Wendell Holmes Jr., “The Path of the Law”, Harvard Law Review 10, 457 (1897), para. 8.

217 J. Austin, The Province of Jurisprudence determined, W.E. Rumble (ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995. He wrote:“(…) laws properly so called are a species of commands. But being a command, every law properly so called flows from a determinate source.”

218 S.R. Ratner and J.S. Abrams, Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law: Beyond the Nuremberg Legacy, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1997, p. 3.

219 P. Zahnd, “How the International Criminal Court should help implement international humanitarian law”, in Dinah Shelton (ed.), International Crimes, Peace, and Human Rights: The Role of the International Criminal Court, New York, Hotei Publishing, 2000, p. 44.

220 Quoted in M. Ignatieff, “Die Ehre des Kriegers," in H.M. Enzensberger (ed.), Krieger ohne Waffen: das Internationale Komitee vom Roten Kreuz, Frankfurt, Eichborn, 2001, p. 19: "Dort, wo in einer Schlacht getötet wird, gibt es keine Richter, keine Polizisten!"

221 ICRC forum, War and Accountability, Geneva, 2002.

222 F. Martin, “Application du droit international humanitaire par la Cour inter-américaine des droits de l’homme", International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 83, No. 844 (2001), pp. 1037 et seq.

223 T. Buergenthal and D. Thürer, Menschenrechte – Ideale, Instrumente, Institutionen, Dike/Nomos, Zurich/Baden-Baden, 2009, pp. 187 et seq., 297 et seq., 319 et seq.; C. Droege, "Elective affinities? Human rights and humanitarian law," International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 90, No. 871 (2008), pp. 501 et seq.

224 M. Sassòli, “Le Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et les conflits armés”, in S. Breitenmoser, B. Ehrenzeller, M. Sassòli, W. Stoffel and B. Wagner Pfeifer (eds), Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law – Liber amicorum Luzius Wildhaber, Dike, Zurich/St.Gallen, 2007, pp. 709 et seq.

225 …….

226 See C. Droege, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

227 Cf. A. Reidy, “The approach of the European Commission and the Court of Human Rights to International Humanitarian Law”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 80, No. 324 (1998), pp. 513 et seq.

228 Cf. Cyprus v. Turkey (Appl. No. 670/74 and 6950/75), ECtHR Decision, 26 May 1975, para. 125; Güleç v. Turkey (Appl. No. 21593/93), ECtHR Judgment, 27 July 1998, para. 63 et seq.; Özkan v. Turkey (Appl. No. 21689/93), ECtHR Judgment, 6 April 2004, para. 297; Isayeva and others v. Russia (Appl. No. 57947/00, 57948, 57949/00), ECtHR Judgment, 24 February 2005, para. 171.

229 Özkan v. Turkey (Appl. No. 21689/93), ECtHR Judgment, 6 April 2004, paras 297 and 305 et seq.

230 See supra note Error: Reference source not found.

231 Markovic and others v. Italy (Appl. No. 1398/03), ECtHR Judgment, 14 December 2006, par. 54 et seq.

232 Cf. Coard and others v. the United States, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, case no. 10.951, 29 September 1999, para. 39; Albella v. Argentina, Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, case no. 10.951, 29 September 1999, para. 39.

233 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (1950), Art. 36, para. 2; The details of the procedure can be found in Rule 44, para. 3 of the rules of the Court.

234 P. J. Sands and R. Mackenzie, „International Courts and Tribunals, Amicus Curiae“, in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, online article last updated in 2008, available at: , accessed August 2010.

235 Cf. T. Meron, “International Criminalization of Internal Atrocities”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 89 (1995), pp. 554 et seq.; T. Meron, “Anatomy of an International Criminal Tribunal,” in American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting 2006, pp. 279 et seq.; T. McCormack, “The importance of effective multilateral enforcement of international humanitarian law”, in L. Lijnzaad, J. van Sambeek and B. Tahzib-Lie (eds), Making the Voice of Humanity Heard, Essays on Humanitarian Assistance and International Humanitarian Law in Honour of HRH Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, 2004, pp. 319 et seq.; R.G. Teitel, Transitional Justice, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 27 et seq.; D. Thürer, “Vom Nürnberger Tribunal zum Jugoslawien-Tribunal und weiter zu einem Weltstrafgerichtshof?”, Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Internationales und Europäisches Recht, 1993, pp. 491 et seq.; D. Thürer, “Neuere Entwicklungen der internationalen Strafgerichtsbarkeit”, in D. Thürer, Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundidee Gerechtigkeit – Band 2, Zurich/Baden-Baden, Dike/Nomos, 2009, pp. 893 et seq. Cf. for a national context e.g. A. R. Ziegler, S. Wehrenberg and R. Weber (eds), Kriegsverbrecherprozesse in der Schweiz, Zurich/Basle/Geneva, Schulthess, 2009.

236 Y. Beigbeder, International Justice against Impunity: Progress and New Challenges, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff, 2005, pp. 13 et seq.

237 D. Thürer, "Modernes Völkerrecht: Ein System im Wandel und Wachstum – Gerechtigkeitsgedanke als Kraft der Veränderung?", in D. Thürer, Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundidee Gerechtigkeit – Band 2, Zurich/Baden-Baden, Dike/Nomos, 2009, pp. 44 et seq.
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