Writing good sentences should be: Cohesive Coherent Cohesion

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Sentence-based Writing:

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Writing good sentences

  • Sentences should be:
  • Cohesive
  • Coherent


  • Cohesion is the resources within language that provide continuity in a text, over and above that is provided by clause structure and clause complexes that bind one sentence and another using formal ties.
  • Example:
  • I have a kind neighbor. He is Agus Mulyono. He works in a hospital. It is located not so far from his house. Mr. Agus has lived there for more than ten years with his family. They are Mrs. Siti and two sons named Boby and Agung.

Five cohesive ties

  • Reference;
  • Substitution;
  • Ellipsis;
  • Conjunction;
  • Lexical cohesion


  • Reference refers to how the speaker or writer introduces participants and then keeps track of them once they are in the text (Eggins, 1994:95).
  • two basic types of reference.
  • Exophora(situational)
  • Exophora(textual)
  • - Endophora(to preceding text)
  • - Anaphora(to following text) Cataphora

Exophora - example

  • exophoric reference contributes to the creation of text, in that it links the language with the context of situation, but it does not contribute to the integration of the passage with another so that the two together form part of the same text.
  • Example:
  • Child : Why does THAT one come out?
  • Father : That what?
  • Child : That one
  • Father : That what?
  • Child : That ONE!
  • Father : That one what?
  • Child : That lever there that you push to let the water out.


  • endophoric reference is only considered cohesive due to its contribution to the integration of the text
  • Two kinds of endophoric reference
  • Anaphoric reference: the subsequent items can only be interpreted with reference to the initial phrase of the first sentence. Typically, anaphoric reference refers to a participant mentioned nearby (one or two sentences previously), but sometimes it may refer back to an item mentioned many pages before.
  • Cataphoric reference points the reader foward, it draws us further into the text in order to identify the elements to which the reference items refer (Nunan: 1993: 22).


  • a. A beautiful lady, a beautiful lady
  • See how she walks ! see how she walks
  • b. Mr. Bambang went to Jakarta last week.
  • He went there to meet his client
  • In those examples, we can identify what are presupposed (a) she refers to a bautiful lady; he refers to Mr. Bambang. These items are directives indicating that information is to be retrieved from elsewhere. So much they have in common with all cohesive elements. Moreover, they do not depend on the context of situation like the exophoric reference. What is essential to every instance of reference whether endophoric (textual) or exophoric (situational) is that there is a presuppotion that must be satisfied; the thing referred to has to be identifiable somehow (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: 33).

Four common references

  • Personal references
  • Demonstrative references
  • Definite articles
  • Comparative references

Personal reference

  • Personal reference is reference by means of function in the speech situation through the category of person. Nunan (1993: 23) states that personal reference items are expressed through pronouns and determiners. They serve to identify individuals and objects that are named at some other point in the text. It relates to Halliday and Hasan (1976: 48) that the third person is only herently cohesive, in that a third person form typically refers anaphorically to a preceding item in the text
  • Example:
  • Mr. John is an English teacher. All of his students like him very much.

Demonstrative reference

  • is reference by means of location, on scale of proximity. It is essentially a form of verbal pointing. The speaker identifies the referent by locating it on a scale of proximity
  • Participant singular this that
  • plural these those
  • Circumstance place here there time now then


  • My family got frightened when we saw an accident in our trip. That was the most terrifying accident I’ve ever seen.
  • While my parents were having lunch, my brothers and I walked around to see some lions and elephants. Those are my brothers’ favorites animals.
  • I spent my holiday in my uncle’s house in Bali. I do like staying there

Comparative reference

  • is indirect reference by means of identity or similiarity. With comparative reference, the identity of the presumed item is retrieved not because it has already been mentioned (or will be mentioned) in the text, but because an item with which it is being compared has been mentioned (Eggins, 1994: 98).
  • Example:
  • The most tragic accident that I have ever seen was the accident happened last year.


  • A substitution is the replacement of a word (group) or sentences segment by a “dummy” word. The reader can fill in the correct element based on the preceding sentences (Rankema, 1993: 37). Substitution is replacement of language element into others in a bigger composition in order to get clearer difference, or to explain some certain language elements.
  • There are three types of substitution: nominal, verbal and clausal substitution.


