Writing an Argument Essay the introductory paragraph standards



Download 31,82 Kb.
Date conversion09.05.2017
Size31,82 Kb.

Writing an Argument Essay

  • THE INTRODUCTORY 
  • PARAGRAPH

Standards

  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

Objectives: After today’s lesson you will…

  • Understand what argument writing is and how it differs from persuasive writing.
  • Know and be able to identify the components of an effective argument essay.
  • Know the traits of and be able to identify and compose an effective claim.

Set a Goal for today’s learning!

  • What about your Goal for the Quick Check:
  • 80/90/100%?
  • Decide on a goal/target for today’s skill!
    • What can you do to make sure you
    • meet/exceed your goal today?

An Overview for Argument Writing

  • While listening to the song, jot down on your guided note sheet any words/phrases that you think are important about argument writing.
  • The Argument Song

What key concepts did you note?

  • Compare with a neighbor and discuss the following.
  • Did you have some of the same things written down?
  • Of all the things you wrote down, which thing/things do you think is/are the most important? Why?

What key concepts did you note?

  • Let’s share out!
  • What words or phrases were repeated the most?
  • Claim and reasons
  • Why?

What other key words or phrases did you note?

  • Evidence
  • T-Chart
  • Not my opinion
  • Facts and statistics
  • Expert opinions and quotations
  • Counterclaim
  • Important Difference:
  • 5/6 paragraphs rather than 4

Overview: What is Argument?

Overview: What is Argument?

Overview: What is Argument?

Persuasion vs. Argument

Creating an Argument: Key Components

Creating an Argument: Key Components

Creating an Argument: Key Components

  • Don’t Forget: Just as the video clip pointed out, effective argument writing always recognizes the opposition (counterclaim) and addresses it.

Making a Claim

  • In order to write an argumentative essay, one has to have a clear, precise statement regarding his/her position on an issue.
  • This statement is the thesis/claim.
  • It is the driving force behind the essay.
  • Everything in the essay should relate to it.
  • It is the cornerstone on which the whole
  • essay rests.

Let’s check out the concept with a video clip!

  • Writing a Killer Thesis Statement

Let’s Recap: Making a Claim

  • It is a statement.
  • It is clear and precise.
  • It takes a position.
  • It can be supported with logical reasons.

Thesis Statement: Getting It Right

  • "Big cars are bad for the environment."
  • Some teachers/professors may think this thesis is a little broad. How are big cars bad? And why does it matter?
  • More Definitive Thesis Statement:
  • "Big cars harm society and the environment because they are costly and dangerous to smaller vehicles on the road, and they further America's dependency on foreign oil."

Examples

  • Effective: Wind power should continue to be developed and utilized as an alternative energy source in the United States.
  • More Definitive: Wind power should continue to be developed and utilized as an alternative energy source in the United States, as it provides substantial environmental, health, and economic benefits.
  • Wiggle Room: Wind power should continue to be developed and utilized as an alternative energy source in the United States, as it provides substantial benefits.

You be the Teacher: Which of these would be effective claims for an argumentative essay?

  • Romeo and Juliet, a tragic love story, was written by William Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare uses irony effectively in his tragic love story Romeo and Juliet.
  • The death penalty should be abolished.
  • Daylight Saving Time is implemented in 48 of the 50 states.
  • Daylight Saving Time is a problematic system that should be replaced by a year-round standard time.
  • Watching too much violence on television can be detrimental to young children.

You be the Teacher: Which of these would be effective claims?

  • Romeo and Juliet, a tragic love story, was written by William Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare uses irony effectively in his tragic love story Romeo and Juliet.
  • The death penalty should be abolished.
  • Daylight Saving Time is implemented in 48 of the 50 states.
  • Daylight Saving Time is a problematic system that should be replaced by a year-round standard time.
  • Watching too much violence on television can be detrimental to young children.

When writing to a prompt, use Key Words/Phrases from the prompt in your thesis/claim.

  • Prompt: Write an essay in which you analyze the role of the Emancipation Proclamation in the transition from slavery to freedom.

When writing to a prompt, use Key Words/Phrases from the prompt in your thesis/claim.

  • Prompt: Write an essay in which you analyze the role of the Emancipation Proclamation in the transition from slavery to freedom.

When writing to a prompt, use Key Words/Phrases from the prompt in your thesis/claim.

  • Prompt: Write an essay in which you analyze the role of the Emancipation Proclamation in the transition from slavery to freedom.
  • Possible Claim: Abraham Lincoln played a relatively insignificant role in the transition from slavery to freedom. Yes/No? Justify your response.
  • Possible Claim: The Emancipation Proclamation helped bring an end to the Civil War. Yes/No? Justify your response.
  • Possible Claim: The Emancipation Proclamation played a rather significant role in the transition from slavery to freedom. Yes/No? Justify your response.

