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7 ICRC, Our World, Views from the Field, Summary Report : Afgahanistan, Columbia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Georgia, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia and The Philippines, Opinion Survey and In-Depth Research 2009, Ipsos/ICRC, 2009, p. 2.

8 H. Wehberg, “La guerre civile et le droit international”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 63 (1938); H.A. Smith, “Le développement moderne des lois de la guerre maritime”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 63 (1938); R. Sandiford, “Evolution du droit de la guerre maritime et aérienne”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 68 (1939); A. Gardot, “Le droit de la guerre dans l'oeuvre des capitaines français du XVIe siècle”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 72 (1948); J.S. Pictet, “La Croix-Rouge et les conventions de Genève”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 76 (1950); M.A. Marin Luna, “The evolution and present status of the laws of war”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 92 (1957); H. Coursier, “L'évolution du droit international humanitaire”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 99 (1960); B.V.A. Röling, “The law of war and the national jurisdiction since 1945”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 100 (1960); R. Pinto, “Les règles du droit international concernant la guerre civile”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 114 (1965) ; G.I.A.D. Draper, “The Geneva conventions of 1949”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 114 (1965); S. E. Nahlik, “La protection internationale des biens culturels en cas des conflits armés“, Recueil des cours, Vol. 120 (1967) ; A. Migliazza, “L'évolution de la réglementation de la guerre à la lumière de la sauvgarde des droits de l'homme”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 137 (1972); R.-J. Wilhelm, “Problèmes relatifs à la protection de la personne humaine par le droit international dans les conflits armés ne présentant pas un caractère international”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 137 (1972); D. Schindler, “The different types of armed conflicts according to the Geneva conventions and protocols”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 163 (1979); G.I.A.D. Draper, “The implementation and enforcement of the Geneva conventions of 1949 and of the two Additional Protocols of 1978 [sic]”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 164 (1979); S. E. Nahlik, “L'extension du statut de combattant à la lumière du protocole I de Genève de 1977“, Recueil des cours, Vol. 164 (1979); G. Abi-Saab, “Wars of national liberation in the Geneva Conventions and Protocols”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 165 (1979); N. Ronzitti, “Le droit humanitaire applicable aux conflits armés en mer”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 242 (1993); D. Momtaz, “Le droit international humanitaire applicable aux conflits armés non internationaux”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 292 (2001); T. Meron, “International law in the age of human rights”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 301 (2003).

9 See e.g. F. Bugnion, The International Committee of the Red Cross and the Protection of War Victims, 2nd ed., Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross, 2002.

10 H. Lauterpacht, “The Problem of the Revision of the Law of War,” in E. Lauterpacht (ed.), International Law: The Collected Papers of Hersch Lauterpacht, Vol. 5, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 605.

11 Quoted in D. Kennedy, Of War and Law, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2006, pp. 43 et seq.

12 “(…) to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind.” From the Preamble to the Charter of the United Nations of 26 June 1945.

13 W.K. Clark, Waging Modern War, Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat, New York, PublicAffairs, 2001, pp. XX et seq.

14 See, e.g., D. Thürer, „Vom Kampf der Bilder und dem Bild des Krieges“, in ibid., Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundidee Gerechtigkeit – Band 2, Zurich/Baden-Baden, Dike/Nomos, 2009, pp. 279 et seq.

15 O. Schachter, “International law in theory and practice: General course in public international law”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 178 (1982), pp. 41.

16 M. Koskenniemi, The Genle Civilizer of Nations – The Rise and Fall of International Law 1870-1960, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2001.

17 J.C. Bluntschli, Das moderne Völkerrecht der civilisirten [sic] Staaten, 3. Aufl., Nördlingen, Beck, 1878, p. 296.

18 B.N. Cardozo, The Nature of the Judicial Process, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1921, p. 34.

19 P.C. Jessup, “A Half-Century of Efforts to Substitute Law for War”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 99 (1960), pp. 3 et seq.

20 H.-P. Gasser, “International humanitarian law,” in H. Haug (ed.), Humanity for all: The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Berne/Stuttgart/Vienna, Paul Haupt, 1993, pp. 506 et seq. Cf. for a combined functional approach K. Ipsen, “International Law Preventing Armed Conflicts and International Law of Armed Conflict – A Combined Functional Approach”, in C. Swinarski (ed.), Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva/The Hague, ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 349 et seq.

21 See in this context M. Byrer, War Law – Understanding International Law and Armed Conflict, New York, Grova Press, 2005; M. Walzer, Arguing about War, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 2005, pp. 3 et seq.

