We cite outside sources in an essay to support a point we have already made. In other words, an indirect or a direct quotation will serve as evidence for your main idea.
INDIRECT QUOTATIONS: SUMMARIZING
When quoting a source indirectly, you might summarize, in general, the main idea of the source in your own words. DO NOT use the source’s words. Introduce the outside source, and include the page number (in parentheses) on which it appears.
In her article in English Journal titled “Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism,” Melissa A. Vosen describes a lesson plan to teach students how to avoid plagiarism (43). This learning unit employs Bloom’s Taxonomy to teach students to recognize plagiarism and evaluate their research sources.
The first time you quote or paraphrase from an author, you must introduce the citation by naming the author and the article/book/essay. If you cite this author and source again, you need only use the author’s last name, and put the page number again:
EX: Vosen goes on to explain that educators should teach students why plagiarism is inappropriate, not merely order them not to plagiarize (43).
INDIRECT QUOTATIONS: PARAPHRASING
When you “paraphrase,” you restate the source’s ideas in your own words. A paraphrase will have more details than a summary.
Melissa A. Vosen laments how far some students will go in plagiarizing, in her article “Using Bloom’s Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism,” in English Journal. Vosen recalls a student who, in writing a memoir, obviously stole material from an outside source. The student described the joys of watching her teenaged daughter dance on a balance beam; unfortunately, the memoirist herself was only eighteen and would have had to have given birth at age six if the memoir was true (43).
If a source’s words offer strong support for your thesis, you should quote directly. Use the source’s EXACT WORDS--- change nothing!--- and use quotation marks (“ ”).
Students obviously must be taught, not merely told, to avoid plagiarism. According to veteran teacher Maria A. Vosen, “I now realize that simply telling the students each time I introduce a writing assignment that they are not to plagiarize is not enough” (43).