You be the Teacher: Which of these would be effective claims for this prompt?

  • Prompt: You have now read two texts (“Scared to Death” by Ed Yong and “Wolf Family Values” by Sharon Levy) relating to the controversy over the role of wolves in the ecosystem. Write an essay that argues which text presents a stronger case for the need to protect wolf populations.
  • Possible Claim: There is a strong need to protect the wolves because of their hugely significant role in the ecosystem. Yes/ No? Justify your response.
  • Possible Claim: In her article entitled “Wolf Family Values,” Sharon Levy presents a very strong case for protecting the wolf population because of the significant role they play in the ecosystem. Yes/No? Justify your response.
  • Possible Claim: In her article entitled “Wolf Family Values,” Sharon Levy presents a much stronger case for protecting the wolf population because of the significant role it plays in the ecosystem than does Ed Yong in his article “Scared to Death.” Yes/No? Justify your response.
  • Let’s do a Quick Check to assess what we have learned so far!

Making a Claim: Application

  • You have already chosen a side on an issue.
  • On one of your index cards, write a clear, precise thesis/claim statement on your issue.
  • Trade claims with a neighbor and critique each other’s claims.
  • To Consider: Is it a statement?
  • Is it clear and precise?
  • Does it take a position?
  • Can it be supported with
  • logical reasons?

Standards

  • Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
  • Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
  • Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach.

Objectives: After today’s lesson you will…

  • Know and be able to identify the components of an effective introduction.
  • Know at least 4 methods for creating a hook.
  • Write an effective introductory paragraph that includes a hook, explanatory material that maps the context of the issue, and a clear, precise thesis/claim.

Set Goals for today’s learning!

  • Take a look at the rubric which will be used to assess your writing.
  • 3 is considered proficient and 4 is considered outstanding…What are the differences on the rubric for these two scores?
  • Do you want to be a 3 or a 4?
  • What about your Goal for the Quick Check:
  • 80/90/100%?
  • Decide on goals/targets for today’s skill!

Let’s Review!

  • How to create an argument
    • Make a claim
    • Provide reasons
    • Explain/elaborate on reasons
    • Difference between persuasion and argument
      • Persuasion uses ethos (author credibility) and pathos (emotional appeal) to convince
      • Argument uses logos ( logical reasoning) to convince
    • Effective claims should be
        • Clear and precise
        • Take a position
        • Be able to be supported by logical reasons

Once one has a claim and a basic plan, how does he/she go about writing an essay?

  • Begin with an introductory paragraph.
  • It should
  • grab the reader’s attention,
  • explain why the topic is relevant/important,
  • and state my position on the subject/topic.

The introductory paragraph has three basic components/parts:

    • Hook – pique reader’s curiosity
    • Context – Why is this important to
    • my reader?
    • Thesis/Claim – Point being
    • made/proven

Take a look at this Introductory Paragraph!

Take a look at this Introductory Paragraph!

  • What will our generation do when fossil fuels, such as gasoline, oil, and coal, are depleted? Advocates of nuclear energy claim that without nuclear power plants, the future will see us shivering in the dark. Survivors of the Chernobyl disaster can testify, however, to the risks of nuclear power.
  • Hook Context: Why is my
  • audience interested in this?

Take a look at this Introductory Paragraph!

  • What will our generation do when fossil fuels, such as gasoline, oil, and coal, are depleted? Advocates of nuclear energy claim that without nuclear power plants, the future will see us shivering in the dark. Survivors of the Chernobyl disaster can testify, however, to the risks of nuclear power. The solution to the energy crisis lies in safe, alternative fuel sources: the sun, the wind, and the oceans.
  • Hook Context: Why is my Thesis/Claim
  • audience interested in this?

THE AUDIENCE

  • When introducing the topic, think about the audience first.
  • How much does the audience know about the topic?
  • Is the audience likely to be friendly or hostile to your position?
  • How can you “hook” the audience’s attention?

How many times have you heard that First Impressions are so important?

  • It is true that the first impression—whether it’s a first meeting with a person, the first sentence of a book, the first line of a movie, or the first sentence of a paper—sets the stage for a lasting opinion.
  • The introductory paragraph of any paper, long or short, should start with a sentence that piques the interest of your readers.
  • It HOOKS your reader and pulls him or her in! It is your big chance to be so clever that your reader can’t stop reading.

