Year 10 – Using Language to Persuade (7-8 weeks) Content



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Year 10 – Using Language to Persuade (7-8 weeks)

Content
Persuasive language is used in a wide range of contexts in our everyday lives. From advertising to sales and marketing as well as social media and charities, persuasive language is used to convince, cajole and manipulate us. Students will learn about the techniques used in persuasive texts including newspaper articles and documentary films to present a point of view on an issue. As well as learning how to identify these techniques and discuss their intended effect on their audience, students will also practise using these techniques in an oral presentation of a point of view on an issue and will also write a comparative language analysis of two persuasive articles.

Key Terms: issue, contention/opinion, analysis, persuasive technique/device, visualisation, tone, introduction, stakeholder, position, evidence, argument, audience, appeal, emotive language, anecdote, statistics, inclusive language, loaded language, connotation, alliteration, hyperbole, generalisation, repetition, rhetorical questions, analogy, expert opinion, cause and effect, re-enactment, footage, archival, voice-over, direct narration.

Aims and Objectives

Skills
Students will develop analytical skills which will enable them to…

  • accurately identify the issue discussed in a documentary film and written persuasive texts.

  • accurately identify the contention expressed in a documentary film and written persuasive texts.

  • identify the values and beliefs behind the contention expressed in a documentary film and written persuasive texts..

  • identify (find) examples of persuasive devices used in a documentary film and written persuasive texts.

  • accurately name the techniques they identify, or identify them using appropriate metalanguage.

  • effectively discuss the intended effect on the audience of the identified examples of persuasive devices.

  • discuss how the use of persuasive devices contributes to the overall contention presented in a documentary film and written persuasive texts.

Students will develop persuasive language skills which will enable them to…

  • present a concise, convincing contention on an issue.

  • use a range of persuasive devices to persuade an audience of their contention on an issue.

  • take into account audience reactions and the impact of persuasive devices on an audience when planning a persuasive verbal presentation.

  • include multimodal (audio-visual) resources as support materials to enhance their persuasive presentation.

  • include and correctly cite evidence from various sources of information.

  • use appropriate vocabulary for the purposes of engaging and persuading an audience, such as loaded and emotive language.

  • speak/write clearly and coherently in the presentation of their contention.

  • use appropriate language conventions and structure in the presentation of their contention.

  • use body language and voice modulation to effectively engage and communicate with their audience.

Knowledge

There are many types of persuasive text including film, documentaries, oral presentations and written pieces.

There are many language techniques that can be used to persuade and position an audience.

There are conventions for the construction of persuasive and analytical texts.



Understanding

Persuasive texts are created with the intention of convincing the audience of the author/ speaker/ /director’s contention.

Persuasive devices are used in persuasive texts with the intention of having a specific, planned impact on the audience.

Persuasive texts have at their core a set of explicit or implicit values.

Language use can have inclusive and exclusive social effects, and can empower or disempower people.

An audience’s understanding of and reaction to a persuasive text are influenced by their value systems, the context and the purpose and mode of communication.



Learning Activity

Student Product

Formative Summative

Introduction – 2 x 50 min. periods approx.
Introduce the topic of persuasive language, giving a definition of it along the lines of “Persuasive language is used in opinion pieces in the newspaper, speeches, etc. to try and convince the reader/audience to agree with the author/director/speaker’s opinion.”
What is persuasion, when do you use it and who tries to persuade you?
Brainstorm examples of persuasion that they are familiar with in their everyday lives.
Eg: How might they persuade their parent/s to let them go to a party that they have been told they are not allowed to attend? What sorts of strategies do they use?
Eg: How might they persuade a teacher to give an extension for a piece of work that is very late?
Show the class a series of segments from The Chaser’s War On Everything, criticising the use of persuasive techniques (“tricks to try and get us to agree”) in segments on A Current Affair and Today Tonight. Have students take notes on the different persuasive techniques discussed.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8h8_BRi_Uo

  • Exaggeration/hyperbole

  • Negative characterisation

  • Dramatic music

  • Visual effects (slow motion, warping, etc.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kuPdnTHSHH8

  • Experts

  • How are people made to look expert?

  • We are more likely to believe an expert.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jf6eijdm6rs

  • Visualisations

  • Representing/explaining an idea or concept visually

  • Puns: play on words, double meaning

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xFemTfrd5jA

  • Graphics

  • Explanation of concept

  • Labelling: We often believe labels.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4Zu3wgh-40

  • Interviews

  • Rhetorical questions: questions with an implied/obvious answer

  • Leading questions: questions that lead the interviewee to a provide desired answer

  • Paraphrasing answers: putting answers into your own words so that they match your bias

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B4Zu3wgh-40

  • Generalisation: referring to one example and applying it to a whole group/community. (e.g. “Many parents are now using their children to shoplift for them.”)

  • Dramatic comparison

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR1_Kps2-Q8

  • Attacks

Notes on the persuasive techniques discussed

F

1 x 50 min. period
Search the Internet, find a sample of a current affairs segment (such as A Current Affair, or Today Tonight) which makes use of the techniques discussed in previous lessons. Use the segment as the basis of an analysis. While the whole class will analyse the segment it is the teacher’s discretion as to whether or not to carry out the activity in pairs or groups. Students should identify at least 5 persuasive techniques used in the segment. Students should also be asked to discuss what each technique example is intended to make the audience think and feel. Once done, come back together as a whole class to share information; teacher screens the segment, pauses, students identify the technique. Teacher could optionally give points to groups who identify and discuss techniques. Students should take notes of analysis of techniques by other groups i.e. add to their group’s analysis.