  • There are some new tourism resorts in Indonesia. These ones’ve become the most attracting places to visit.
  • John : Bill says you went to Bali last week.
  • Brown : So did you!
  • Smith : Are father and mother going to have vacation to East Java?
  • Brown : I think so


  • Ellipsis is the omission of a word or part of a sentence. It occurs when some essential structural elements are omitted from a sentence or clause and can only be recovered by refering to an element in the preceding text (Nunan, 1993: 25). Accoding to Halliday and Hasan (1976: 144) ellipses occur when something that is structurally necessary is left unsaid, there is a sense of incompleteness associated with it
  • There are also three kinds of ellipsis: nominal, verbal and clausal ellipsis
  • My father likes to go to a crowded tourism place, but I like a peaceful.
  • John : Have you been to Bali?
  • Brown : Yes, I have


  • a relationship which indicates how the subsequent sentence or clause should be linked to the preceding or the following (part of the sentence)
  • Conjunction signals the way the writer wants the reader to relate what is about to be said to what has been said before. Conjunction expresses one of a small number of general relations. The main relations are ... additive (and, or, also, in addition, furthermore, besides, similiarly, likewise, by contrast, for instance), adversative (but, yet, however, instead, on the other hand, nevertheless, at any rate, as a matter of fact), causal (so, cosequently, for, because, under the circumstances, for this reason), temporal (then, next, finally, after that, on another occasion, in conclusion, an hour later, at last), and continuative (now, of course, well, anyway, surely, after all) (Baker, 1992: 191).


  • My family likes to spend holliday by visiting some places and they also like to go fishing in the sea.
  • It was raining very hard yesterday. However, my classmates went to the exhibition.
  • I am afraid I’ll be home late tonight. Nevertheless, I won’t have to go in until late tomorrow.
  • Chinese tea is becoming increasingly popular in restaurants, and even in coffee shops. This is because there is belief that tea has several health-giving properties.

Lexical Cohesive Device

  • Kinds: reiteration and collocation.
  • Reiteration is devided into five types. They are repetition, synonym, hyponym, metonym and antonym.


  • Repetition is a word or words which has been stated, and then it is repeated again. We can tie sentences or paragraphs together by repeating certain key words from one sentence to the next or one paragraph to the next. It is in the case of the clearness of the main idea of the writing (Kilborn and Kriesi, 1995).
  • Example:
  • A conference will be held on national environmental policy. At this conference the issue of sanitation will play an important role.


  • Synonym is the relationship between two words which have the same meaning
  • Example:
  • A conference will be held on national environmental policy. This environmental symposium will be primarily a conference dealing with water


  • Hyponym is defined as a sense relation between words (sometimes longer phrases) such that the meaning of one word (or phrase) is included in the meaning of the other (Hurford & Heasley, 1983). It is a semantic relation between specific and general meaning, between general class and its sub-classes. The item referring to the general class is called super-ordinate and those referring to its sub-classes are called hyponym
  • Example:
  • My father went to a furniture exhibition last night. He wanted to buy an antique table.


  • Antonym is an opposite in meaning while metonym is a term used to describe a part-whole relationshiop between lexical items.
  • Example:
  • The front rows are available for old men and women. Young boys and girls are seated in the back rows.


  • Coherence means to hold together. It means that texts have the right order with the clear process. In addition to unity, coherence plays an important role in making a text read well. A coherent text consists of interrelated sentences which move smoothly one for another.
  • To organize any text to be coherent, the writers need to keep their readers well informed about what they are and where they are going (Butt et al. 1995: 90)


  • The first step a scientist conducts a research is by examining the existing theory that he wants to investigate so that he can find direction about someone else’s work. By examining another theory he can also derive his hypothesis
  • Theme is given information serving as “the point of departure” of a message. The given information is the information which has already been mentioned somewhere in the text, or it is shared or mutual knowledge from the immediate context. In other words, theme typically contains familiar, old or given information. It must include the whole of the first item in the experiential meanings. This experiential meanings can be participant, process and circumstance.