Your First Sentence

  • To get your paper off to a great start, you should try to have a first sentence that engages your reader. Think of your first sentence as a hook that draws your reader in. It is your big chance to be so clever that your reader can’t stop.
  • How to Write an Effective Hook

Just in Case you Missed Something

  • Inverted pyramid
  • Startling fact or relevant statistic
  • Anecdote or personal experience
  • Rhetorical question
  • Bold pronouncement

Can you identify the hook of this introduction? Is it effective? Why/Why not?

  • In 2010, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, a disturbing incident occurred: a group of students bullied class mates by creating a false Facebook account. This anecdote and many similar ones appear in Michelle R. Davis’s article “Students Create Fake Online Profiles to Bully Peers.” How should a school official react in such a case? According to Noor Brara in “Are Facebook ‘Likes’ Protected by the First Amendment?” the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building. School officials need to have jurisdiction to punish students for off-campus social media use if it becomes a safety risk and significant distraction to schools.

Hook

  • In 2010, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, a disturbing incident occurred: a group of students bullied class mates by creating a false Facebook account. This anecdote and many similar ones appear in Michelle R. Davis’s article “Students Create Fake Online Profiles to Bully Peers.” How should a school official react in such a case? According to Noor Brara in “Are Facebook ‘Likes’ Protected by the First Amendment?” the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building. School officials need to have jurisdiction to punish students for off-campus social media use if it becomes a safety risk and significant distraction to schools.

The introduction is the broad beginning of the paper that answers three important questions:

  • What is this?
  • Why am I reading it?
  • What do you want me to do?

You should answer these questions by doing the following:

  • Set the context –provide general information about the main idea, explaining the situation so the reader can make sense of the topic and the claims you make and support
  • State why the main idea is important –tell the reader why he or she should care and keep reading. Your goal is to create a compelling, clear, and convincing essay people will want to read and act upon
  • State your thesis/claim –compose a sentence stating the position you will support with logos (sound reasoning: induction, deduction), pathos (balanced emotional appeal), and ethos (author credibility).

Consider these ideas/methods for creating a strong beginning –Rhetorical Question

  • Rhetorical Question: What will our generation do when fossil fuels, such as gasoline, oil, and coal, are depleted? Advocates of nuclear energy claim that without nuclear power plants, the future will see us shivering in the dark. Survivors of the Chernobyl disaster can testify, however, to the risks of nuclear power. The solution to the energy crisis lies in safe, alternative fuel sources: the sun, the wind, and the oceans.

Consider these ideas/methods for creating a strong beginning - Surprising Fact

  • Surprising Fact: The pentagon has twice as many bathrooms as are necessary. The famous government building was constructed in the 1940s, when segregation laws required that separate bathrooms be installed for people of African descent. This building isn’t the only American icon that harkens back to this embarrassing and hurtful time in our history. Across the United States there are many examples of leftover laws and customs that reflect the racism that once permeated American society.

Consider these ideas/methods for creating a strong beginning - Quotation

  • Quotation: Hillary Rodham Clinton once said that “There cannot be true democracy unless women's voices are heard.” In 2006, when Nancy Pelosi became the nation’s first female Speaker of the House, one woman’s voice rang out clear. With this development, democracy grew to its truest level ever in terms of women’s equality. The historical event also paved the way for Senator Clinton as she warmed her own vocal chords in preparation for a presidential race.

Consider these ideas/methods for creating a strong beginning – Anecdote (Humor)

  • Anecdote: When my older brother substituted fresh eggs for our hard-boiled Easter eggs, he didn’t realize our father would take the first crack at hiding them. My brother’s holiday ended early that particular day in 1991, but the rest of the family enjoyed the warm April weather, outside on the lawn, until late into the evening. Perhaps it was the warmth of the day and the joy of eating Easter roast while Tommy contemplated his actions that make my memories of Easter so sweet. Whatever the true reason, the fact is that my favorite holiday of the year is Easter Sunday.

Drafting Your Hook

  • As you brainstormed or researched your topic, you probably thought of or discovered many interesting anecdotes, quotes, or trivial facts. This is exactly the sort of thing you should use for an engaging introduction.
  • Choose two of the methods discussed and write two different hooks for the topic you have chosen on an index card (one on the front and one on the back of the card). Use your technology to assist you if you like.
  • Ask two different neighbors to read and evaluate your two hooks and determine which one is the most intriguing/engaging. If they disagree, get a third opinion.

Finding the Hook

  • In each example, the first sentence draws the reader in to find out how the interesting fact leads to a point. You can use many methods to capture your reader’s interest.
  • Curiosity: A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. Some people might find a deep and mysterious meaning in this fact …
  • Definition: A homograph is a word with two or more pronunciations. Produce is one example …
  • Anecdote: Yesterday morning I watched as my older sister left for school with a bright white glob of toothpaste gleaming on her chin. I felt no regret at all until she stepped onto the bus

Mapping Context

  • In a typical essay, that first sentence (the hook) leads into a few sentences that provide details about your subject or your process.
  • All of these sentences build up to your thesis/claim statement. They link your hook to your thesis/claim, explaining why your reader should be interested in your topic.

