Cohesion is the resources within language that provide continuity in a text, over and above that is provided by clause structure and clause complexes that bind one sentence and another using formal ties.
I have a kind neighbor. He is Agus Mulyono. He works in a hospital. It is located not so far from his house. Mr. Agus has lived there for more than ten years with his family. They are Mrs. Siti and two sons named Boby and Agung.
Five cohesive ties
Reference refers to how the speaker or writer introduces participants and then keeps track of them once they are in the text (Eggins, 1994:95).
two basic types of reference.
- Endophora(to preceding text)
- Anaphora(to following text) Cataphora
Exophora - example
exophoric reference contributes to the creation of text, in that it links the language with the context of situation, but it does not contribute to the integration of the passage with another so that the two together form part of the same text.
Child : Why does THAT one come out?
Father : That what?
Child : That one
Father : That what?
Child : That ONE!
Father : That one what?
Child : That lever there that you push to let the water out.
endophoric reference is only considered cohesive due to its contribution to the integration of the text
Two kinds of endophoric reference
Anaphoric reference: the subsequent items can only be interpreted with reference to the initial phrase of the first sentence. Typically, anaphoric reference refers to a participant mentioned nearby (one or two sentences previously), but sometimes it may refer back to an item mentioned many pages before.
Cataphoric reference points the reader foward, it draws us further into the text in order to identify the elements to which the reference items refer (Nunan: 1993: 22).
In those examples, we can identify what are presupposed (a) she refers to a bautiful lady; he refers to Mr. Bambang. These items are directives indicating that information is to be retrieved from elsewhere. So much they have in common with all cohesive elements. Moreover, they do not depend on the context of situation like the exophoric reference. What is essential to every instance of reference whether endophoric (textual) or exophoric (situational) is that there is a presuppotion that must be satisfied; the thing referred to has to be identifiable somehow (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: 33).
Four common references
Personal reference is reference by means of function in the speech situation through the category of person. Nunan (1993: 23) states that personal reference items are expressed through pronouns and determiners. They serve to identify individuals and objects that are named at some other point in the text. It relates to Halliday and Hasan (1976: 48) that the third person is only herently cohesive, in that a third person form typically refers anaphorically to a preceding item in the text
Mr. John is an English teacher. All of his students like him very much.
is reference by means of location, on scale of proximity. It is essentially a form of verbal pointing. The speaker identifies the referent by locating it on a scale of proximity
Participant singular this that
plural these those
Circumstance place here there time now then
My family got frightened when we saw an accident in our trip. That was the most terrifying accident I’ve ever seen.
While my parents were having lunch, my brothers and I walked around to see some lions and elephants. Those are my brothers’ favorites animals.
I spent my holiday in my uncle’s house in Bali. I do like staying there
is indirect reference by means of identity or similiarity. With comparative reference, the identity of the presumed item is retrieved not because it has already been mentioned (or will be mentioned) in the text, but because an item with which it is being compared has been mentioned (Eggins, 1994: 98).
The most tragic accident that I have ever seen was the accident happened last year.
A substitution is the replacement of a word (group) or sentences segment by a “dummy” word. The reader can fill in the correct element based on the preceding sentences (Rankema, 1993: 37). Substitution is replacement of language element into others in a bigger composition in order to get clearer difference, or to explain some certain language elements.
There are three types of substitution: nominal, verbal and clausal substitution.
There are some new tourism resorts in Indonesia. These ones’ve become the most attracting places to visit.
John : Bill says you went to Bali last week.
Brown : So did you!
Smith : Are father and mother going to have vacation to East Java?
Brown : I think so
Ellipsis is the omission of a word or part of a sentence. It occurs when some essential structural elements are omitted from a sentence or clause and can only be recovered by refering to an element in the preceding text (Nunan, 1993: 25). Accoding to Halliday and Hasan (1976: 144) ellipses occur when something that is structurally necessary is left unsaid, there is a sense of incompleteness associated with it
There are also three kinds of ellipsis: nominal, verbal and clausal ellipsis
My father likes to go to a crowded tourism place, but I like a peaceful.
John : Have you been to Bali?
Brown : Yes, I have
a relationship which indicates how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to the preceding or the following (part of the sentence)
Conjunction signals the way the writer wants the reader to relate what is about to be said to what has been said before. Conjunction expresses one of a small number of general relations. The main relations are ... additive (and, or, also, in addition, furthermore, besides, similiarly, likewise, by contrast, for instance), adversative (but, yet, however, instead, on the other hand, nevertheless, at any rate, as a matter of fact), causal (so, cosequently, for, because, under the circumstances, for this reason), temporal (then, next, finally, after that, on another occasion, in conclusion, an hour later, at last), and continuative (now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all) (Baker, 1992: 191).
My family likes to spend holliday by visiting some places and they also like to go fishing in the sea.
It was raining very hard yesterday. However, my classmates went to the exhibition.
I am afraid I’ll be home late tonight. Nevertheless, I won’t have to go in until late tomorrow.