  • Rheme is the remainder of the message in a clause in which theme is developed. The rheme contains unfamiliar or new information (Eggins, 1994: 275). New information is knowledge that a writer assumes the reader does not know, but needs to have in order to follow the progression of the argument. The boundary between theme and rheme is simple: Theme is the first element occurring in a clause; the remainder clause is rheme. The identification criteria for the rheme are simply everything that is not the theme is the rheme

Kinds of theme

  • topical (experiential) elements;
  • interpersonal elements;
  • textual elements
  • (Eggins, 1994: 276).

theme-rheme: examples

  • The man in the moon came down too soon
  • Mr. Smith and his rival were fighting for the crown
  • On the first day of Lebaran we went around to meet other people
  • On Sunday morning my love came to my house
  • On a rainy day we invited our close friend

Topical Theme

  • Eggins (1994, 276) states that an element of the clause to which a transitivity function (Actor, Behaver, Senser or Circumstance) can be assigned occurs in the first position in a clause, we describe it as a topical theme. An important principle is that every clause must contain one topical theme. After we have identified topical theme, the rest must be the rheme.

topical theme: examples

  • I have been in Bali three times
  • Actor
  • Theme Rheme
  • In Jakarta my colleagues and I spent our holiday
  • Circ. Loc
  • Theme Rheme
  • Infants cry and fuss for a mean of 1 ¾ hr/ day at age 2 weeks
  • Behaver
  • Theme Rheme

RESEARCH: evaluating the problem

  • Is this the type of problem resolvable
  • Is the problem significant
  • Is the problem a new one
  • Is research on the problem feasible
  • - Competency of the researcher
  • - Accessible pertinent data
  • - Necessary financial resources
  • - Time to complete the project
  • - Courage and determination


  • The statement of the problem
  • The hypothesis
  • The significance of the problem
  • Definition, assumption, limitation, delimitation
  • Review of related literature
  • A careful and detailed analysis of proposed research procedure
  • Time schedule

The statement of the problem

  • Limited enough to make a definite conclusion
  • Suggesting answer or conclusion
  • Providing a focus for research
  • Focusing on a single research question
  • Exercise:
  • Make a statement of the problem based on your experience!

The hypothesis

  • Reasonable
  • Consistent with fact and theories
  • Testable (true or false)
  • Stated in the simplest terms
  • Exercise:
  • Make a hypothesis based on your statement of the problem.

The significance of the problem

  • Theoretical significance
  • the research can prove the related theory
  • Practical significance
  • the contribution of the research for both teachers and students
  • Pedagogical significance
  • the contribution of the research for education, english teaching

Review of related literature


  • Quotation
  • Paraphrase
  • Summary
  • Evaluation


  • The exact words of an author are reproduced, enclosed in quotation mark (“...”).
  • Example:
  • It relates to Brown (2004: 20), “A test is a method of measuring a person ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain”.


  • The reader restates the author’s thoughts in his/ her own words.
  • Example:
  • Original thought : A test is a method of measuring a person ability, knowledge, or performance in a given domain.
  • Paraphrase:
  • It relates to Brown (2004: 20) that the way of a teacher assessing ability, knowledge or performance is called a test.


  • The reader states in condensed form the contents of the article.


  • The reader records his or her own reaction, indicating agreement or disagreement, or interpreting the point of view of the writer.


  • Make some paraphrases from the given sources in a piece of papar.


  • Experimentation is the most powerful quantitative research method for establishing cause and effect relationship between two or more variables that must be conducted in a rigorous manner.
  • Experimental method has been effectively applied within non laboratory settings such as the classroom. Where significant factors or variables can be controlled to some degree.


  • To predict events in the experimental settings
  • To generalize the variable relationships so that they may be applied outside the laboratory to a wider population of interest.

Experimental Design: terminology

  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Experimental group
  • Control group
  • Pretest
  • Postest
  • Treatment


  • Variables are the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter manipulates, controls or observes.
  • Independent variable: the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter manipulates in his or her attempt to ascertain their relationship to observed phenomena.
  • Dependent variable: the conditions or characteristics that appear, disappear, or change as the experimenter introduces, removes, or changes independent variables.


  • Experimental Group
  • is exposed to the influence of the factor under consideration
  • Control Group
  • is not exposed to the influence of the factor under consideration
  • Example:
  • Group A: receiving a new media in TLP
  • Gropu B: using conventional TLP


  • Pretest: a variable which is measured before administering the experimental treatment
  • Postest: the measure of the variable that is intended out come of the experimental treatment.

