Yildiz technical university school of foreign languages



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YILDIZ TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES

2015-2016 SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL (New Language Leader Intermediate)



B/C LEVEL TEACHERS’ COPY


UNIT 4 – LANGUAGE

GRAMMAR

Future Time Clauses

  • As soon as you get your exam results, call me.

  • I’ll call you as soon as I arrive.

  • We’ll have dinner when your father gets home.

  • I won’t go to bed until you come home.

  • I’ll have lunch before I leave.

  • After I finish university, I’ll probably take a year off and travel.

  • Use the Present Simple (not the future) after ‘when, as soon as, until, before and after’





Present Simple (future meaning)

  • Timetables/programmes

  • The plane reaches London at 9.45 pm.

  • The lesson starts at 10 o'clock.





Present Continuous (future meaning)

  • Fixed arrangements in the near future

Sally is seeing her dentist tomorrow afternoon. (Sally has already made an appointment.)



  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous,

be going to or will.
Gary: What 1) are you planning (you/plan) to do after the exams? 2) Are you staying/Are you going to stay (you/stay) in London?

Angela: No, I 3) am leaving (leave) this weekend. I 4) am going to visit (visit) my brother in Wales. What about you?

Gary: I 5) am thinking (think) of getting a part-time job. I 6) want (want) to buy a new electric guitar.

Angela: Oh, so 7) are you (you/be) still with your band?

Gary: Yes. In fact, we 8) are playing (play) at Sam's Place this Friday. Can you come?

Angela: Of course. My plane 9) doesn’t leave (not/leave) until 8 pm on Saturday so I 10) will have (have) plenty of time to pack.

Gary: Great!

Angela: Is it OK if I bring a friend?

Gary: Of course. Invite as many people as you like.

Angela: Thanks. I 11) will see (see) you there.



  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple, the present continuous,

be going to or will.


  1. A: I’m seeing (see) Jim at 8 o'clock tonight.

B: Really? I thought he was away on a business trip.

  1. A: Would you like something to drink?

B: I will have(have) a glass of orange juice, please.

  1. A: What time does the bus leave(the bus/leave)?

B: In half an hour.

  1. A: I don't understand this exercise, Dad.

B: OK, Peter I will help (help) you.

  1. A: Have you decided what to get Jim for his birthday?

B: Yes. I am going to buy (buy) him a watch.

  1. A: I am going (go) to the cinema. There's a new film on. Would you like to come?

B: What time does the film start (the film/start)?

  1. A: Look at that car!

B: Oh no! It is going to hit (hit) the lamppost!

  1. A: The Ting Tings are playing (play) a concert at Wembley Stadium.

B: I know. I have already bought a ticket.



  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the present simple or the future simple.

"You 1) ‘ll meet (meet) Agent 205 under the clock at the Leicester Square Station. When she

2) ……arrives….. (arrive), she 3) ......will have..... (have) an envelope to give you. Before

she 4) .....gives.... (give) it to you, she 5) ....will ask... (ask) you for the secret code. The

secret code is "Jaguar". Take the envelope and go into the station. When the train 6) ....comes... (come),

get on it and go to Waterloo Station.

As soon as you 7) .....reach..... (reach) Waterloo, take a taxi to the Opera House. By the time you get there, Jenny will be there. Give her the envelope. Wait until she 8) .......drives....(drive) off and then go home.

We 9) ....will call... (call) you there. If you 10) .....think.... (think) someone is following you at any time, stop and go home. We 11) ....will contact... (contact) you. Do you have any questions?"






  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1. A: I must be at the airport by 9:00 am.

B: Well, if you don’t leave (not/leave) right away, you will miss (miss) your flight.

2. A: How long will you stay in Europe?

B: I …won’t stay.. (not/stay) long unless I …find….. (find) a summer job.

3. A: I need some help with the housework.

B: Well, if you …hoover….. (hoover) the carpets, I …’ll make(make) the beds.

4. A: How can I print this information?

B: I …’ll show…. (show) you if you …wait... (wait) a few minutes.


  1. Fill in with if or unless.

1. …IF…. you make so much noise, I won't be able to sleep.

2. You won't understand .....UNLESS....you listen carefully.

3. I won't be able to finish the work....UNLESS... you help me.

4. .....IF....you're hungry, I'll make you a sandwich.

5. We'll miss the bus .....UNLESS....we hurry.

6. They won't be able to buy a house ...UNLESS..... they save money.

7. I'll tell you .....IF... you get any messages.

8. I'll come with you to the dentist's....UNLESS.....you want to go alone.




  1. Complete the sentences with if or when.



  1. A: Mum, can you help me with my homework __WHEN__ you finish the washing-up?

B: Sure, ____IF__ I know the subject.

  1. I’ll close the curtains at about seven o’clock ___WHEN_ it gets dark.

  2. A: What will you do ___WHEN__ you’re eighteen?

B: Go to university, I hope.

  1. ___IF___ you miss the bus tomorrow, telephone me and I’ll come and pick you up.