Chinese tea is becoming increasingly popular in restaurants, and even in coffee shops. This is because there is belief that tea has several health-giving properties.
Lexical Cohesive Device
Kinds: reiteration and collocation.
Reiteration is devided into five types. They are repetition, synonym, hyponym, metonym and antonym.
Repetition is a word or words which has been stated, and then it is repeated again. We can tie sentences or paragraphs together by repeating certain key words from one sentence to the next or one paragraph to the next. It is in the case of the clearness of the main idea of the writing (Kilborn and Kriesi, 1995).
A conference will be held on national environmental policy. At this conference the issue of sanitation will play an important role.
Synonym is the relationship between two words which have the same meaning
A conference will be held on national environmental policy. This environmental symposium will be primarily a conference dealing with water
Hyponym is defined as a sense relation between words (sometimes longer phrases) such that the meaning of one word (or phrase) is included in the meaning of the other (Hurford & Heasley, 1983). It is a semantic relation between specific and general meaning, between general class and its sub-classes. The item referring to the general class is called super-ordinate and those referring to its sub-classes are called hyponym
My father went to a furniture exhibition last night. He wanted to buy an antique table.
Antonym is an opposite in meaning while metonym is a term used to describe a part-whole relationshiop between lexical items.
The front rows are available for old men and women. Young boys and girls are seated in the back rows.
Coherence means to hold together. It means that texts have the right order with the clear process. In addition to unity, coherence plays an important role in making a text read well. A coherent text consists of interrelated sentences which move smoothly one for another.
To organize any text to be coherent, the writers need to keep their readers well informed about what they are and where they are going (Butt et al. 1995: 90)
The first step a scientist conducts a research is by examining the existing theory that he wants to investigate so that he can find direction about someone else’s work. By examining another theory he can also derive his hypothesis
Theme is given information serving as “the point of departure” of a message. The given information is the information which has already been mentioned somewhere in the text, or it is shared or mutual knowledge from the immediate context. In other words, theme typically contains familiar, old or given information. It must include the whole of the first item in the experiential meanings. This experiential meanings can be participant, process and circumstance.
Rheme is the remainder of the message in a clause in which theme is developed. The rheme contains unfamiliar or new information (Eggins, 1994: 275). New information is knowledge that a writer assumes the reader does not know, but needs to have in order to follow the progression of the argument. The boundary between theme and rheme is simple: Theme is the first element occurring in a clause; the remainder clause is rheme. The identification criteria for the rheme are simply everything that is not the theme is the rheme
Kinds of theme
topical (experiential) elements;
(Eggins, 1994: 276).
The man in the moon came down too soon
Mr. Smith and his rival were fighting for the crown
On the first day of Lebaran we went around to meet other people
On Sunday morning my love came to my house
On a rainy day we invited our close friend
Eggins (1994, 276) states that an element of the clause to which a transitivity function (Actor, Behaver, Senser or Circumstance) can be assigned occurs in the first position in a clause, we describe it as a topical theme. An important principle is that every clause must contain one topical theme. After we have identified topical theme, the rest must be the rheme.
topical theme: examples
I have been in Bali three times
In Jakarta my colleagues and I spent our holiday
Infants cry and fuss for a mean of 1 ¾ hr/ day at age 2 weeks
is not exposed to the influence of the factor under consideration
Group A: receiving a new media in TLP
Gropu B: using conventional TLP
Pretest: a variable which is measured before administering the experimental treatment
Postest: the measure of the variable that is intended out come of the experimental treatment.
Experiment: validity problem
the extent to which extranous variables have been controlled by the researcher so that any observed effect can be attributed solely to the treatment variable.
the extent to which the findings of an experiment can be applied to individuals and setting beyond those that were studied. The finding of an educational experiemnt may be externally valid for one setting, less externally for other settings.
Experimental treatment diffusion
Compensatory rivalry by the control group
Compensatory equalization of treatments
Resentful demoralization of the control group
The extent to which the findings of an experiment can be applied to individuals and settings beyond those that were studied
Pre-experimental design (non design)
True experimental design
One-shot case study (studi kasus sekali potret)
One group pretest-posttest (pretest-posttest satu kelompok)
O1 X O
Intact group comparison (perbandingan kelompok intak)
- - - - - -
Quasi-experimental designs are used when random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups is not possible.
Threat internal validity for its group characteristics not experimental condition
Nonequivalent Control-Group Design
Research participants are not randomly assigned
Both groups take pretest and posttest
Threat to the internal validity are due to pre-existing group differences
O X O
True Experimental Design
Pretest – posttest for all group
R O1 X O2
R O3 O4
R : randomization
O1&O2 : pretest
X : treatment
O2&O4 : posttest
Historical Research: definition
A process of systematically searching for data to answer questions about a past phenomenon for the purpose of gaining a better understanding or present institutions, practices, trends, and issues in education.
In a historical research, the evidence is avaliable before the historian formulates a thesis, selects a topic and designs a research plan.