Experiment: validity problem

  • Internal validity
  • the extent to which extranous variables have been controlled by the researcher so that any observed effect can be attributed solely to the treatment variable.
  • External validity
  • the extent to which the findings of an experiment can be applied to individuals and setting beyond those that were studied. The finding of an educational experiemnt may be externally valid for one setting, less externally for other settings.

Internal Validity

  • History
  • Maturation
  • Testing
  • Instrumentation
  • Statistical regression
  • Differential selection
  • Experimental mortality
  • Selection-maturation interaction
  • Experimental treatment diffusion
  • Compensatory rivalry by the control group
  • Compensatory equalization of treatments
  • Resentful demoralization of the control group

External validity

  • The extent to which the findings of an experiment can be applied to individuals and settings beyond those that were studied

Experimental Design

  • Pre-experimental design (non design)
  • Quasi-experimental design
  • True experimental design

Pre-experimental design

  • One-shot case study (studi kasus sekali potret)
  • X O
  • One group pretest-posttest (pretest-posttest satu kelompok)
  • O1 X O
  • Intact group comparison (perbandingan kelompok intak)
  • X O1
  • - - - - - -
  • O2

Quasi-Experimental Design

  • Quasi-experimental designs are used when random assignment of subjects to experimental and control groups is not possible.

Static-group comparison design

  • Research participants are not randomly assigned
  • Administer posttest, but no pretest
  • Threat internal validity for its group characteristics not experimental condition
  • Formula:
  • X O
  • O
  • X: treatment
  • O: posttest

Nonequivalent Control-Group Design

  • Research participants are not randomly assigned
  • Both groups take pretest and posttest
  • Threat to the internal validity are due to pre-existing group differences
  • Formula:
  • O X O
  • O O

True Experimental Design

  • Using randomization
  • Pretest – posttest for all group
  • Formula:
  • R O1 X O2
  • R O3 O4
  • R : randomization
  • O1&O2 : pretest
  • X : treatment
  • O2&O4 : posttest


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Historical Research: definition

  • A process of systematically searching for data to answer questions about a past phenomenon for the purpose of gaining a better understanding or present institutions, practices, trends, and issues in education.
  • In a historical research, the evidence is avaliable before the historian formulates a thesis, selects a topic and designs a research plan.

Historical Research: subject matter

  • History is a meaningful record of human achievement.
  • History is a list of relationship between persons, events, times and places
  • Historical research is adressed to an individual, an idea, a movement, an institution, etc.

Historical Research: importance

  • To study of the past for its own sake
  • To provide a moral framework for understanding the present
  • To assist educators in defining and evaluating alternative future scenarios involving a particular educational phenomenon.

Historical Research: limitation

  • The historian cannot always generalize on the basis of past event
  • The historian must depend on the reported observation of others, witnesses of doubtful competence
  • Completing a jig-saw puzzle
  • The historian cannot control the conditions or manipulate the significant variables

Historical Research: strength

  • The data can be obtained from the testimony of a number of witnesses from different vantage points
  • The use of probability
  • It is similar with other behavioral research in case of its limitation in controling variables
  • This employs qualitative investigation (scinetific investigation)
  • The use of systematic way


  • Primary Sources
  • Report from actual observers or participant in an event
  • Secondary sources
  • Accounts of an event that were not actually witnessed by the reporter. The historian uses them when the primary data are not avaliable.

Primary Data

  • Documents
  • Official records
  • Remains
  • Oral testimony
  • Relics

Secondary Data

  • History books
  • Encyclopedia


  • External criticism (the authenticity or genuineness of data)
  • Is the relic/ document true rather than a fogery, counterfit, hoax
  • The problem of age/ authorship
  • Physical and chemical problem
  • Internal criticism (accuracy or worth)
  • Do they reveal a tru picture
  • What are the writers or creators?


  • Find the internal criticism by choosing one of the following historical discoveries:
  • The Cardiff Giant
  • The Dead Sea Scrolls


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  • Data adalah informasi yang terkait dengan suatu permasalahan
  • Data dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris:
  • Metode mengajar guru
  • Metode belajar siswa
  • Jumlah jam pelajaran bahasa per minggu
  • Kemampuan membaca siswa
  • Kemampuan menulis
  • Ketersediaan lab bahasa
  • Bahasa ynag dipakai masyarakat tertentu
  • Pustaka yang tersedia

Method of data gathering

  • Observation (pengamatan)
  • Questionnaire (angket)
  • Interview (wawancara)
  • Test (tes)
  • Document study (studi dokumen)
  • Group work: find the strength and weaknesses of each of them! Document study is the exception.