  2. A: I hear you’re going skiing next week. What will you do ___IF___ you break your leg.

B: Well, I don’t think I will, but ___IF__ I do, I’ll probably cry!

  1. A: Charlie, what are you going to be ___WHEN___ you grow up?

B: I want to be an astronaut.

  1. Rewrite the sentences by using the words in brackets.



  1. I’ll save money, then I’ll go to France on holiday. (if)

If I save money, I will go to France.

  1. Wait five minutes and I’ll give you a lift. (if)

If you wait five minutes, I’ll give you a lift.

  1. If you don’t do your homework, you won’t be allowed to go out. (unless)

Unless you do your homework, you won’t be allowed to go out.

  1. Unemployment will increase if the government doesn’t take appropriate measures. (unless)

Unemployment will increase unless the government takes appropriate measures.

  1. The teacher gets frustrated if we don’t do our homework. (when)

The teacher gets frustrated when we don’t do our homework.

  1. She wears trousers and jacket if she has an interview. (when)

She wears trousers and jacket when she has an interview.

  1. They will plan their wedding when they graduate from university. (as soon as)

They will plan their wedding as soon as they graduate from university.

  1. I’ll call my mother when I get the news about my father. (as soon as)

As soon as I get the news about my father, I’ll call my mother.

VOCABULARY

  1. Some students are talking about learning languages. Match one of these terms to each sentence.



grammar / foreign languages / bilingual / native speakers / accent / dialect / slang



  1. ‘I want to learn street English, for example, the informal words that people use with their friends.’ ___slang____

  2. ‘I’m OK with the grammar, but when I listen I find it really hard to understand the pronunciation of some native speakers.’___accent___

  3. ‘I like to try and talk to people who were born in a country where English is the first language’. ___native speakers__

  4. ’I love to find out the way language works and all the rules.’ ___grammar___

  5. ‘They are really hard to learn. Why can’t everyone just speak the same language as me!’ ___foreign languages____

  6. ‘People with parents from different countries are really lucky because they can learn two languages from birth.’ __bilingual___

  7. ‘It isn’t just the fact that their accent is different, but their English even uses different words and incorrect grammar!’. ___dialect___



  1. Write the correct verb in each space. Change the verb form if necessary.

take / pick / catch / fall / keep / let / get



  1. My poor English often __let’s___ me down.

  2. I’m quick to ___catch___ on and learn new words.

  3. She’s currently ___falling___ behind the rest of the class.

  4. My friend ___picks___ up languages really easily.

  5. I’m not fluent but I can ___get__ by in French when I’m travelling.

  6. I suggest you ___take___ up a new language in your free time.

  7. Sorry, but I can’t ___keep___ up with you. Please speak more slowly.

KEY LANGUAGE

  1. Put the words in order to make correct sentences.



  1. I about that don’t know.

____I don’t know about that.___

  1. If we will that it do some cause problems.

If ___we do that ____,____it will cause some problems.____

  1. you right I ‘re think.

____I think you’re right.____

  1. I would think work that.

____I think that would work.______

  1. I don’t like I afraid ‘m idea that.

____I’m afraid I don’t like that idea.____

  1. worth considering it definitely ‘s.

____It’s definitely worth considering.____

  1. I that not sure ‘m about.

____I’m not sure about that.____

  1. what if happen that we do will.

____What will happen if we do that?____

  1. Use some of the words from sentences 1-8 in Exercise C to complete this discussion.

A: I wonder if we should offer English lessons to staff at lunchtime. What _will happen if we do that_?

B: I’m afraid _I don’t like that idea_. Staff will complain that we want them to work through their free time.

C: Yes, I __think you’re right__. How about asking them about having a class after work?

A: I don’t __know about that__. The problem is that not everyone finishes work at the same time.

B: Yes, ___if we do that_, it will also cause some problems with rooms. We have other courses in the training rooms.

A: What about making it voluntary? So people can choose.

B: Yes, I think __that would work___.

C: It’s definitely worth considering.



PHRASAL VERBS

Make up : to invent a story or lie.

Put off : to postpone.

Use up : to exhaust, use completely.

Look up : to search in a list.

UNIT 5 - ADVERTISING
GRAMMAR


  1. Write the verbs in brackets in the correct form to make second conditional sentences.


1. She ____wouldn’t mind______ (not / mind) if we ___borrowed_____ (borrow) this tape for a day.

2. If I ___were_____ (be) you , I ____wouldn’t go____ (not / go) out with him.

3. What _would you do_________ (you / do) if you ____won______ (win) the lottery?

4. Where ___would you go_ (you / go) on holiday if you ____could___ (can) choose any place in the world?

5. If he __had_____ (have) a bike, he ___could__ (can) save money on his bus fare.

6. She __would look_____ (look) nicer if she ___cut________ (cut) her hair.

7. If he ___was/were_____ (be) the richest man in the world, he still _____wouldn’t lend_ (not / lend) you any money.

8. You __wouldn’t feel______ (not / feel) sick if you ___didn’t eat_______ (not / eat) so fast.

9. I ____wouldn’t ask_____ (not / ask) to borrow money from you if I __didn’t know____ ( not / know) you so well.

10. Who ___would you like ____ (you / like) to meet if you ___could_____ (can) choose any famous person in the world?

  1. Rewrite the sentences using the second conditional.


Joe goes to bed at 2 a.m. He feels tired all the time.