22 The humanist thinker Hugo Grotius identified three “just” causes for resorting to war: self-defence, recovery of property, and punishment for crimes. But he also, unambiguously, limited the circumstances in which resorting to war was permissible (De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Second Book, Chapter 1-II, 1625).

23 Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.

24 As systematic treatises see N. Ronzitti, Diritto Internazionale dei Conflitti Armati, terzo editione, Torino, Giappichelli editore, 2006; L. C. Green, The Contemporary Law of Armed Conflict, 2nd ed., London, Manchester University Press, 2000.

25 For a general account of international humanitarian law supplemented by plenty of pertinent cases, documents and teaching materials see: M. Sassòli, A.A. Bouvier and S. Carr, How does law protect in war?, 2nd edition, Geneva, International Committee of the Red Cross, 2006.

26 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic, Decision on the Defence Motion for Interlocutory Appeal on Jurisdiction of 2 October 1995, Case No. IT-94-1-AR72, para. 70.

27 M. Sassòli, „Ius ad Bellum and Ius in Bello – The Separation between the Legality of the Use of Force and Humanitarian Rules to be Respected in Warfare: Crucial or Outdated?”, in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines, Leiden/Boston, Nijhoff, 2007, pp. 242-264.

28 L. May, War Crimes and Just Wars, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp. 2 and 25.

29 M. Sassòli, “Ius ad Bellum and Ius in Bello – The Separation between the Legality of the Use of Force and Humanitarian Rules to Be Respected in Warfare: Crucial or Outdated?”, in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines – Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2007, pp. 241 et seq.; see for a critical approach to the distinction between ius in bello and ius ad bellum I. Shearer, “A Revival of the Just War Theory?”, in M. Schmitt and J. Pejic (eds), International Law and Armed Conflict: Exploring the Faultlines – Essays in Honour of Yoram Dinstein, Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden/Boston, 2007, pp. 1 et seq.

30 See ibid., p. 30: “If it is difficult for theorists, many years after the fact, to determine whether a State had just cause to wage a war, we cannot reasonably expect soldiers during wartime to make such a determination. In any event, soldiers are required to follow orders and generally have few choices but to do so.”

31 Basic ideas of international humanitarian law had been to a substantial degree anticipated and shaped by early international legal scholars, especially in the Age of Humanism and during the Enlightenment.

32 See D. Schindler, “International humanitarian law: Its remarkable development and its persistent violation”, Journal of the History of International Law, Vol. 5 (2003), pp. 165 et seq.

33 J. Pictet, Le droit humanitaire et la protection des victimes de la guerre, Leiden, A.W. Sijthoff, 1973.

34 See the ICJ, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, ICJ Reports 1996, para. 75: “These two branches of the law applicable in armed conflict have become so closely interrelated that they are considered to have gradually formed one single complex system, known today as international humanitarian law. The provisions of the Additional Protocols of 1977 give expression and attest to the unity and complexity of that law.”

35 G. Abi-Saab, “The specificities of humanitarian law”, in C. Swinarski (ed.), Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva/The Hague, ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 265 et seq.

36 We can find this idea in the writings of even the earliest international legal scholars. Concluding his famous work, De Jure Belli ac Pacis, Hugo Grotius wrote: “(…) in the prosecution of war we must never carry the rage of it so far, as to unlearn the nature and dispositions of men.” (Third Book, Chapter 25- II, translated by A. C. Campbell, London 1814).

37 R. Higgins, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

38 L. Boisson de Chazournes and L. Condorelli, “Common Article 1 of the Geneva Conventions revised: Protecting collective interests,” International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 82, No. 837 (2000), pp. 67 et seq.

39 T. Meron, “The humanization of humanitarian law”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 94 (2000), pp. 247 et seq.

40 J.A. Frowein, “Reactions by not directly affected States to breaches of public international law”, Recueil des cours, Vol. 248 (1994), pp. 345 et seq.

41 L. Boisson de Chazournes and L. Condorelli, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

42 L. Condorelli, A.-M. La Rosa and S. Scherrer (eds), The United Nations and International Humanitarian Law, Proceedings of the international symposium held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the United Nations – Geneva, 19-21 October 1995, Paris, Editions Pedone, 1996. See also ICTY, Prosecutor v. Kupreskic, Judgement of 14 January 2000, Case No. IT-95-16-T, para. 520: “(…) most norms of international humanitarian law, in particular those prohibiting war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, are also peremptory norms of international law or jus cogens, i.e. of a non-derogable and overriding character.”

43 See D. Thürer, “International Humanitarian Law as a Core of a Minimal World Constitutional Order”, in ibid., Völkerrecht als Fortschritt und Chance – Grundidee Gerechtigkeit – Band 2, Zurich/Baden-Baden, Dike/Nomos, 2009, pp. 679 et seq.