  • Data yang dikumpulkan dicatat dalam lembar observasi yang disiapkan dahulu dengan/ tanpa format tertentu.
  • Kelas Putra Putri Jumlah
  • IA IB
  • IIA
  • IIB
  • IIIA
  • IIIB


  • Data yang dikumpulkan berupa gagasan, pendapat/ pengalaman pribadi kel. masyarakat
  • Mengisi/ melengkapi
  • Umur :
  • Pekerjaan :
  • Gaji Pokok :
  • 2. Memilih
  • Agama: ( ) Islam ( ) Katholik ( ) Protestan ( ) Hindu ( ) Budha
  • 3. Pertanyaan bersekala
  • Sangat Setuju Netral Tidak Sangat
  • Setuju Setuju Tidak Setuju
  • Kemampuan bhs ingggris
  • membantu saya dalam menyelesaikan
  • pekerjaan


  • Wawancara dapat disiapkan dengan atau tanpa format tertentu.
  • No Nama kp.kel. Jml anak Jml anak yg jd tanggungan Pendapatan
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • Dst.


  • Multiple choice
  • Matching
  • True-false
  • Completion
  • Essay

Validity and Reliability

  • Validity
  • The quality of a data-gathering instrument or procedure that enables it to determine what is designed to determine.
  • Reliability
  • The quality of consistency that the instrument or procedure demonstrate over a period of time.


  • Sebuah test dianggap valid:
  • a. Mengukur apa yang seharusnya diukur (construct validity)
  • b. Mewakili ranah tingkah laku yang dideskripsikan (content validity)
  • c. Memenuhi kriteria tingkah laku yang diprediksikan (predictive validity)


  • Construct memiliki arti kualitas yang tidak secara fisik tampak pada seseorang (kreativitas, minat, kepekaan, harga diri dsb)
  • Test dianggap memiliki construct validity apabila tingkah laku yang dituntut oleh test tsb mengindikasikan adanya konstruk yg dikukur
  • Construct validity sebuah test diukur dengan cara mengorelasikan nilai test dengan kemampuan yg ditunjukan siswa dalam menampilkan tingkah laku (sensitivitas guru – pemberian perhatian pada guru)


  • Seberapa jauh butir-butir test mewakili seluruh kemampuan yang akan diukur sebagaimana ditetapkan dalam kurikulum
  • Sejumlah kemampuan yang ditetapkan dalam satu pokok bahasan harus terwakili secara cermat dan proporsional
  • Penyusunannya menggunakan tabel spesifikasi (kisi-kisi) untuk memandu
  • Content validity tidak dinyatakan dengan angka tetapi dengan menyesuaikan dengan isi kurikulum.


  • Predictive validity menunjukan seberapa jauh sebuah test memprediksikan kemampuan seseorang
  • Predictive validity dapat ditentukan dengan melihat ada atau tidaknya hubungan antara nilai test dengan kemampuan yang ditunjukan kemudian sesuai dengan kriteria yang ditetapkan.


  • Test dapat diketahui reliable setelah test dilaksanakan
  • Test diberikan pada siswa yg akan diukur kemampuannya (minimal dua kali)
  • Bila hasi dari test sama, maka test itu reliable

RELIBILITY: measurement

  • Test-retest
  • Alternate-forms
  • Split-half
  • Kuder-Richardson
  • Interjudge reliability

Test-retest reliability

  • Memberikan test kepada sekelompok orang sebanyak dua kali
  • Nilai yang diperoleh oleh tiap-tiap peserta pada test pertama dikorelasikan nilainya pada test ke dua dengan koefisien korelasi product-moment Pearson.
  • r = Σ (X-Xˈ) (Y-Yˈ)
  • NSxSy
  • r : koefisien korelasi
  • X : nilai tiap-tiap orang pasa test pertama
  • Xˈ : nilai rerata test pertama
  • Y : nilai tiap-tiap orang pada test kedua
  • Yˈ : nilai rerata pada test kedua