If Joe didn’t go to bed at 2 a.m. he wouldn’t feel tired all the time.
1. She doesn’t play for the team – she isn’t fast enough.

__She would play for the team if she was fast enough _________________.

2. We can’t drive to your house because we don’t have a car.

__If we had a car, we could drive to your house__________________________.



3. You don’t water your plants regularly. They look so dry!

__If you watered your plants regularly, they wouldn’t look so dry__________.



4. Tom and Dave never help in the house . Their mother doesn’t ask them.

__Tom and Dave would help in the house if their mother asked them._______.



5. I work on Saturdays. I can’t come to the barbecue.

__If I didn’t work on Saturdays, I would (could) come to the party__________.





  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense to make conditional sentences; (type1 or type2)


1. A: What time will you be at home tonight?

B: I’m not sure. If I __have to___ (have to) work late, I’ll call___ (call) you.



2. A: Should I buy that car?

B: Why not? If I __had___ (have) the money, I __would buy________ (buy) it myself.



3. A: If you __pass_____ (pass) a chemist’s, __will you get____ (you / get) me some cough medicine?

B: Yes, certainly.



4. A: My sister seems very upset at the moment.

B: If I __were______ (be) you, I _would talk______ (talk) to her about it.



5. A: Unless you __hurry_______ (hurry), you ‘ll be late______ (be) late again.

B: No, I won’t . There’s plenty of time.



6. A: Oh! I forgot to ask Sarah over for dinner.

B: If I __speak______ (speak) to her today, I’ll ask_____ (ask) her for you.





  1. Complete the sentences with as+adjective+as , or the comparative or superlative form.

Dear Nadia,

My holiday job this summer is at the zoo. It’s 1. _the strangest___ (strange) job I’ve ever done. The good thing about the job is that the salary is 2. _better ______ (good) than most other jobs. The bad thing is that I have to get up much 3. __earlier ______ (early) than everyone else in my family – at four in the morning, in fact! Also the work is 4. ___more tiring ___ (tiring) than any other job I’ve done.

Yesterday I cleaned out the lions’ cage. It didn’t smell 5. _as bad_as (bad) the wolves’ cage but it was 6. _the most frightening__ (frightening) thing I’ve ever done.

The monkeys are 7. _the funniest____ (funny) and 8. __the most intelligent___ (intelligent) of all the animals. One of the baby monkeys is 9. ___frendlier / more friendly ___ (friendly) than the others. I usually feed him first because he waits for his food patiently.

The penguins can be almost 10. __as interesting as (interesting) the monkeys to watch. They’re strange birds. They can’t fly but they swim very well. I think the penguins eat their food 11. __faster_____ (fast) than the other animals at the zoo. The fish disappears down their throats in seconds! They remind me of my brother.

Write to me soon.

Lots of love,

Patsy.


  1. Complete the sentences with the words in brackets so that they have similar meanings.


1. This little cat is more charming than the other cats. (less)

The other cats are __less charming than_____ this little cat.



2. This design is definitely the most stylish of the three. (much)

This design is __much more stylish______ than the other two.



3. It’s by far the funniest of the pictures. (a lot)

It’s _a lot funnier_______ than the other pictures.



4. Physics exams are more difficult than maths exams. (as)

Maths exams aren’t __as difficult as_______ physics exams.



5. I think a computer isn’t as important as a smart phone. (less)

I think a computer is __less important than___ a smart phone.



6. Africa is hotter than any other continent in the world. (the)

Africa is _the hottest ____ continent in the world.



7. My father is less patient than any other person in my family. (least)

My father is _the least patient_____ person in my family.



8. Her boyfriend is a little older than her. (much)

Her boyfriend isn’t __much older than______her.


VOCABULARY


  1. Match the words with their definitions.


1. logo (n) __b_____ a. pleasing and easily remembered

2. jingle (n) __d_____ b. a printed design or symbol that a company or an organization uses as its

special sign.



3. witty (adj) __g_____ c. causing intense surprise, disgust, horror, etc
4. slogan (n) __f_____ d. a short song or tune that is easy to remember and is used in advertising

on radio or television



5. catchy (adj) __a_____ e. immediately noticeable because it is particularly interesting, bright or

attractive



6. shocking (adj) __c_____ f. a word or phrase that is easy to remember ; used to attract people’s

attention or to suggest an idea quickly.



7. eye-catching (adj) __e____ g. characterized by clever humour



  1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the words in the box. Two words are extra.




sponsorship

misleading

promote

persuasive

original

endorse

intriguing

sophisticated

dull

romantic



1. The countryside was flat, __dull_____ and uninteresting. I couldn’t find anything exciting to do there.

2. I wonder how many celebrities actually use the products they _endorse_____. I’m not sure if they know the

products in detail.



