Write a detailed paragraph about the issues and decisions you are facing now or in the near future that concern you the most



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Write a detailed paragraph about the issues and decisions you are facing now or in the near future that concern you the most.

  • Write a detailed paragraph about the issues and decisions you are facing now or in the near future that concern you the most.
  • Warm up #1

Warm-up

  • What are some issues that adolescents face? Do you think those issues affect their psychological development?

Warm-up

  • What did you find most interesting about your project topic?

Warm-up

  • What social group do you belong to here at AHS? How has that affected your social development?

Warm-up

  • How do you think gender roles and their differences have an effect on adolescents?

Warm-up

  • What would you do if you could switch genders for a day?
  • Chapter 4:
  • ADOLESCENCE

initiation rites puberty

  • initiation rites puberty
  • menarche spermarche
  • asynchrony identity crisis
  • clique conformity
  • anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa
  • gender identity gender role
  • gender stereotype androgynous
  • Define Ch 4 Key Terms
  • Section 1:
  • Physical
  • and
  • Sexual
  • Development

The Nature of Adolescence

  • Of all the periods in human life in which the instinctual processes are beyond question of paramount importance, that of puberty has always attracted most attention. Adolescents are excessively egotistic, regarding themselves as the center of the universe and the sole object of interest, and yet at no time in later life are they capable of so much self-sacrifice and devotion…on the one hand they throw themselves enthusiastically in to the life of the community and, on the other, they have an overpowering longing for solitude. They oscillate between blind submission to some self-chosen leader and defiant rebellion against any and every authority.
  • Do Anna Freud’s statements, written over 50 years ago, describe today’s adolescents?

Adolescence: the transition period between childhood & adulthood

  • Adolescence: the transition period between childhood & adulthood
  • Many initiation rites mark admission into adulthood (examples?)
  • Great physical, mental & emotional changes occur
  • All adolescents face challenges in the form of developmental tasks that must be mastered

Rank the following in order in terms of importance:

  • Rank the following in order in terms of importance:
    • 1. Accepting one’s physical makeup and acquiring a masculine or feminine gender role
    • 2. Developing appropriate relations with age-mates of both sexes
    • 3. Becoming emotionally independent of parents and other adults
    • 4. Achieving the assurance that one will become economically independent
    • 5. Deciding on, preparing for, and entering vocation
    • 6. Developing the cognitive skills and concepts necessary for social competence
    • 7. Understanding and achieving socially responsible behavior
    • 8. Preparing for marriage and family
    • 9. Acquiring values that are harmonious and appropriate

On avg, girls begin puberty between 8 & 10; boys between 9 & 16

  • On avg, girls begin puberty between 8 & 10; boys between 9 & 16
  • Just before, both experience growth spurts (rapid increase in weight & height; lasts about 2 yrs)
  • Changes During Adolescence
  • Males
  • Females

Girls have menarche between 10 & 17

  • Girls have menarche between 10 & 17
  • Boys achieve spermarche between 12 & 13
  • Growth can be awkward because of asynchrony

Rates of Physical Development

  • Rapid physical changes occur during adolescence. Normally the changes that occur in adulthood are gradual.
    • Why do you think there are psychological reactions to physical growth?
      • Most adolescents feel somewhat self-conscious. This self-conscious and uneasiness about their bodies may lead to a negative body image and feelings of depression

Negative Effects of Altered Physical Growth

Adolescents develop attitudes about sex & gender roles

  • Adolescents develop attitudes about sex & gender roles
  • Has been an increase in sexual awareness & activity in today’s teens
  • Teen pregnancies & births are societal issues
  • Fear of sexually transmitted diseases & AIDS have impacted sexual attitudes
  • Some teens choose abstinence – choice to avoid harmful behaviors such as sex or drugs & alcohol

Sexual Growth

  • During puberty, boys and girls begin to produce higher levels of hormones. Those hormones spark sexual development.
    • How have sexual attitudes changed in the past 30 years?
      • Increases in sexual awareness and sexual activity have raised questions over the role of family, religion, and government in providing information and guidance about sex to young people. The fear of STD’s and AIDS have boosted education efforts to teach young people about practicing safe sex.

Effect of Early Maturation on Social Interaction

  • Read the Case Study “Early Maturation” on page 100.
  • Answer the following questions:
    • 1. How was a 9 year old able to give birth?
    • 2. What are the psychological causes of precocious puberty?
    • 3. What considerations might a psychologist take into account when treating a child suffering from a precocious puberty?
    • 4. Does early maturation tend to be more difficult for females or for males?

Essay

  • Less than 2 centuries ago the onset of puberty opened the door to adulthood-marriage, children and so on.
  • Consider the following question:
    • What economic and technological conditions have allowed society in the U.S. to support the adolescent age group?
  • Write a 1-page essay discussing your answers to this questions

Physical and Sexual Development Closing

  • In many cultures, formal rites of passage from childhood to adulthood occur during adolescence.
  • List ways in which your lives have transitioned from childhood to adulthood. How have they been recognized and celebrated?
    • You can make this list on the back of your essay, turn it into box when completed.
  • Section 2:
  • Personal
  • Development

Transition from childhood to adulthood involves changes in reasoning & moral thinking patterns as well as personality & sexual behavior adjustments