Alternate-form reliability

  • Memberikan test sepadan kepada sekelompok orang, masing-masing satu kali.
  • Test sepadan adalah dua test yang sebanding dari segi isi dan operasi mental (construct) yang diperlukan untuk mengerjakan test itu
  • Tiap-tiap butir pada test pertama harus ada padanannya pada test kedua
  • Pemberian dua test diusahakan pada hari yang sama

Split-half reliability

  • Sebagai alternatif dari teknik test-restest reliability dan alternate-form reliability
  • Test hanya diberikan sekali dan soal test dipecah menjadi dua (ex: ganjil & genap)
  • Hasil pengorelasian nilai dari kedua belah menunjukan derajat reliabilitas tiap-tiap belah
  • Reliabilitas utuh:
  • r2 = nr1
  • 1+(n-1)r1
  • r2 =reliabilitas utuh
  • r1 = reliabilitas belah dua
  • n = jumlah belahan

Kuder-Richardson reliability

  • Car a ini digunakan apabila butir-butir test terjawab dikotomis (ex. A atau B, benar atau salah)
  • Rumus:
  • K-R21 = 1-X(n-X)
  • n s2
  • K-R21 = koefisien reliabilitas K-R
  • n = jumlah butir test
  • X = nilai rerata
  • s2 = variansi test

Interscorer reliability

  • Cara ini didasarkan pada kelemahan (error) pada cara-cara sebelumnya (kemampuan siswa yg berubah, kesalahan administrasi, kesalahan penarikan sample, dsb)
  • Cara ini digunakan bila test yang digunakan dalam bentuk subjektivitas peneliti maka perlu diperhitungkan kesalahan yang didasarkan pada peneliti.
  • Caranya adalah dengan menyerhakan pekerjaan siswa pada dua orang penilai. Hasil dari kedua penilai dikorelasikan dengan formula produk momen Pearson.


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  • Insert short reference in parentheses as the end of each piece of borrowed information (in-text citation)
  • Prepare a list describing all your sources completely (works cited)
  • The second step in citing sources is to list all the sources.
  • Do not include sources you read bu did not use
  • List them alphabetically by last name of the author or if there is no author, by the first word of the tittle

Works-Cited Lists

  • References
  • Footnote


  • Book with one author
  • Book with two authors
  • Book with more than three authors
  • Book with more than one edition
  • Encyclopedia article
  • Magazine article
  • Newspaper article
  • Personal interview
  • Online source

Book with one author

  • Write the author’s last name first and put a comma after it. Do not include a person’s titles.
  • Put the year of publication
  • Put a collon between the title and subtitle and underline or italic
  • Write the city of publication, a colon, the name of publishing company. If there are some cities, choose the first city.


  • Bryson, Bill. 1991. The Mother Tongue: English and How It Got That Way. New York: Avon.
  • Bruce, Meredith. 2004. Cybercrime. New York: Wexler.
  • Saleh, Mursid. 2008. Enam Tradisi Besar Penelitian Pendidikan Bahasa. Semarang: UNNES

Book with two authors

  • Write the author’s last name first of the first author and put a comma and full stop after it. Then full name of the second author
  • Put the year of publication
  • Put a collon between the title and subtitle and underline or italic
  • Write the city of publication, a colon, the name of publishing company. If there are some cities, choose the first city.


  • Hall, Edward T., and Mildred Reed Hall. 1990. Understanding Cultural Differences. Yarmouth: Intercultural.
  • Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable. 2002. A History of the English Language. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Book with more than three authors

Book with more than one edition

  • Write the author’s last name first and put a comma after it.
  • Put the year of publication
  • Put a collon between the title and subtitle and underline or italic
  • Put the edition (ex: 5th ed., 3rd ed., 2nd ed.)
  • Write the city of publication, a colon, the name of publishing company. If there are some cities, choose the first city.


  • Baugh, Albert C., and Thomas Cable. 2002. A History of the English Language. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  • Gall, Meredith. 2006. Educational Research: An Introduction. 7th ed. Boston: Person Education, Inc.

Encyclopedia article

  • Use the author’s name if it is given
  • Put the year
  • If there is no author, put the title of the first article.
  • Enclose the title in quotation marks
  • Underline/ italicize the title of the encyclopedia
  • Put the edition number if there is one


  • “Intelligence Test”. New Encyclopedia Britannica: Micropedia. 15 ed.