3. These discoveries raise _intriguing__________ questions. People want to know more about them.

4. Mark is a smart and ___sophisticated____ young man who knows a lot about fashion, culture and many other socially important things.

5. We need to find _sponsorship___ for the expedition. Otherwise, financially it will be impossible for us to

organize it.



6. My husband never gives me flowers. I wish he’d be more __romantic____________.

7. The band has gone on tour to ___promote___ their new album. They hope this tour will help to increase the sales figures of the album.

8. I don’t think many TV commercials are ___persuasive____. They’ve never convinced me to buy anything.


  1. Combine a word in A with a word in B. Use these to complete sentences, 1-8.


__A__ __B__

advertising message

junk managers

media analysis

fast website

interactive sums

persuasive target

attractive food

vast food
1. Advertising_ managers_ are becoming more and more interested in how to attract the child consumer.

2. Find out more information about the toys online at the store’s own _interactive_____ _website_____.

3. Advertisements with a __persuasive____ __message_____ tend to follow the formula of AIDA.

4. Now that there are more older people with spare time and cash,’ the grey consumer’ has become a very

_attractive______ __target_______ for advertisers.



5. _Media_______ __analysis_______ tells us that children influence 50 percent of what a family buys.

6. This is just __junk____ ___food_______. It’s full of fat, salt and sugar. Throw it away!

7. McDonald’s and other __fast____ __food_____ restaurants are masters of advertising to children.

8. We’ve spent ___vast______ ____sums_____ of money on TV commercials but I don’t see any increase in sales!


PHRASAL VERBS
Cheer (sb) up : to make happier

Cross sth out : to remove sth by drawing a line through it.

Drop in/by/over : to come without an appointment.

Get over : 1) to recover from an illness, loss, difficulty. 2) to overcome a problem.

UNIT 6 – EDUCATION

GRAMMAR

  1. Complete the sentences with who, whose, which / that, where or when. Put in commas where necessary and say whether the relative can be omitted or not.


My cousin Rob, ____who___ is only eighteen, already has a car of his own. (can not be omitted)

1. Liverpool ,__where_____ my mother was born, stands on the River Mersey. (can not be omitted)

2. This is the kitten ___which / that_____ I found in my garden. (can be omitted)

3. That’s the man _whose______ dog I look after in the summer. (can not be omitted)

4. Albert Bridge, ___which____ is one of the nicest bridges in London, is pink and white. (can not be omitted)

5. Julia Stewart, ___who___ was in my class at school, is a very successful lawyer now. (can not be omitted)

6. I’ll always remember the day _which / that____ I graduated. (can be omitted)

7. Are you going to stay in the village __where_____ you stayed last year? (can not be omitted)

8. I know a girl __who /that____ goes skiing in Switzerland every winter. (can not be omitted)

9. My garden, ___which______ I like very much, looks beautiful when all the flowers bloom.(can not be omitted)

10.Martin, __whose_____ sister has travelled the world, is a very interesting person. (can not be omitted)


  1. Join the sentences using which, that, who, where, whose. Use the second sentence as an adjective clause. If it is possible to omit the relative pronoun, write it in brackets.


1. He broke all the glasses. They were on the kitchen table.

He broke all the glasses which / that were on the kitchen table._.

2. The painter Picasso lived in France for many years. He was born in Spain.

The painter Picasso, who was born in Spain, lived in France for many years_.

3. War and Peace is a very long book. I read it last summer.

War ad Peace, which I read last summer, is a very long book_.

4. I spoke to a doctor. He was very nice.

I spoke to a doctor who /that was very nice___________.

5. Let’s go to the new park. You can swim in the lake there.

Let’s go to the new park where you can swim in the lake_.

6. Did you like the girl? She talked to us in the park.

Did you like the girl who / that talked to us in the park___.

7. Wimbledon is in London. The Lawn Tennis Championships take place there.

Wimbledon, where The Lawn Tennis Championships take place, is in London__.

8. The movie wasn’t very good. We saw it last night.

The movie (which / that) we saw last night wasn’t very good_______________.

9. The scientist is well known for her research. We met her yesterday.

The scientist ( who / that) we met yesterday is well known for her research____.

10. Mr. North teaches a class for students. Their native language is not English.

Mr North, whose native language is not English, teaches a class for students___.

  1. Fill in the blanks with who, which, whose, or where.

My favourite place is York, a city in the North East of England, 1. __where___ the rivers Ouse and Foss meet. It is a beautiful city 2. which______ also has an interesting history.

The city wasn’t always called York. In 71 AD it was named Eboracum by the Romans 3. _who____ lived there. Then, the city was conquered by the Vikings, 4. __who______ gave it the name Jorvik. Only later did the city become known as York.

Visitors to York can go to the Castle Museum, 5. __where______ an amazing collection of objects is on show, or the National Railway Museum, 6. __which___________ is the only national museum outside London.