  • Transition from childhood to adulthood involves changes in reasoning & moral thinking patterns as well as personality & sexual behavior adjustments
  • Teenagers reach formal operations thinking (Piaget’s 4th stage) where thinking becomes more abstract & less concrete
  • Some adolescents may develop problems as a result of immaturity & abstract thought processes:
    • List the 6 problems (p. 103)

One’s moral development depends on many factors, especially the kind of relationships one has w/ parents or significant others

  • One’s moral development depends on many factors, especially the kind of relationships one has w/ parents or significant others
  • Pronounced changes in moral development typically occur during college, when one is away from home, experiencing different cultures & ideas

Establishment of identity is key to adolescent development

  • Establishment of identity is key to adolescent development
  • Most adolescents must go through an identity crisis
  • The task of an adolescent is to become a unique individual w/ a valued sense of self in society
  • Identity forms when issues such as choice of occupation, set of values to believe in & sexual identity are resolved
  • The adolescent question is “Who am I?”

Writing prompt:

  • Why do adolescents form cliques? Do you think cliques serve a positive or negative purpose? Explain your answers.
  • Section 3:
  • Social
  • Development

Peer Pressure

  • Consider the following situation:
  • “You are with a couple of your best friends on Halloween. They’re going to soap windows, but you’re not sure whether you should or not. Your friends say you should, because there is no way you could get caught.”
  • -What would you really do?
  • -Why do you think conformity to peer pressure tends to decline from the 9th to the 12th grade?

A principle developmental task is becoming independent of family

  • A principle developmental task is becoming independent of family
  • Teens spend much of their time w/ friends – they need & use each other to define themselves
  • Schools contain easily recognizable & well-defined groups (our school?)
  • Class lines, looks, personality, athletic ability often determine if one will be accepted by a group

Discussion

  • Write the following 2 headings on a sheet of paper: Family Influence and Peer Influence
  • Create a list under each heading on the ways each of these socializing agents influences teen behavior
  • Indicate whether each item on the list is positive or negative
  • Which has more influence on teen development?

Question:

  • How does the role of family change during adolescence?
    • During adolescence, the child learns to become independent of the family.

Belonging to a clique very important to most teens

  • Belonging to a clique very important to most teens
  • Social organization can often lead to conformity
  • Peers tend to set standards on fashion, music, school-related issues but parents’ beliefs are more influential on marriage, religion, politics
  • Teens tend to choose friends w/ values close to their parents

Clique Activity

  • How do you define yourself?
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=08KO19goAWY
  • While there is no requirement that you associate with others like you, people tend to seek out others who share similar interests or are involved in the same activities
  • Brainstorm a list of common cliques
    • Write these cliques on the board
    • Come to the board, 3 at a time, and write your name under the clique that best suits yourself.
    • Explore what characteristics that student has that makes him fit well with that group.

Most adolescents may experience some temporary psychological difficulties – the great majority adjust fairly quickly

  • Most adolescents may experience some temporary psychological difficulties – the great majority adjust fairly quickly
  • Rates of mental illness & suicide have increased over the past several decades
  • Difficulties During
  • Adolescence

Did You Know?

  • Publicizing teen suicides does not seem to prevent more suicides. In fact, the opposite seems to occur-publicizing suicides seems to encourage more suicides. Psychologists are trying to understand why this happens.
    • Why do ya’ll think it happens?
    • Create a hypothesis to explain why publicizing teen suicides seems to lead to more suicides rather than reducing the incidence of suicide? - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jpnQ0-8bzAo

A troubled minority of adolescents may engage in acts of juvenile delinquency

  • A troubled minority of adolescents may engage in acts of juvenile delinquency
    • Running away
    • Teen pregnancy
    • Alcohol & drug abuse
    • Underachievement in school
    • Crime

Question:

  • What factors contribute to juvenile delinquency?
  • Do you think everyone deserves a second chance?
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3jXGIbz4D1g

Can be triggered by many issues

  • Can be triggered by many issues
    • Loss of a loved one through separation, relocation, divorce, or death
    • Bullying
    • Family history of depression
    • Substance/alcohol abuse
    • Physical or psychological abuse
  • Symptoms may be physical, mental, emotional, and/or behavioral
  • Adolescent Depression

Affect many teens, especially females

  • Affect many teens, especially females
  • Anorexia nervosa causes one to have a distorted body image – see themselves as fat
  • Bulimia nervosa causes one to be excessively concerned about body shape & weight
  • Eating Disorders

Child of Rage:

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2-Re_Fl_L4

Exit Ticket

  • Write the words Conformity and Nonconformity on a sheet of paper.
  • Give specific examples of behavior that indicates conformity and behavior that indicates nonconformity.
  • Section 4:
  • Gender Roles
  • and Differences

Gender identity vs. Gender role

  • Gender identity vs. Gender role
  • Gender roles vary among societies & can change radically within a society
  • Gender roles may become so rigid they become gender stereotypes (common ones in our society – roles, behaviors, careers, etc?)
  • Should more androgynous roles be accepted?

Are there differences between the sexes?

  • Are there differences between the sexes?
  • Studies have shown:
    • Males tend to be more confident, especially in academics or masculine tasks (math, science), women perceive themselves as less competent
    • Females engage in more verbal aggressive acts, men participate in more physical aggression
    • Men actually talk more than women & interrupt women more while they are talking
    • Women use more hedges in speech (“you know”, “like”), more disclaimers (“I’m not sure”) & more tag questions at the end of sentences (“Okay?”)
    • Women more likely to show submission & warmth, men display more dominance & status


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