Magazine article

  • Put the name
  • Put the title of the article inside quotation marks
  • Underline/ italicize the name of the magazine
  • Include the day, month, and year for weekly magazine followed by a colon and the page number or numbers on which the article appears
  • Abbreviate the names of months except May, June, and July.


  • Bamberger, Michael, and Don Yaeger. “Over the Edge”. Sports Illustrated. 14 Apr. 1997:67-70.

Newspaper article

  • Put the name/s
  • Put the title of the article inside quotation marks
  • Underline/ italicize the name of the newspaper
  • Include the day, month, and year and what page


  • Epstain, Edward A. “A Less Social Society Is Becoming Shy.” San Francisco Chronicle. 14 Sep. 1995: A-1.

Personal Interview

  • Put the name
  • Name of interview
  • Put day, month and year
  • Example:
  • Jones, John. Personal Interview. 31 Oct.2003


  • arifsuryo_unnes@yahoo.com


  • Mengajar merupakan sebuah proses interaksi
  • Bahasa memiliki dua fungsi: bahasa sebagai media (fungsi sosial: hubungan anta manusia, guru dengan murid, murid dengan murid) and fungsi materi (pengajaran dari guru ke siswa/ murid)
  • Didalam analisis interaksi, pokok pembahasan adalah penggunaan bahasa sebagai media interaksi.

Interaksi: definisi

  • Kata ‘interaction’ berasal dari dua kata ‘action’ (tindakan/ perbuatan) dan ‘inter’ (memberi makna/ saling)
  • Interaksi adalah perbuatan yang dilakukan besilang atau bergantian antara dua atau lebih orang.
  • Interaksi dapat berupa percakapan (conversation), perbicaraan (speech) atau perbincangan (talk)

Interaksi: komponen

  • Input (asupan)
  • Negotiation (proses tawar menawar)
  • Comprehension (pemahaman)
  • (Allwright and Bailey, 1991)
  • Ucapan org ke-1
  • (asupan)
  • Penerimaan org ke-1
  • (pemahaman)
  • Penerimaan org ke-2
  • (pemahaman)
  • Ucapan org ke-2
  • asupan
  • Negosiasi
  • (tawar menawar)

Asupan (input)

  • Asupan adalah masukan oleh orang pertama
  • Asupan adalah hal-hal yang menagandung pesan
  • Di dalam komunikasi asupan yang baik adalah asupan yang dapat dipahami dengan baik oleh pendengarnya sehingga pesan yang dibawanya benar-benar sampai ke alamatnya
  • Didalam inteaksi asupan yang baik sangatlah kompleks

Negotiation (proses tawar menawar)

  • Asupan didalam proses negosiasi harus beupa asupan yang merangsang timbulnya tanggapan sebagai bahan baku terjadinya saling bicara.
  • Negosiasi adalah proses saling tawar menawar dengan memberikan umpan balik untuk mencapai kesepahaman.
  • Negosiasi ada tiga cara: cek pemahaman (comprehension check), cek pemastian (confirmation check), cek penjelasan (clarification check)


  • Pemahaman merupakan hasil akhir dai proses negosiasi. Pemahaman yang baik adalah diterimanya pesan sesuai dengan maksud pengirim
  • Kesesuaian pesan yang dikirim dan diteima tidak selalu utuh. Maka fungsi dari negosiasi adalah untuk memperkecil pebedaan sampai pada titik yg diterima

Pemahaman: contoh

  • Teacher: Ya, jadi claim artinya tuduhan, oke? Igor, tadi kamu bilang laki-laki itu membunuh orang. Itu artinya kamu membuat claim. Kalau kamu tidak punya bukti itu namanya claim
  • Igor: Mmmm, apakah itu ........ bicara keras?
  • Teachers: Bukan, ...... Itu exclaim. Seperti berteriak ... Mengatakn sesuatu dg keras. Itu exclaim,... Ini claim
  • Igor: (menggumam) He claims...
  • Teacher: Ya. He claims ...