Written analysis of persuasive techniques used in a current affairs segment.

F

1 x 50 min. period


  • Discuss briefly the similarities between current affairs programs and documentary films. Introduce the class to Bowling For Columbine and Supersize Me.

  • Students read page 78 of English For The Australian Curriculum: Book 2, Cambridge.

  • Students complete Activities 3.5 and 3.6 from page 79 of the above-mentioned text.

  • Ask students to identify similarities and differences between the presenters of Bowling For Columbine and Supersize Me; not only their appearance, but also their manner of speech, etc.




  • Short written answer to question 3 from Activity 3.5.

  • Table comparing presentation in trailers for Bowling For Columbine and Supersize Me (Activity 3.6, pages 79-80).

F

2 x 50 min. period


  • Discuss the similarities and differences between current affairs programs and documentary films.

  • Have students contribute their responses to the completion on the board of a Venn diagram mapping out the abovementioned similarities and differences.

  • Discuss the use of film techniques in both media, with emphasis on documentary films, and making reference to ideas contributed to the Venn diagram where possible.

  • Provide students with a document detailing various shot types and other film composition techniques (see “film as text” or media studies reference books). It may also be appropriate to set this as a research task for students, whereby they may be asked to identify and explain a number of said techniques individually or in small groups, which would then be contributed to a whole class list of film composition techniques. The following should be included in said list…

    • Use of music

    • Titling: font type, etc.

    • Use of colour

    • Shot types & camera angles

    • Mis-en-scene (composition of on-screen image)

    • Graphics

  • Venn diagram (on whiteboard) comparing current affairs segments to documentary films.

  • List of film composition techniques (in students’ notes).

F

1 x 50 min. period


  • Introduce students to the concept of the analysis essay. Explain the required content for such an essay, including providing suggested essay structures and an example piece.

  • Indicate to students how they may use their notes from the unit to date in the formulation of their own complete analysis essay.

  • Distribute the assignment document, including detailed instructions and assessment criteria, for the analysis essay.

  • Have students commence work on their first draft of the essay in class time, starting with an essay plan.

  • An analytical essay plan.

  • The beginnings of a draft essay.

S

3 x 50 min. periods approx.


  • Students write their analysis essay in class time.

  • Have students submit essay drafts (or parts thereof) throughout the week, providing progressive individual feedback.

  • Have students submit their completed final drafts of the analysis essay.

  • Analytical essay.

S










Appendix

Australian National Curriculum learning outcomes covered in this unit



Year 10 Content Descriptions

Language

Language for interaction

  1. Understand how language use can have inclusive and exclusive social effects, and can empower or disempower people (ACELA1564)

    • Literacy

    • Intercultural understanding

    • Personal and social capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

    • Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

  2. Understand that people’s evaluations of texts are influenced by their value systems, the context and the purpose and mode of communication (ACELA1565)

    • Literacy

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Ethical behaviour

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

Text structure and organisation

  1. Compare the purposes, text structures and language features of traditional and contemporary texts in different media (ACELA1566)



  2. Understand conventions for citing others, and how to reference these in different ways (ACELA1568)

    • Literacy

    • Writing

    • Reading

Expressing and developing ideas





  1. Evaluate the impact on audiences of different choices in the representation of still and moving images (ACELA1572)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

  2. Refine vocabulary choices to discriminate between shades of meaning, with deliberate attention to the effect on audiences(ACELA1571)

    • Literacy

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Literacy

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

    • Literacy

    • Intercultural understanding

    • Personal and social capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

    • Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

    • Literacy

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Ethical behaviour

    • Writing

    • Listening

    • Speaking

    • Reading

    • Literacy

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Speaking

Literacy

    • Literacy

    • Intercultural understanding

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures

    • Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

    • Writing

    • Reading

Interacting with others

  1. Identify and explore the purposes and effects of different text structures and language features of spoken texts, and use this knowledge to create purposeful texts that inform, persuade and engage (ACELY1750)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Writing

    • Reading

  2. Use organisation patterns, voice and language conventions to present a point of view on a subject, speaking clearly, coherently and with effect, using logic, imagery and rhetorical devices to engage audiences(ACELY1813)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Writing

  3. Plan, rehearse and deliver presentations, selecting and sequencing appropriate content and multimodal elements to influence a course of action (ACELY1751)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Information and communication technology capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Writing

Interpreting, analysing, evaluating

  1. Identify and analyse implicit or explicit values, beliefs and assumptions in texts and how these are influenced by purposes and likely audiences(ACELY1752)



  2. Use comprehension strategies to compare and contrast information within and between texts, identifying and analysing embedded perspectives, and evaluating supporting evidence (ACELY1754)

    • Literacy

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

    • Writing

    • Reading

Creating texts

  1. Create sustained texts, including texts that combine specific digital or media content, for imaginative, informative, or persuasive purposes that reflect upon challenging and complex issues (ACELY1756)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Information and communication technology capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Asia and Australia´s engagement with Asia

    • Speaking

  2. Review, edit and refine students’ own and others’ texts for control of content, organisation, sentence structure, vocabulary, and/or visual features to achieve particular purposes and effects (ACELY1757)

    • Literacy

    • Personal and social capability

    • Information and communication technology capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Writing

    • Reading

    • Literacy

    • Information and communication technology capability

    • Critical and creative thinking

    • Reading


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