44 For more details see below Chapter Three.

45 D. Schindler, “The different types of armed conflicts according to the Geneva Conventions and Protocols”[sic], Recueil des cours, Vol. 163 (1979), pp. 117 et seq.

46 L. Doswald-Beck and J-M. Henckaerts (eds), Customary International Humanitarian Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005; A. Zimmermann, “Die Wirksamkeit rechtlicher Hegung militärischer Gewalt – Ausgewählte Aspekte der Anwendbarkeit und Systemkohärenz des humanitären Völkerrechts”, in Zimmermann / Hobe / Odendahl / Kieninger / König / Marauhn / Thorn / Schmalenbach, Moderne Konfliktformen – Humanitäres Völkerrecht und privatrechtliche Folgen, Heidelberg, C.F. Müller, 2010, pp. 7 et seq.

47 See below Chapter V.1.

48 See R. Kolb, Ius in bello: Le droit international des conflits armés, Basle, Helbing and Lichtenhahn, 2003, pp. 43 et seq.

49 For more details see Chapter Seven, Section II.

50 E.g. during World War II: out of a estimated total dead range from 50 million to over 70 million, civilians killed ranged from 40 to 52 million, including 13 to 20 million from war-related disease and famine.

51 E.g. the Vienam War (1959 – 1975): estimated total casualties of 2.5, whereas 90% of those killed in Southvietnam were civilians.

52 The International Committee is the continuation of the Committee of Five appointed by the Geneva Society for Public Welfare on 9 February 1863. This Committee founded the Red Cross and took the initiative of promoting the original Geneva Convention. Ever since, members who resign or die have been replaced by individuals chosen by the remaining members, so there has been no break in the International Committee's already long history. Since 1945 they have numbered between fifteen and twenty-five. The members of the Committee have always been chosen from among Swiss citizens. The ICRC employs more than 1000 delegates and more than 10,000 staff members in all. Its annual budget amounts to more than a billion Swiss francs. Its guiding principles are humanity, neutrality and impartiality and its preferred mode of action is confidential bilateral dialogue and not the “mobilization of shame.” See, in order to better understand the role of a delegate J.-F. Berger, Fragments of memory – Memories from ICRC employees in former Yugoslavia, 1991-2001, Vevey, l’Aire, 2010.

53 Ch. Dominicé, “La personnalité juridique internationale du CICR”, in C. Swinarski (ed.), Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva/The Hague, ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 663-673.

54 For more details see Chapter Seven and Outlook.

55 See D. Thürer, “Dunant’s pyramid: Thoughts on the ‘humanitarian space’”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 89, No. 865 (2007); ibid, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

56 The Public Committee against Torture in Israel [et al.] v. The Government of Israel [et al.], Israeli High Court of Justice, The Supreme Court Sitting as the High Court of Justice, Case 769/02, 11 December 2005, para. 61.

57 I borrowed this title from W.M. Reisman, “Holding the Center of the Law of Armed Conflict”, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 100 (2006), pp. 852 et seq.

58 Quoted by R. Connaughton, A Brief History of Modern Warfare, London, Constable and Robinson, 2008, p. 1.

59 Cf. O. Schachter, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found.

60 F. Kalshoven and L. Zegveld, Constraints on the Waging of War: An Introduction to International Humanitarian Law, 3rd ed., Geneva, ICRC, 2001.

61 Cf. H. Blix, “Reducing the Role and Effects of Weapons”, Speech at the Second Common Wealth Red Cross and Red Crescent International Humanitarian Law Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 29-31 August 2007.

62 W.M. Reisman and C.T. Antoniou, The Laws of War, New York, Vintage Books, 1994, p. XVII.

63 What is interesting is that non-State actors – guerrilla fighters or national liberation movements in classic insurrection type hostilities do fragment more and more into different fractions, regroup into new commands, are sometimes very loosely structured and sometimes supported by international network. A situation of constant fracturing of non-State actors into shifting groups make it quite difficult to identify all the different actors in a combat zone. A situation in point would be Darfur.

64 D. Thürer, “The ‘Failed State’ and International Law”, International Review of the Red Cross, Vol. 81, No. 836 (1999), pp. 731 et seq.

65 “Greek fire” was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines typically used it in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning even on water. It provided a technological advantage, and was responsible for many key Byzantine military victories, most notably the salvation of Constantinople from two Arab sieges, thus securing the Empire's survival. See, e.g., J. Haldon and M. Byrne, "A Possible Solution to the Problem of Greek Fire", Byzantinische Zeitschrift, Vol. 70 (1977), pp. 91 et. seq.

