!! draft !! Preface 4 introduction 9 chapter one 19



Download 2.03 Mb.
Page1/30
Date30.04.2018
Size2.03 Mb.
#42648
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   30


!! DRAFT !!



PREFACE 4

INTRODUCTION 9

CHAPTER ONE 19

INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW: A UNIQUE REGIME 19

i. Jus ad bellum and jus in bello 20

ii. Origins and development 23

A. Formative ideas 23

B. The Law of Geneva and the Law of The Hague 25

iii. Specific aspects 26

iv. Three fundamental dychotomies 30

A. “International” and “non-international” armed conflicts 30

B. Combatants and non-combatants 32

C. Actors and modes of implementation 34

CHAPTER TWO 37

CONSTRAINTS OF WAR – HOLDING THE CENTRE 37

I. General remarks and cardinal principles 38

A. General remarks 38

B. Cardinal principles: The shift from a “horizontal” to a “vertical”, or “quasi-constitutional”, order 42

C. Humanity 44

D. Military necessity 46

E. Proportionality 50

General considerations 50

Environmental protection as a case in point 57

F. Distinction 61

General remarks 61

Direct participation of civilians in hostilities 64

Summing up and some examples 66

II. Constraints in the use of and ban on weapons 68

A. General remarks 68

B. Banning weapons 70

Most recent example: The ban on cluster bombs 73

C. Limiting the Use of small arms as a case in point 75

Prohibition of nuclear weapons: Relative or absolute? 78

III. Concluding remarks: Making the law effective 86

A. New weapons, means and methods of warfare 87

B. Citizens taking centre stage 88

CHAPTER THREE 92

I. From the genius loci to the genius orbis? 92

II. International humanitarian law and human rights law: Structures and processes 95

A. Three theoretical models: Predominance of the theory of overlapping circles 96

B. The rule of complementarity and the doctrine of lex specialis 102

C. Symbiosis in living practice: The doctrine of convergence 107

a. Non-international armed conflicts as a source of growth for international law 108

2. Areas in need of development 112

aa) Procedural principles and safeguards for internment and administrative detention in armed conflicts and other situations of violence 112

bb) Internally displaced persons 114

cc) Missing persons 115

b) Belligerent occupation 117

III. Accountability: Procedures and mechanisms 122

A.Human rights mechanisms 124

B.Individual criminal responsibility 128

a) Elements of the idea and its first applications 129

b) A new era: The tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia 134

c) The International Criminal Court 140

d) Hybrid tribunals: Anchoring criminal justice locally 144

e) International and internationalized criminal tribunals: An assessment 147

C. Truth and reconciliation commissions 150

IV. Genius mundi: Globalization and law 156



CHAPTER FOUR 163

RELIGION AND INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW – SUPPORT AND TENSION 163

I. A difficult relationship 164

II. World religions and world views 167

A. Confucianism 167

B. Hinduism 173

C. Buddhism 176

D. Judaism and Christianity 182

Judaism 182

Christianity 186

E. Islam 193

III. Concluding remarks 199



CHAPTER FIVE 204

I. The changing nature of warfare 206

A. The “new wars” thesis 206

B. Implications for international humanitarian law 210

A. Private military companies and economic interests 213

B. Three challenges for international humanitarian law 216

C. Reminding States of their obligations 220

III. War and natural resources 223

A. The resource curse 223

B. Controlling access to international markets – Sierra Leone as case in point 225

IV. The arms trade 228

A. Dissemination of small arms and the consequences for humanitarian work 228

B. Economic and strategic interests 230

C. Arms trade treaty 232

D. Existing State obligations 235

A. Adaptability of international humanitarian law 237

B. State responsibility to ensure respect for international humanitarian law 240

C. Corporate responsibility under international law 241

D. The international community’s “responsibility to protect” 245

CHAPTER SIX 249

A NETWORK OF HUMANITARIAN ACTORS – PROMOTION OF 249

INTERNATIONAL HUMANITARIAN LAW 249

I. The International Committee of the Red Cross 251

II. The role of the United Nations 255

A. The Security Council 256

A) General remarks 256

b) Peacekeeping Operations 260

B. The General Assembly 267

a) General remarks 267

b) The Human Rights Council 271

C. The Secretary-General 276

D. The International Court of Justice 279

a) “Elementary considerations of humanity”: International humanitarian law as customary law 280

b) jus cogens and erga omnes norms 282

c) Assessment 286

III. Regional organizations promoting international humanitarian law 286

A. The European Union 286

B. The Council of Europe 291

IV. The role of non-governmental organizations in international humanitarian law 293

A. Banning anti-personnel mines 296

B. Banning cluster munitions 298

v. The media’s role in international humanitarian law 301

A. The media: “Public watchdog” and objects of instrumentalization 302

B. Responsibilities of the media 305

C. Protection under International Law 310

1. A space of liberty 310

vi. Concluding remarks 320



CHAPTER SEVEN 324

A SYSTEM OF SYSTEMS 324

I. Warfare in the shadow of the law 326

II. Fundamental challenges: Assessing the state of international humanitarian law 330

A. International humanitarian law and the "war on terror" 331

B. Are there gaps in the protection afforded by international law? 332

C. Is the law incomplete? 338

III. The walls of the law 342

A. The Martens Clause 343

B. General principles of law 347

C. Constitutional paradigm? 351

Constitutionalization in international law 351

Constitutionalism as a method of construction 354

Constitutionalism in humanitarian law 356

Relevance of the constitutional paradigm for international humanitarian law 361

IV. The destructive potential of technology 362



Outlook: Practical means and legal ideals 365

I. Implementation 366

II. Law as a Myth: Nuclear Weapons 373

Appendix 381

Bibliography 386



Download 2.03 Mb.

Share with your friends:
  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   30




The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2022
send message

    Main page