Famous people 7. _who_________ were born in York include Guy Fawkes, 8. __whose______ attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament led to his execution, and Dick Turpin, 9. ____who_________ was an 18th century highway man! However, most people 10. __who_________ live in York today are kind and friendly and that’s the reason why I love it so much.
VOCABULARY


  1. Fill in the blanks with the correct phrases in the box. ONE phrase is extra.




mixed-sex schools

higher education

primary school

formal learning

curriculum

private education

compulsory education

continuous assessment



1. Compulsory education_____ laws require children to attend a public or private school for a certain period of time.

2. The term _curriculum_____ refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program.

3. _Formal learning__ is planned learning that derives from activities within a structured learning setting.

4. Higher education_ is often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, and institues of technology.

5. Mixed-sex _schools____ are schools where males and females are educated together.

6. A _primary school___ is a school in which children receive elementary education from the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool.

7. _Private education_______ is the education provided by a private individual or organization, rather than by the state or a public body.


  1. Underline the correct word.


1. Our teacher has a very friendly / unfriendly approach to the class. Everyone feels relaxed in his lessons.

2. The class has a very outgoing / easy-going atmosphere. The students were all smiling and joking.

3. I remember a maths teacher who used to make you stand if you made a mistake. He was very strict / informal.

4. Anyone in my class who isn’t punctual / informal in the morning will have to stay one hour extra after school.

5. Our teacher always comes to class strict / well-prepared. She must spend hours planning her lessons.

6. I never get bored in my English classes. The teacher is interesting and the lessons have a fast speed / pace.

7. Her approach to learning is probably common / unique. I don’t know anyone who does anything like it.

8. Children should be given positive encouragement rather than criticised / complimented.


  1. Match the two halves , 1-8 with a-h, to complete the sentences.




  1. He failed maths but passed _c____ a. good grades at college.

  2. We’re revising geometry _f____ b. from Cambridge University in 1978.

  3. If you try to do __g___ c. all his other subjects.

  4. Have you handed _h____ d. a lot more progress

  5. You should improve your study skills to get __a___ e. his Accountancy exams next week.

  6. Her father graduated _b____ f. for the exam tomorrow.

  7. Dave is taking __e____ g. your best, there will be no failure.

  8. If you clearly define your goals, you’ll make _d____ h. in your history essay yet?

PHRASAL VERBS
Fill in the blanks with the correct phrasal verbs. There are two extra. Be careful with the tenses.


Look up

Cross out

Drop in

Make up

Get by

Get over

Cheer up

Set off

Use up

Put off




    1. The gang members __used up__ all the money and went out to rob some more banks.

    2. She knew she was in trouble, so she __made up__ a story about going to the movies with her friends.

    3. You’ve misspelled this word again. You should __look__ it __up__.

    4. The company will have to close if it can’t __get over___ the new regulations.

    5. We asked the boss to ___put off___ the meeting until tomorrow.

    6. Please ___cross out___ your old address and write your new one.

    7. I might ___drop in___ for tea sometime next week.

    8. I brought you some flowers to ___cheer___ you __up_. I want to see you smiling.


UNIT 7 – DESIGN
GRAMMAR


  1. Choose the correct modal to complete the sentences. ( must, can’t, could/might/may)

  1. That _can’t_ be Danny. He said he was going abroad this week.

2) I'm leaving work now but I _could /may/might_ be a little late if there's traffic on the road.

3) Of course John isn't here today. He spent the whole night drinking. He _must_ be at home with a serious hangover.

4) You _can’t_ possibly be tired. You've just woken up.

5) You _ could /may/might _ know Peter because he went to the same school that we went to but he is a few years younger than we are.

6) I'm sorry, you _must_ be confusing me with someone else, that's not my name.



B. Read the sentences. Make deductions using "can't", "could/may/might" and "must".

1. Annie goes to school from 9 am to 2 pm. It's 1:30 pm. Where's Annie? She __can’t__ be at home. She __could___ be in biology class.

 

2. Ron likes playing soccer on Saturday mornings. It's Saturday afternoon. What's Ron doing? He __can’t__ still be playing soccer, can he? He ___must__ be at home by now.



 

 

3. Pedro only skips work for important events. Today is the final game of the Soccer World Cup. Where's Pedro?



He __can’t__ be at a bar watching the game. He __could__ be watching the game online, but he ___must__ be in the office.

 

4. Rhonda and Jackie love watching movies. Their favorite movies are comedies, but they don't like animated movies very much. Today, a new 3D animated movie is premiered. What are they doing? They ___can’t__ be at the premier, they don't like animated movies that much. They ___could___ be home watching a comedy.



C. Rewrite the sentences with the words given in brackets.

1. Maybe we won’t stay in a hotel. (might)



We might not stay in a hotel.

2. It is possible that Mary is trying to call us. (could)



Mary could be trying to call us.

3. There’s no need for him to do ironing now. (have to)



He doesn’t have to do ironing now.

4. I’m sure John isn’t lying. (can’t)



John can’t be lying.