66 Cf. W. Doniger and B.K. Smith (trans.), The Laws of Manu, Penguin Books, London, 1991.

67 See, as a lively account, T. Meron, Henry’s Wars and Shakespeare’s Laws – Perspectives on the Law of War in the Later Middle Ages, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993.

68 H. Grotius, De iure belli ac pacis, Paris, 1625, Prolegomena, para. 28 (The Latin text reads: Videbam per Christianum orbem, vel barbaris gentibus pudendam bellanid licentiam: it mentions nothing that can be taken as equivalent to the term ‘restraints’).

69 H. Grotius, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, para. 35.

70 Declaration Renouncing the Use, in Time of War, of Explosive Projectiles Under 400 Gramms Weight. Saint Petersburg, 29 November/11 December 1868.

71 See e.g. H.-P. Gasser, „Die Genevaer Zusatzprotokolle vom 8. Juni 1977“; in C. Swinarski (ed.), Studies and Essays on International Humanitarian Law and Red Cross Principles in Honour of Jean Pictet, Geneva/The Hague, ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1984, pp. 147 et seq.

72 L. Doswald-Beck and J.-M. Henckaerts, Customary International Humanitarian Law - Volume I: Rules, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005, pp. 237 et seq.

73 See R. Kolb, Ius in bello – Le droit international des conflits armés, Bâle, Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Bruxelles, Bruylant, 2003, pp. 281 et seq.

74 In the domain of human rights law as in the law of constitutional rights “necessity“ would mean, in such a human rights-like constitution of the cardinal principles concerning the conduct of hostilities, a legitimate, overriding social need, “proportionality“ that the means and methods chosen be the appropriate ones in relation to this recognized need; and “discrimination” may be regarded as a sort of ‘hard core’ or Wesenskern.

75 E. de Vattel, Le droit des gens ou principes de la loi naturelle, London, 1758, Buch III, Kapitel VIII, para. 158. Further on he continues as follows: „Ce serait une erreur également funeste et grossière, de s’imaginer (…) que tout lien d’humanité est rompu entre deux nations qui se font la guerre. Réduit à la nécessité de prendre les armes pour leur défense et pour le maintien de leurs droits, les hommes ne cessent pas pour cela d’êtres hommes (…) Celui-là même qui nous fait une guerre injuste, est homme encore; nous lui devons tout ce qu’exige de nous cette qualité (ibid., para. 174).”

76 ICTY, Prosecutor v. Anto Furundzija, Judgement of 10 December 1998, Case Nr. IT 95-17/1, para. 183.

77 ICJ, Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua, Judgment of 27 June 1986, ICJ Reports 1986, para. 218.

78 See Y. Dinstein, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 16.

79 H. Slim, Killing Civilians: Methods, Madness and Morality in War, New York, Colombia University Press, 2007, p. 14.

80 E. de Vattel, op. cit., supra note Error: Reference source not found, para. 137; and he states further on: “(…) tout le mal que l’on fait à l’ennemi sans nécessité, tout hostilité qui ne tend point à amener la victoire et la fin de la guerre, est une licence que la loi naturelle condamne” (para. 172); see also H. Grotius, De iure belli ac pacis, Paris, 1625 (translated by E. Campbell, London 1814), third book, chapter 11, para. VIII., “(…) yet humanity will require that the greatest precaution should be used against involving the innocent in danger, except in cases of extreme urgency and utility”; Ch. Wolff, Grundsätze des Natur- und Völkerrechts, Halle, Renger, 1754, IV. Teil, 8. Hauptstück, para. 1190: „Deswegen ist dem, der einen rechtmässigen Krieg führet, dasjenige im Krieg erlaubt, ohne welches er sein Recht nicht erlangen kann. Was aber zur Erreichung dieses Endzwecks nichts thut, das ist unerlaubt.“

81 J.-J. Rousseau, Du Contrat Social ou Principes du Droit Politique, Amsterdam, MetaLibri, 1762.

82 F. Lieber, Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field, Washington D.C., Government Printing Office, 1898. Available at: <http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/Instructions-gov-armies.pdf>, accessed August 2010.

83 D. Schindler and J. Toman (eds), Droit des conflits armés: Recueil des conventions, résolutions et autres documents, Geneva, Institut Henry-Dunant, 1996.

84 Ibid.

85 Ibid.

86 “Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Lebanon pursuant to Human Rights Council Resolution S-2/1”, 23 November 2006, UN Doc. A/HRC/3/2, para. 116-129.

87 Ibid., Summary, para. 24-25.
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