Mapping Context

  • With your group, analyze a couple of the previous examples and take note of exactly how the author maps the context in each.
  • What types of things are included in the mapping context portion of each?
  • What similarities in mapping context do you see between these?

How does the author map context here?

  • What will our generation do when fossil fuels, such as gasoline, oil, and coal, are depleted? Advocates of nuclear energy claim that without nuclear power plants, the future will see us shivering in the dark. Survivors of the Chernobyl disaster can testify, however, to the risks of nuclear power. The solution to the energy crisis lies in safe, alternative fuel sources: the sun, the wind, and the oceans.

How does the author map context here?

  • In 2010, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, a disturbing incident occurred: a group of students bullied class mates by creating a false Facebook account. This anecdote and many similar ones appear in Michelle R. Davis’s article “Students Create Fake Online Profiles to Bully Peers.” How should a school official react in such a case? According to Noor Brara in “Are Facebook ‘Likes’ Protected by the First Amendment?” the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building. School officials need to have jurisdiction to punish students for off-campus social media use if it becomes a safety risk and significant distraction to schools.

Both mention that there is disagreement on or controversy around the issue/claim.

  • “Advocates of nuclear energy claim that without nuclear power plants, the future will see us shivering in the dark.”
  • “the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building.”

If you are writing in regards to a text/texts, this is the logical place to provide title(s) and author’s name(s) of the piece(s) to which you will be referring.

  • In 2010, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, a disturbing incident occurred: a group of students bullied class mates by creating a false Facebook account. This anecdote and many similar ones appear in Michelle R. Davis’s article “Students Create Fake Online Profiles to Bully Peers.” How should a school official react in such a case? According to Noor Brara in “Are Facebook ‘Likes’ Protected by the First Amendment?” the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building. School officials need to have jurisdiction to punish students for off-campus social media use if it becomes a safety risk and significant distraction to schools.

Effectively mapping context means providing a link/transition from the hook to the thesis/claim.

  • Hillary Rodham Clinton once said that “There cannot be true democracy unless women's voices are heard.” In 2006, when Nancy Pelosi became the nation’s first female Speaker of the House, one woman’s voice rang out clear. With this development, democracy grew to its truest level ever in terms of women’s equality. The historical event also paved the way for Senator Clinton as she warmed her own vocal chords in preparation for a presidential race.

Remember the Thesis/Claim wraps up the Introductory Paragraph

  • In 2010, in Newburyport, Massachusetts, a disturbing incident occurred: a group of students bullied class mates by creating a false Facebook account. This anecdote and many similar ones appear in Michelle R. Davis’s article “Students Create Fake Online Profiles to Bully Peers.” How should a school official react in such a case? According to Noor Brara in “Are Facebook ‘Likes’ Protected by the First Amendment?” the answer is a legal dilemma. Experts disagree over whether schools have constitutional authority to punish students in these cases. Regardless of the philosophical debate, the bottom line is that school has to be a safe place for students, and safety reaches farther than the physical school building. School officials need to have jurisdiction to punish students for off-campus social media use if it becomes a safety risk and significant distraction to schools.
  • Let’s do a Quick Check to assess today’s lesson and then we will apply what we have learned by creating our own introductory paragraphs!

Drafting the Introductory Paragraph

  • Use the hook that your neighbors deemed most intriguing to begin your essay.
  • Then, add context that maps out the issue/explains why it matters.
  • Conclude your introductory paragraph with your thesis/claim.

Revising

    • Variety is the spice of life; it makes your writing interesting for your reader!
      • Go back and see if you can invert one of your sentences, start one of your sentences with an introductory phrases/clause, use an interrupting phrase/clause, or use some form of “unusual” punctuation (semicolon/colon/dash/parentheses), etc. in one of your sentences to add syntactic variety.
  • Make sure that you have used the most “sophisticated” diction (word choice) you can.
      • Highlight each of the words that you consider sophisticated. Are these the best/most precise/most sophisticated words you know to fit in these particular spots? If not, revise by replacing them with better ones.
  • The Thesis Statement
  • The thesis statement is the most important part of the essay introduction.
  • It introduces the topic in a structured manner.
  • It appears as the last sentence of the introduction.
  • It contains a subject and an opinion.
  • In an argumentative essay, it must take a stand.


The database is protected by copyright ©sckool.org 2016
send message

    Main page