5. Please turn on the light. (could)



Could you turn on the light, please?

6. Riding motorbikes in the park is forbidden. (must)



You mustn’t ride motorbikes in the park.

7. Perhaps he isn’t coming now. (may)



He may not be coming now.

8. I’m sure you’re very tired. (must)



You must be very tired.

9. Because of engine trouble, the plane was forced to make an emergency landing. (have to)



Because of engine trouble, the plane had to make an emergency landing.

10. Is it necessary for us to be at school so early tomorrow? (have to)



Do we have to be at school so early tomorrow?

11. You mustn’t go over 90 kph on this road. (allowed)



You aren’t allowed to go over 90 kph on this road.

12. There’s a possibility that it will rain tomorrow. (may)



It may rain tomorrow.

13. I’m not sure, but I expect to finish this project by the end of the week. (should)



I should finish this project by the end of the week.

14. The children can’t stay up after 9:00 p.m. (be allowed to)



The children aren’t allowed to stay up after 9:00 p.m.

15. We should start studying for the exam now. (had better)



We had better start studying for the exam now.

16. Did he manage to repair the washing machine? (be able to)



Was he able to repair the washing machine?

17. You should apologize to Barry. (ought)



You ought to apologize to Barry.

18. Perhaps these people are waiting for the bus. (might)



These people might be waiting for the bus.

19. I think it would be a good idea to see my dentist. (should)



I should see my dentist.

20. It isn’t a good thing to believe whatever you read in the newspaper. (should)



You shouldn’t believe whatever you read in the newspaper.

21. Don’t touch the top of the oven, it’s still very hot. (had better)



You had better not touch the top of the oven, it’s still very hot.

22. I can’t go out tomorrow. (won’t)



I won’t be able to go out tomorrow.

23. Wearing a uniform is not obligatory. (have to)



We don’t have to wear a uniform.

24. The lights are on so I’m sure he’s at home. (must)



The lights are on so he must be at home.

25. I’m sure he’s not American. He hasn’t got an American accent. (can’t)



He can’t be American. He hasn’t got an American accent.

26. I advise him to practise more, or there’s a possibility that he’ll forget the meanings of words. (had better, may)



He had better practise more, or he may forget the meanings of the words.

27. She might not take a vacation this summer. (probably)



She probably won’t take a vacation this summer.

28. I’m certain that there’s some money in the envelope under the bed. (must)



There must be some money in the envelope under the bed.

29. Nobody answers the phone so I’m sure they aren’t at home. (can)



Nobody answers the phone so they can’t be at home.

30. You aren’t allowed to enter the store with a pet. (must)



You mustn’t enter the store with a pet.
VOCABULARY

  1. Match the vocabulary with the definitions.

1) elegant___g

a)  looking like or relating to styles or fashions from the past.

2) functional___e

b) made with the hands or by using hand tools.

3) futuristic___h

c)  including the latest information.

4) handmade___b

d) to produce very large amounts of (something) usually by using machinery.

5) mass-produce___d

e) designed to have a practical use.

6) retro___a

f) having flowing lines

7) streamlined___f

g) showing good taste : graceful and attractive.

8) up to date___c

h) very modern.



  1. Complete the sentences by using the correct form of the words given.

ART

1) The museum has a large collection of folk __art____.

2) We have discovered some talented ____artists___ who, with further training, could become professional.

3) Creative, ___artistic___ and spontaneous thoughts are derived from the right hemisphere of the brain.



DESIGN

1) As an alternative, they can __design___ a new section for their town's Web site.

2) The historical advisers on the film knew that some actual soldiers wore green and told the costume ___designer____ and director.

DEVELOP

1) Broccoli needs full sun to __develop___, even in desert climates.

2) He picked it up cheaply when another ___developer___ went bankrupt after putting a handful of houses on it.

3) But the second act, instead of __developing___a plot, changes into a parody.

4) Free, imaginative play is crucial for normal social, emotional and cognitive ___development___.

ENGINEER

1) The ___engineer___ can virtually remove a part from the model, turn it around, and change its diameter or location.

2) One is to fund research with a strong emphasis on energy  __engineering__ and science.

INNOVATE

1) Here are some ways that the authorities can continue to __innovate__and mediate the problem of air pollution.

2) Clearly, it is not enough to have an __innovation___ strategy, one must also be an __innovator__ in one's choice of words.

3) Through technology and __innovation__, they found ways to get better results with less work.

4) Candidates must be __innovative__ and creative, and must possess superb communications skills and a collegial leadership style.

INVENT

1) Thomas Edison ___invented___ the phonograph.

2) But the __inventor__ hopes to develop the device, and that the immediate feedback will convince people to change their transportation.

3) The light bulb was one of the most important __invention___ of the 19th century.

4) They have given their new company an __inventive__name.

PRODUCE

1) Thousands of cars are __produced___ here each year.

2) The country is the world's leading oil __producer__.

3) The company's newest __product__ is selling well.

4) Some staff members are more __productive__ than others.