  • Pembagian/ pengambilan giliran
  • Interaksi yang baik adalah yang dapat memberikan semua yang terlibat didalamnya kesempatan bepasrtisipasi secaa poporsional
  • Ada tiga macam: pembagian yang dilakukan oleh guru, pengambilan yang dilakukan oleh murid sendiri dan campuran (melibatkan guru dan siswa itu sendiri)

Giliran dalam kelas

  • Giliran
  • Diambil
  • Diberikan
  • Tunjukan
  • Lontaran
  • Sukarela
  • Direbut
  • Merata
  • Tak Merata


  • Menurut Moskovitz (1971) percakapan dalam interaksi kelas teridii dari tiga hal:
  • Bicara guru (teacher’s talk)
  • Bicara murid (student’s talk)
  • Saat diam/ tak tentu (silence/ confusion)


  • Berceramah (lecturing)
  • Memberi arahan (giving direction)
  • Mengkritik, memerintah, atau melarang (criticizing or justifying authority)
  • Menerima perasaan
  • Mendorong atau memuji
  • Menerima atau menggunakan pikiran murid
  • Bertanya


  • Bicara murid sebagai respon (student talk-response): jawaban atas pertanyaan, tanggapan atas pernyataan, permintaan, dan perintah guru. Ini bersifat terduga dan terbatas.
  • Bicara murid sebagai inisiasi (student talk-initiation): mengajukan pertanyaan, menyatakan pendapat, mengusulkan gagasan baru, dsb. Ini besifat tak terduga dan tak terbatas.


  • Kategori ini bisa berbentuk kegiatan verbal atau non verbal.
  • Pergantian kegiatan dengan kegiatan yang lain
  • Setelah guru memberikan arahan
  • Murid bersiap-siap melakukan kegiatan sesuai dengan arahan
  • Situasi dapat tenang maupun ribut


  • Interaksi anak-orang dewasa (child-adult interaction)
  • Interaksi dewasa-dewasa (adult-adult interaction)
  • a.Percakapan interpesonal (interpersonal conversation)
  • b.Percakapan transaksional (transactional convesation)
  • c.Interaksi silang budaya (cross-cultural interaction)


  • Percakapan interpesonal adalah interaksi yang bertujuan membina hubungan antar pribadi dalam masyarakat.
  • Pertanyaan penelitian berkisar pada bagaimana para partisipan dapat menyampaikan maksud sehingga terpahami dan bagaimana partisipan dapat memahami maksud partisipan yang lain.
  • Topik-topik kajian misalnya kerancuan ungkapan dan bagaimana mengatasinya, bagaimana mengoreksi maksud yang sudah terlanjur diungkapkan, apa dampak emosional yang timbul akibat penolakan tawaran, dsb.
  • Data yang dikumpulakn adalah data yang alami
  • Ciri khusus penelitian inteaksi adalah pembahasan yang interpretif dan mendalam atas penggal-penggal bahasa yang kecil (kata/ frase/ klausa).

Interpersonal: contoh

  • A: Begini saja, kalau kamu mau, kamu mu bisa datang ke Puskom, nanti saya tunjuki program-program apa saja yang ada di komputer. Kalau pelu nanti aku ajari bagaimana mengoprasikan Basic dan lain-lain
  • B: Emm, kali ini sepertinya saya belum memerlukan itu semua untuk pekerjaan saya. Terima kasih, mungkin lain kali saja
  • A: Ya, baiklah. Tapi sebenarnya ketrampilan itu sangat perlu


  • Percakapan transaksional adalah percakapan yang bertujuan mempertukarkan barang dan jasa.
  • Topik-topik yang mendominasi penelitian jenis ini adalah yang mengenai pertukaran jasa pofesional, seperti interaksi hakim-jaksa-terdakwa, dokter-pasien, spir-penumpang, dsb.
  • Pertanyaan penelitian pada umumnya adalah tentang bagaimana penerima jasa mengungkapkan keinginannya sehingga dapat dipahami oleh pemberi jasa.


  • Bahasa mempunyai fungsi sebagai refleksi budaya suatu bangsa dan sebagai gambaran tentang bagaimana komunikasi dapat berlangsung antara sejumlah orang yang berbeda penguasaan bahasa sebagai medium.
  • Ciri yang tampak dalam inteaksi silang budaya adalah banyaknya negosiasi yang dilakukan oleh semua pihak yang terlibat

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