KEY LANGUAGE


  1. The speaker is introducing a new product. Put the presentation in order from 1 to 7.

_2__ Today I’d like to present this new design.

_4__ However, the elegant handle is made completely of metal.

_1__ Good morning everyone and thanks for coming.

_5__ Because of this, one of the best points is that it’s unlikely to break when you use it.

_7__ I’d expect that it would appeal to anyone who enjoys a glass of wine with their dinner.

_6__ At £5.50 it’s excellent value for money and …

_3__ As you can see it looks very similar to the old wooden design.

EXTRA PRACTICE

A. Complete the paragraphs with the most appropriate sentences.

1.Squirrels live mostly in the forests of Europe and north America. ___________. That is the size of two of your hands. Behind them and often suspended over their backs are their tails, wide, upright and furry, and almost the same size as their length. Thanks to this long tail, a squirrel can jump from one tree to another without losing its balance.

A.It can readily run along branches

B.They are about 25 centimeters long

C.It’s an interesting method of communication

D.Some squirrel species can also fly

E.Sleeping is a great threat to squirrels

2.Snoring cures usually involve clearing the blockage in the breathing passage. This is the reason snorers are advised to lose weight. _____________. They are also advised to stop smoking (smoking weakens and clogs the throat), and to sleep on their side (to prevent the tongue from blocking the throat). But for many snorers those pieces of advice are not enough.

A.This stops fat from pressing on the throat.

B.Surgery is the only option to cure snoring

C.Snoring is usually an involuntary act, but may also be produced

D.Most of the time snoring is not a health risk to the snorer

E.Snoring is known to ruin the lives of many people.

3.People believe that cell phones cause cancer, especially brain cancer. A few studies suggested a link with certain rare types of brain tumors. ________ . These studies didn’t receive front-page coverage. Therefore, most consumers could not notice them.

A. Electronic devices, like cell phones, can cause cancer in the people who use them.

B. Using a cell phone while driving increases the risk of having a car accident.

C. Keeping your hands free and your eyes on the road is a more significant issue.

D. Lower frequency radiation has not been proven to cause these DNAS changes.



E. But most studies show that there is no link between cell phone use and brain cancer.

  1. Choose the correct sentence with the closest meaning to the given sentence.

1. I have persuaded Tom to become the new secretary of the club.

  1. I am considering Tom for the job of secretary.

  2. I asked Tom to be the secretary of the club and Tom agreed.

  3. Tom is wondering whether to accept to be the secretary.

  4. Tom begged to become secretary of the club.

  5. I offered Tom to take the job but he didn’t accept it.



  1. The only members of the cat family that can roar are lions, leopards, tigers, and jaguars but lions are by far the loudest.



  1. Like leopards, tigers, and jaguars, lions are among the members of the cat family that can roar.

  2. Since lions come from the same cat family as leopards, tigers and jaguars do, they can roar as loud as the others.

  3. Lions, leopards, tigers, and jaguars are the only four cats that can roar: however, the others can’t roar as loudly as lions do.

  4. The roar of a lion is enough to make other animals, such as leopards, frightened.

  5. Lions, leopards, tigers, and jaguars can roar, however, the roar of a lion is not as frightening as the roar of the others.



  1. Swimming with the dolphins was something that only a few could ever experience in their lifetime.



  1. Swimming with the dolphins in an event that everybody should at least experience once in their lifetime.

  2. Although swimming with the dolphins is an unforgettable experience, only a few have the chance to experience it.

  3. Swimming with the dolphins was an event that not many had the chance to experience throughout their lives.

  4. Swimming with the dolphins was and is still something that only a few can experience it in their lifetime.

  5. Swimming with the dolphins was such an expensive experience that it could be experienced only once in a lifetime.


UNIT 8 – BUSINESS
GRAMMAR


  1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. (active, passive, mixed tenses)

I woke up while the flight attendant __was serving__ (serve) breakfast. The plane __was crossing__ (cross) the Channel, and when I __looked__ (look) out of the window, I _could__ (can) see ships far below me. I __was coming__ (come) home after a long time abroad. I __had been__ (be) away for twenty years. I __didn’t know__ (not know) what to expect. I __wondered/was wondering__ (wonder) whether things __had changed__ (change) much.

The plane __landed__ (land) and the bus __took_ (take) us to the terminal building. After I _had collected__ (collect) my luggage, I __walked__ (walk) out of the baggage hall. I didn’t know whether anyone __was__ (be) there to meet me. But when I __appeared__ (appear), I __had__ (have) a big surprise. Almost half my family was there! It __was__ (be) wonderful.

‘You _won’t recognize__ (not recognize) the old town, ‘ my sister told me. ‘Almost everything __has changed_ (change) since you last __saw__ (see) it. They __have built__ (build) a new shopping centre near the park. The old town hall __was destroyed__ (destroy) by a fire about five years ago. They __are building__ (build) a new one at the moment. They _have been building__ (build) it for the past three years in fact, but they __haven’t finished__ (not finish) it yet.

I __have been__ (be) back for nearly a month now. And my sister was right. The place looks very different, but strangely enough it still __feels__ (feel) the same, because the people that I __love__ (love) are here. I __am leaving__ (leave) again in a few weeks’ time. But I know that even if I __am_ (be) away for twenty years again, this place _will always be__ (always/be) my home.



  1. Read the text below and choose the correct word for each space.





STARS AT THE START

Don't feel bad if your first job isn't anything exciting. Before they were famous, some of today's stars 1) ........... ordinary jobs, too!

Tom Cruise 2) ................ from a wealthy family. When he was a teenager, he 3) ........ newspapers in his neighbourhood.

4) ........... Beyonce Knowles was a singer and well-known actress, she helped out at her mother's beauty salon. She 5) ………………... money cleaning the floors.

Brad Pitt wasn't always a famous actor. 6) ……………. he was trying to get acting roles, he 7) ........ many odd jobs to pay his bills. Once he worked at an el Pollo Loco restaurant dressed as a giant chicken!

Pop star Gwen Stephanie 8) ................. start off on stage. Before she 9) …………….. a famous singer, she 10) ……………. at a local ice cream shop.




  1. a. has b. were having c. had had d. have had

  2. a. hasn't come b. not came c. didn't come d. was not coming

  3. a. delivered b. was delivering c. has delivered d. had delivered

  4. a. When b. Before c. While d. Since

  5. a. did make b. had made c. has made d. made

  6. a. While b. After c. By d. By the time

  7. a. does b. did c. was doing d. had done

  8. a. didn't use to b. wouldn't c. didn't d. had not

  9. a. become b. has become c. became d. was becoming

  10. a. had used to work b. used to work c. was used to d. would work



  1. Rewrite the sentences. Use the words in capital letters. Do not change the meaning of

the original sentences.


  1. I put on ten pounds and then decided to go on a diet. BY THE TIME

By the time ……I decided to go on a diet, I had put on ten pounds……

  1. Judy was walking down the street when she saw an accident. AS

As Judy was walking down the street, she saw an accident….

  1. First they washed the car and then I they waxed it. AFTER

After ……they had washed the car, they waxed it.….

  1. Lisa made a sandwich and then sat on the coach to relax. BEFORE

Before ……Lisa sat on the coach to relax, she had made a sandwich…….

  1. We packed our suitcases and then left for the airport. AS SOON AS

As soon as ……we had packed our suitcases, we left for the airport……

  1. We finished our work and then went out. HAD

We ……went out after we had finished our work…….

  1. They first met in France and, three years later, they got married. HAD

They ……got married, three years later, after they had met in France……..

VOCABULARY

  1. Match the vocabulary with the definitions.



  1. charge ___F

  1. money that is made in a business, through investing, etc., after all the costs and expenses are paid: a financial gain.

  1. competitor ___D

  1. failure to keep or to continue to have something.

  1. entrepreneur ___G

  1. somebody who sells in small quantities directly to the ultimate consumer.

  1. loss ___B

  1. someone who is trying to win or do better than all others especially in business or sports: someone who is competing.

  1. manufacturer ___J

  1. payment for labor or services to a worker, especially payment on an hourly, daily, or weekly basis or by the price.

  1. profit ___A

  1. to give a job or responsibility to (a person or group) : to make (a person or group) responsible for something.

  1. retailer ___C

  1. a person who starts a business and is willing to risk loss in order to make money.

  1. supplier ___I

  1. someone who buys large quantities of goods and resells to merchants rather than to the ultimate customers.

  1. wage ___E

  1. someone whose business is to supply a particular service or commodity.

  1. wholesaler ___H

  1. a company that makes a product.

B.Read the dialogue and fill in the blanks with the appropriate sentences given in the box.

How many would you like to order?

Let me check if I understand you.

That sounds fine.

We’re thinking of placing a large order.

I’m afraid that would be a bit difficult.

What about if we paid earlier?

Italian salesman, American supplier

I: Hello, Prima Furnishings. Can I help you?

A: Hello, I’m calling from a company in the United States and we’ve been looking at your catalogue. (1)__We’re thinking of placing a large order __.

I: I see. Are you a supplier in the US?

A: Yes, we supply furniture stores. Especially slightly upmarket ones and we really like your range of lamps a great deal.

I: That’s nice to hear. Were there any in particular?

A: We were thinking of ordering some of the Fatima lamps.

I: OK. So (2)__How many would you like to order?__.

A: Well, we think we’ll need about three hundred.

I: Er… (3)__I’m afraid that would be a bit difficult__. That’s a large quantity. We wouldn’t have that amount in stock.

A: I know, but the more we order the lower our shipping costs will be. (4)__What about if we paid earlier?__. So instead of payment on delivery we could pay- say 50 percent before. How do you feel about that?

I: (5)___Let me check if I understand you__. You’d pay us half the amount before you receive them?

A: Yes, would you be able to do that?

I: (6)__That sounds fine___. You know we could probably do something about the shipping costs as well…





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